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-■; .-"••* -x 






LIBRARY 



OF THE 




MASSACHUSETTS 

AGRICULTURAL 

COLLEGE 



NO- J 3. 

SOURCE 



THE 





mm®, 



* '*^**.^*r 



AND 



BEE-KEEPER'S ADVISER. 



EDITED BY 

THOMAS WILLIAM COWAN, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., etc. 

Author of 'The British Bee-keeper's Guide Book.' 



January- December, 1887. 




PUBLISHED BY JOHN HUCKLE, KINGS LANGLEY, HERTFORDSHIRE; 

AND BY 

KENT AND CO., 23 PATERNOSTER ROW, E.C. 



. - ■>,.-■■■■ 



LIBRARY 



!TV 



UNIVERSITY 
SACHUSETTS 

.,' ■ 3T, MASS. 



j 

fo>7 7 _ 

LuNDUiN : 

Printed by Stkangeways and Sons, 

Tower St., Cambridge Circus. 



INDEX. 



Abbott, Bros., their cot- 
tager-crate, 290 

Abbott, J. A., his visit to 
America and Canada, 6, 
47,51 

Accommodation cells, ISO 

*A. E.' wants a diploma, 
548, 572 

African bees, 525 

After-swarms, 212, 330 

Age of bees, 224, 225 

Agriculture and apicul- 
ture, 561 

Alighting-boards, 19S 

Allan, J. his description of 
a Stowarton hive, 305 

Alley, H. , Bee- keepers' 
Handy Bonk, 154 

Allotment garden, manag- 
ing stock on an, 10, 28, 41 

Amateur Expert, crate ex- 
hibited by the, 59, 12S ; 
jottings by, 23 

American ' artificial honey,' 
222 

American Beekeeper's Maga- 
zine, 22, 53, 80 

American blight, 439 

American cloth, 188, 294 

American hives exhibited 
by Messrs. Abbott, 186 

* A more excellent way,' 201 

Andreu, F., La Apicultura 
Mobilista en Bspana, 210 

Andreuidee, 261, 262 

Ants, 144 ; and aphides, 450 ; 
and bees in Jamaica, 514 

Antenna: of bees, 320 

Aphides, the producers of 
honey -dew, 420; their 
countless numbers, 430 ; 
their migrations, 439; 
their organism, ib. ; their 
enemies, 450 ; their re- 
lations with ants, 450 

Aphis, 212, 439 ; vastatrix, 
440 

Apiary, position of, 19 ; 
clearing up, 452 ; com- 
petition, 489 

Apis dorsata, 39 

Apiculture and agriculture, 
1, 561 ; lectures on (sec 
Lectures'); patents relat- 
ing to, 521 

Apifebris, 117 

Apifuge, the new, 99, 108, 
116, 131, 137, 110, 217, 
227, 248, 257, 280, 318, 
415, 456; and methyl sali- 
cylate, 121 ; experience 
with, 163, 290 ; tests of, 
202 ; uses of, 270 

Apifuges, 8, 38 

Aplaugh, Mr., his machine 
for inserting foundation 
in sections, 469, 472, 474 

Argentine bees, 552 

Arnold's soap, 415 

Artificial combs, 16S 

Artificial comb-compresser 
168 

Artificial pollen, 93, 152 ; 
supplying bees with, 122 

Artificial swarm, 352 ; how 
to make, 253 

Artificial swarming, 131, 
574 ; antiquity of, 111 

Association, a useful, 435 

Associations, non-members 
of, 352 ; and members' 
honey, 415 

Aspect of hives, 431, 490 

Asp in wall and Treadwell, 
147, 470 

Autumn food, 417; plants, 
late, 100 

Average yield per hive, 113 

Avoiding extremes, 353 

Bacilli, 354 

Bacillus, 354 ; its tenacity 
of life, 391 ; alvei and 
depilis,153; Gaytoni, 112, 
12±, 164, 283, 365 ; minor, 
307, 337, 372, 399 

Bacteria, 391 

Balsams, their composi- 
tion, 271 

Barbaglia.on the wax found 
on the leaves of boxus 
sempervirens, 147 

Bare-headed nymphs, 497 

Barrowful, a, of honey, 425 



Barrels for storing honey, 

250 
Basswood honey, 510 
Be ready, 272 
Bee, the song of the, 214 ; 

mistake of a, 27, 62 
Bee-bobs, 119 

Bee-colonies, experiments 
to ascertamdevelopment 
of, 193 
Bee-conciliators, 1, 17, 99 
Bee disease, 515, 527 
Bee-farm, 64, 542 ; starting 
a, 413, 435, 442, 466; A 
Modem, 517 
Bee-farming, 512 
Bee-fever, 117 
Bee flora, 175, 237, 248; 
alfalfa, 1SS ; azaleas, 205 ; 
berberis Darwini, 1 , 5 ; 
blackberries 301 ; bor- 
age, 227, 237, 301 ; buxus 
arborescens, 175 ; Can- 
terbury bells, 237 ; car- 
raway, 155 ; Chapman 
honey plant, 9S, 209; 
Clarkia, 228; clover, red ; 
112, 255 ; clematis, 564 ; 
clover, white, 255 ; co- 
toneaster niicrophylla, 
2S3; crocuses, 1S4, 227; 
echinops ritro, 3, 159 ; 
echioops spha3rocephalus 
3, 159, 173, 177, 210, 217 ; 
erica carnea, 124; forget- 
me-not, 237; fuchsia, 504 ; 
gautheria, S ; hawthorn, 
552 ; kalmialatifolia, 199 ; 
lady slipper, 254 ; lini- 
nauthes, 227, 301, 336 ; 
lythrum salicaria, 500; 
mignonette, 237 ; nepeta 
mussini,227,240, 301, 3S6, 
485 ; nepetos purpurea, 
271 ; orchis, 520 ; poker 
lilies, 501; poppies, 237; 
rhododendrons, 205; rue, 
228 ; scrophularia, 1S1 ; 
snowdrops, 227; statice 
limonium (see Lavender) , 
307,338; sunflowers, 386, 
501 ; strobilauthes, 381 ; 
sycamore, 262 ; thyme, 
228 ; wall-flowers, 237 ; 
wood-sage, 228 
Bee - flowers, sowing in 

waste places, 217 
Bee forage, 203 
Bee-hives, notes on, 120, 

161, 141. Sec Hives 
Bee-houses, 144, 205, 237, 

165 
Bee-keeper, becoming a, 42 
Bee-keeper'snight-mare,a, 

182 
Bee-keepers' Associa- 
tions and Shows : — 
Aberdare, 368, 332; 
Ambleside, 395; Armagh, 
357 ; Banbridge, 347 ; Bel- 
fast, 381 ; Berks, 5, 48, 96, 
171, 289, 331 ; British, 13, 
34, 81, 127, 159, 179, 183, 
222, 224, 232, 235,318, 431, 
441, 449, 451, 470, 509, 513 ; 
Bucks, 70 ; Bury St. Ed- 
munds, 203, 232, 216, 2S9 ; 
Caledonian, 334, 317; 
Cambridgeshire, 316; 
Cornwall, 47; Craven, 
119, 396; Derbyshire, 70 ; 
Devon and Exeter, 24; 
Dungannon, 357 ; East 
Lothian, 127 ; Essex, 70, 
535 ; Faringdou, 346 ; 
Forfar, 395; Glamorgan- 
shire, 71, 346, 362, 373 ; 
Gloucestershire, 101, 331 ; 
Hants and Isle of Wiaht, 
1, 49, 119, 225, 332, 333, 
409; Hawkshurst, 216; 
Hereford, 410 ; Hereford- 
shire, 70; Horsforth, 71, 
409; Hants Agricultural, 
315; Irish, 104, 119, 159, 
216, 256, 298, 355, 493, 547 ; 
Kent, 492 ; Lancashire, 
o94 ; Lancashire and 
Cheshire, 2, 94, 215, 246, 
416; Leeds, 204; Leices- 
tershire,71, 256, 344, 517 ; 
Lincolnshire, 1, 321, 535 ; 
Lowestoft, 205 ; Maer 
(Staffordshire), 369; 



Manchester Exhibition, 
317 ; Manchester, 391 ; 
Middlesex, 61, 95, 127, 
145, 330, 380, 432, 514; 
Monmouthshire, 333 ; 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 179, 
309 ; Newton Abbot, 231 ; 
Norfolk and Norwich, 
283 ; Northamptonshire, 
355 ; North-east of Ire- 
land, 191, 3S1, 424, 436, 
483,195; Norwich Show, 
1; Notts, 204, 431; Ox- 
fordshire, 71 ; Prescot, 
322; Reading, 167, 242, 
278; Royal Agricultural, 
179, 192, 309; Royal 
Counties' Agricultural, 
167, 242, 278; Rutker- 
glen, 481 ; Saltaire, 38 ; 
Shrewsbury Horticul- 
tural, 380; Shugborough, 
394; Somerset, 368; 
Southampton, 332; South 
Kensington, 1 ; South- 
gate, 3S0 ; Spalding, 192 ; 
Staffordshire, 307, 394; 
Stone, 394 ; Strabane, 
334 ; Suffolk Agricul- 
tural, 246 ; Surrey, 127 ; 
Swanmore,333; Paunton, 
368; Warwickshire, 215, 
345 ; Waterford, 410 ; 
Wellington (Somerset), 
368 ; Wilts, 278, 395 ; 
Winchcombe and Sude- 
ley, 382 ; Windsor, 5 ; 
Worcestershire, 61, 94, 
309; Wrockwardiue,409; 
York, 276 ; Yorkshire, 
61, 119, 204 
Bee-keeping, and teaching, 
43 ; how to commence, 
64, 276 ; making it pay, 
101 ; profitable, 208 ; re- 
vival of, 214; boobs on, 
303 ; in the Isle of Man, 
436; a novice's experi- 
ence in, 445 ; in Ireland, 
465; as a livelihood, 479; 
with other pursuits, 485 ; 
increasing knowledge in, 
519 
Bee-loving hen, 268 
Beeman's tour, 9S 
Bee-ology, 235 
Bees, flowers for, 3 ; effect 
on, of various perfumes, 
8 ; treatment of, 19, 239 ; 
supplying with water, 
39 ; working pieces of 
new comb, 40 ; on roof 
of house, 41, 42 ; where 
they may be kept, 43 ; 
who may keep, ib. ; sin- 
gular mode of bringing 
a nest of, to the ground, 
46; voice of, 56; hearing 
of, ib. ; then* power of 
talking, 58; brain- weight 
of, ib. ; in skep, dead, 
64; in confinement, 100; 
are able to sting, 115 ; in 
the suburbs, 112 ; mov- 
ing from one side of high 
fenc3 to another, ib. ; 
packing, 122 ; starved, 
123 ; race of, 123 ; do they 
hear ? 131, 149, 152 j in a 
loft, 134, 141 ; fighting 
after uniting, 134 ; how 
to manage and control, 
135; human breath offen- 
sive to them, ib. ; diffe- 
rent, found in a colony, 
ib. ; fighting, 154 ; birds 
eating, 161 ; sundry ex- 
periences with, 163 ; 
sensitive to atmospheric 
influences, 161; by the 
side of a railway, 165 ; 
clustering' outside, 176; 
their dwellings, 179 ; 
and roses, 183, 233 ; and 
flowers, 183 ; and clover, 
ib. ; depredations on 
fruit, 186 ; dying, 188, 
233, 46S ; and ripe fruit, 
196, 207, 216, 236, 249, 280 ; 
and sparrows. 197 ; can 
they hear ? 197 ; in boats 
in the East, 213; eating 
fruit, 216 ; and straw- 
berries, 219 ; no respecter 



of persons, 219; stung 
by, ib. ; birds and, il>. ; 
and grapes, 223 ; unpro- 
tected, 226 ; and noise, 
229 ; diseased, 239 ; slug- 
gish, 250 ; their fertilisa- 
tion of flowers, 254 ; breed 
of, 262; fraternisation of, 
272 ; changing queens, 
273 ; management of, for 
profit, 276 ; water for, 
280, 300 ; obstructing 
then." queen, 231 ; protec- 
tion of, from heat and 
cold, 237 ; leaving glass 
jar, 293; on a ti*ee, 293; 
tumbling out of hive, 
293 ; attacking chickens, 
294 ; hanging outside, 
294 ; building outside 
super, 294 ; on, 303 ; 
working in the sections, 
311; giving salt to, 314; 
my pet, 325 ; driven, 327 ; 
attacked by a swarm of, 
347 ; escapade with, 350 ; 
getting from the ' gable 
end of a house, ib. ; pre- 
paring for the winter, ib. ; 
vagaries of, in swarming, 
351 ; attacking fruit, 352 ; 
vicious, 359 ; the, 363 ; 
black, 366 ; a pound of, 
365 ; near house, 385 ; in 
a box-hive, 375 ; in a 
thunderstorm, 3S5 ; and 
manure-heaps, 411, 44 1, 
477, 487, 505; invading 
shop, 414 ; casting out 
young, 416; refusing to 
raise queen, 437 ; and 
essence of lemon, 437 ; 
utilising wax, 447 ; with 
white backs, ib. ; and 
manure-heaps or drains, 
466; breeding, 475; injur- 
ing roses, 481; building 
drone-comb, ib. ; amount 
of, for winter, 510; age 
of, 510 ; enemies of, 190 ; 
dead and dying, 498 ; 
what they can do, 505 ; 
short of food at beginning 
of year, 508 

Bee-space between bottom 
bar and floor-board, 89 

Bee-sting a useful tool, 75 

Bee-stings, quicklime a re- 
medy for, 40 ; receipt for 
the cure of, 57 

Bee-subjugators, 7 

Beeswax, and its conver- 
sion into money, 116, 
168, 303 ; its production, 
ib. ; its colour, ib. ; its 
constituents, ib. ; cost of 
its production, ib. ; on 
the proportion of honey 
to, ib. ; uses of, 2S2 ; how 
made, 4S1. Sec Wax. 

Bee-tent, 143; at Horti- 
cultural Show, 101 

Bee tour through Lanca- 
shire and Northumber- 
land, 243, 269, 279, 293 

Bee-way sections, 174 

Beginners, caution to, 276 

Bell-glass to hold 35 lbs, 
133 ; on bar-frame hive, 
219; fastening foundation 
in, 239 ; clearing a, 339 

Bellows - smoker, how to 
make, 31 

Benzoic acid, 506 

Benzoin, 487 

Bertrand, M., his fumi- 
gator, 250 

B e s s 1 e r, Lehrb itch der 
Bienenzuht, 559; his por- 
traits of bee-keepers, ib. 

Birds, 370 ; and bees, 219 ; 
eating bees, 161, 173 ; 
reptiles, bees, 399 

Bitter almonds, essential 
oil of, 488 

Bitter honey, 389 

Black bees, 195 

Black honey, 492 

Blacklead a lubricant, 561 

Bleaching honey, 301 

Blow, T., among the Car- 
niolan bee-keepers, 9 ; 
his invertible bive, 67 ; 
his dividers, 125 



Blue tits, 4 

Botubus lapidarius. 217 

Bonnier, G. ct Georges de 
Layens, Noucello FLove, 
302 

Borax, 134 

Borgue honey, 3S8 

Bottles, small, 337 

Box-hives, driving bees 
from, 339 

Box-trees, 184 

Boyle, Hon. R.. his use of 
glass hives, 130 

Boys and girls, for, 292, 
302 

Braula cmca, 194, 3S9, 437, 
5 S3 

Brazilian bees, 21 

Breeding for qualities, 22 

Breeding space, 478 

Breeding and stimulation, 
158 

British B.K.A., work for, 
401 

British bees, 129, 206 

British aud American in- 
ventions, 113 

British honey, 167 

British Honey Company, 
3 v3 ; suggestions to the, 
441 

British invertible hive 
made watertight, 132 j 
keeping rain from, 139 

British wild bees, 100 

Broad shoulders, 211 

Brood, drone and worker, 
219 

Brood, capped, 220 ; cast- 
ing out, 262 ; addition 
of, 263; introduction of, 
into nuclei, 283; rotten, 
304 ; desd, 380, 427 

Brood-cell covers, 467, 480 

Brood-combs, size of, 180 ; 
extracting honey from, 
327, 372, 333, 402, 411, 
412, 425, 433, 445, 463, 
466 

Broodless colonies, 437 

Brood-nest enlarging, 203, 
223 

Brood-spreading, 117 

Brother Jonathan, 311 

Brown paper not suitable 
for dividers, 198 

Brown and Poison's corn- 
flour, 175 

Bumping. 330, 312, 415, 
423, 426, 435 ; a success, 
400; a failure, 400, 415 

Burns, salve for, 309 

Burrowing bees, 261, 262 

Burying beetle, 273 

Butler, Dr., 157, 158,491 

Buzzing and humming, 58 

Cages and introduction, 475 

Calif ornian honey, 166; in 
England, 234 

Calvert's carbolic acid, 200, 
250, 555 ; soap, 208 

Camomile weed, 337 

Camphor a cure for foul 
brood, 14, 15 

Canada, 13, 170 ; bee-keep- 
ing iti, 6, 73; wintering 
in, 13, 72; sending honey 
to England, 170, 282 ; 
* the winter is past," 
216 ; season in, 515 

Canadian bee-feeder, 407, 
463 ; bee - keepers, 1 ; 
experiences, 163 ; hives, 
97 

Candy, 41, 136, 490 ; soft, 
Good's, 30, 554; warm, 
100 ; making, 112 ; re- 
cipe for winter, 488 ; 
white, 554; Scholz, ib. 

Cane sugar, 212 ; in honey, 
239 

Cappings of brood - cells, 
ISO 

Carbolic acid solution, 60, 
134, 135, 250, 304, 339, 
343, 406, 415, 427 ; for re- 
moving sections, 566 

Carbolised cloth, 393, 402, 
406 

Carbolic fumigation, 220 

Carbolic sheet recipe, 417 

Carniolan bee-keepers, 9 

Carniolan bees, 19, 40, 97, 



IV 



INDEX TO VOLUME XV. 



130, 145, 160, 182, 218, 
224, 337 ; transferring, 42 

Carniolans and Ligurians, 
144 

Carniolan queens, 259 

Carr, W. B., his metal 
ends, 57 ; his advocacy of 
the use of small frames, 
97 ; his device for fix- 
ing foundation in Lee's 
frame?, 553 

Cast on back frames, 293 

Casts, 212 ; feeding, 283 

Castor-oil plant, 250 

Caucasiau hees, 4-0 

Caught in the act, 300, 323, 
361 

Caution, a, 237; a word of, 
242 

Cedar oil and olive oil, an 
apifuge, 109 

Cellar wintering, 124 

Cells, ISO 

Central Africa, tribes of, 
smoke bees, 111 

Ceylon folk lore, 523 

Chaffinches, 161 

Chelifers, 563 

Chemists, query for the, 496 

Cheshire, F., 394, 464- 

Chile, exports of honey and 
wax from, 215, 548, 553 

Chilled brood, 239, 273; and 
diseased, 49S 

Chimney swallows, 370 

Christmas greeting, 553,554 

Chrome alum, 122 

Chrysalis, 212 

Chyle stomach of the bee, 
ejection of chyle fro m, 539 

Cinnamon oil, a remedy for 
bee-stings, 410 

Clearing-up, 407 

Clover in front of hives, 28, 
141 

Coffee pernicious to bac- 
teria, 10 

Cold cream, 309 

Colonies, small, 44, 69 ; 
defunct, 45 ; to be kept 
strong, ib. ; equalisation 
of, 69 ; examination of, 
in spring, 92 ; strong, 254 

Colony of B's, a full, 507 

Comb-f oundation, 200, 238 ; 
fixing in skeps for con- 
demned bees, 361 ; worker 
and, 512. See Foundation 

Comb honey, 203; keeping, 
554 ; in sections, 560 

Combs, empty, 19; transfer- 
ring from large frames to 
standard, 29; built irre- 
gularly, ib. ; broken donna 
in autumn, 112; stored 
with syrup, utilisation 
of, 124; structure of, in 
a hive, 179; old, 199,239; 
spare, 210, 218 ; of pre- 
vious year, 250 ; crooked, 
ib. ; fixed together, 315 ; 
clearing out, 352 ; work- 
ing out, ib. ; position of, 
426; preserving through 
■winter, 437; affected with 
foul brood, 45S ; age of, 
490, 573 ; best way of ob- 
taining a quantity of, 511 

Coming bee, the, 206 

Committee-men, 5, 17 

Committee, criticised, 193 

Conversaziones,34, 183, 318, 
470; scientific subjects 
at, 56 

Condemned bees, 165, 218, 
236, 329, 330, 339, 341, 
544; treatment of, 417; 
an iting to f ramc-hivo, 427 

Condy's fluid, 250 

Cook, Prof., his apiary and 
"work, 471 

Co-operative show, 341, 
436, 447 

Co-operators, amongst the, 
378 

Corn-plaster, 309 

Cornell, Mr., bin poction- 
orate and sections, t, L6; 
his snpor, 128 ; hi E »tuj- 
dation uxor, 431 ; hie gift 
of Mr. Aplaugh's ma- 
cuixiG for foundation fix- 
ing to fchoB.B.K.A., W9, 
471,471- 

< .:: c il "Univ:;;>',y apu n' 1 

tare at, 226 
Cosmetic specialities, 309 
Cosmdtiquo, 309 



Cottagers' Apiary Compe- 
tition, 465, 4S9 

Country life, 92 

County Associations. 509 ; 
members of, 100 ; ex- 
perts, 196, 217 ; secre- 
taries, their duties, 509 

Cowau hive, 112, 144, 327, 
566 ; damp, 210 

Cowau, T. W., his Guide- 
book, 2; his Doubling and 
Storifying, ib.; on the 
proportion of honey to 
wax, 147 ; his inventions, 
327 ; his visit to America, 
439 ; his reception, ib, ; 
presentation to, 450, 451; 
liis narrative of his visit 
to Canada and the Uni- 
ted States, 470. 515 

Crates of thirty-five sec- 
tions, 76, 83 

Crates and sections, 151 

Creme celeste, 309 

Crimea, bee-keepingiu, 565 

Croakinc, 30, 187 ; queens, 
110, 152. 173 

Crooked combs, 134, 250, 
283 

Crowding bees, 339 

Crown - boards, 478 ; v. 
quilts, 22 

Cubic contents of one 
pound of honey, 304 

Cumbarland, a voice from, 
87 

Cupid and the bees, 138 

Curiosities of bee-life, 148 

Curtis, Dr., on the source 
of honey-dew, 420 

Cyprian bees. 3, 98, 105, 
120, 128, 129, 181; ex- 
perience of bee-keepers 
with, ib. ; instructions 
for manipulating them, 
ib. ; characteristics of, 136 

Cyprian queen, experience 
with a, 40 

Dadants, Messrs., founda- 
tion-makers, 471 ; hives, 
563 

Dampness, 22 

Danish bee-keeping, past 
and present, 244 

Dead brood, 371, 411, 431 

Dead larva: and young bees, 
200 

Death's head moth, 45S, 
553 

Demarca, G., 159, 286 

Deunler, J., Das Bicncn- 
icacks und seine Vcrter- 
wimg, 111, 128, 168, 296 

De quibusdam, 1S7, 290 

Dor Pralctische Imlcer, 527 

Desborough, J., on the life 
of worker-bees, 158 

Desideratum, a, 506 

Diagrams, Sartori's, 552, 
566 

Diarrhoea, remedy for, 309 

Dines, Mr., his crate, 12S 

Disclaimer, a., 28 

Discouraged one, 86 

Diseased brood, 447 

Distance-guides, absence 
of, 383 

District associations, 50, 
55, 74, 503 

Dividing, by a lady, 250 ; 
for increase, 301 

Division-boards, 158, 211, 
510 

Dobbie's Bee Pasturage, 375 

Dokoupil, M., 9 

Donholf, Dr., ou propor- 
tion of honey to wax, 146 

Doubling, 19, 73, 209, 220, 
223, 250, 233, 478; and 
stoiifying, 144 

Driving, 48.3 

Driving bees, 222, 253, 303, 
327, 330, 403, 512; par- 
tially filled skep, 220; 
and uniting, 326 ; time 
for, 314 ; by a novice, of 
bees by candle-light, 413 

Drone-breeding, 160 

Drone - brood in workor- 
comb, 210 

Drone, young, 1 14 ; the 
lazy, yawning, 301 

Drone-comb, L80, 2-40,250, 
389, 107, 438, 550: whon 
built by tl'.o bees, 39; size 
of, 180 ; in lower hive, 283, 
and drone foundation, 574 



Drone-cells, 180 

Drone-eggs, 339 

Drones, 136, 173, 183, 233, 
32 1 ?, 447; havimr white 
eyes, 28; selected, 74; 
why they do not store 
honey, 77 ; value of, ib. ; 
casting out, 250, 339; 
abo«t=d. 262; white- 
headed, 315; presence of, 
478 

Drought, 354, 379 

Drv-suq-ar feedinc. 14, 26, 
30,10i),124,144;210;and 
dead larva?, 273 

Dry sugar, 364 

Duncan's pearl sugar, 93, 
124 

Duties on wax and honey 
in France, 4 

Dysentery, 29, 64; in an 
observatory hive, 29 

Dzierzon, Dr., ou honey- 
dew, 419 ; on brood- 
covers, 467, 481 

Earthen pans for honev, 
365 

Earwigs, 375, 533 

East winds and smoke v. 
carbolic, 268 

Eastern races, 453 ; build- 
ing comb between frames 
and quilts, 504 

Echoes, passim 

Economical cushion and 
feeder, 550 

Eggs, queen and worker, 
identical, 124 ; several, 
in one cell, 177, 250 

Egyptian babe embalmed 
in honey, 331 

Elizabeth, Queen, her fond- 
ness for metheglin, 213 

Ellwood, Mr., 471 

Embalmed in honey, 171 

Embedding foundation, 45 

Enamel cloth, 64, 92, 100, 
144, 165, 209, 478 

Ends of sheet metal, 63 

English bees, 160; queens, 
two, 410 

Entrances, 211, 243, 417, 
528 ; distances of, 229 ; 
shading, 510 

Ericacece, 8 

Eristalis fossarum, 478 

Erslev, H. Forcr i Biavl 
T. W. Cowan, 302; on 
drone-comb, 452 

Eucalyptus honey, 139, 155 

Evans, Dr., 158 ; on the 
cause of honey-dew, 420 

Evelvn, Mr., his glass hive, 
140 

Examination of bees, 44 

Examinations, 125, 235 

Excluder sine, 152, 283, 
303, 336 

Exhibition in France in 
1S87, bee-section in, 215 

Experience, my, 142 

Experts, becoming, 64 ; pay 
per day, 112 ; visits of, 
172, 182 ; aud foul brood, 
181; spring tour of, 218; 
a word for the, 256; 
examinations, 348 ; con- 
duct of, 536 

Extracted honey, strain- 
ing, 123; or section hon- 
ey? 167; working for, 349 

Extracting, 88, 288, 293, 
330, 352, 354, 365; and 
feeding, 293 ; from brood- 
combs, 372, 380 

Extractor, how to make, 
11 ;. size of, 77 ; distance 
of baskets from spindle, 
in, 153; for heather 
honey, 177 ; conveying 
foul brood, 508 

Eyes of bees, 318 

Facts, 567 

Fastening combs in skeps, 
415 

Fecundation, in confine- 
ment, 431 ; late, 451 

Feed your stocks, 519 

Feeder, condition of, 165; 
a cheap, 501 

|.\, [i,, ■. tw. 11: , ifil. 330, 
355, 379, 458; simplicity 
in, 14, 51; without feed- 
ors, 174 ; out-of-doors, 
203 ; swarm hived on 
combs, 210; for winter, 
-107 



Feeding bottle, 211 

Fermented syrup, 375 

Fertile worker, 100, 136, 
314, 199 ; eggs and erubs 
of. 177 ; getting rid of, 
147 ; theory respecting, 
185 

Fertilisation, pure, 122; 
signs of, 240; methods 
of, 293; of queens, 324, 
105 ; of plants, self, 254 ; 
cross, ib. ; insect, ib. ; 
wind, ib. ; of flowers, 
490 ; by bees, 520 

Fighting, 112 ; and robbing, 
273 

First swarm, how I lost, 
2S1 

Firth, J. C, 169 

Fixed-comb system, 211 

Fixing dummies, 141 

Flat-bottomed foundation, 
503 

Flavours of honey, 459 

Flight of bees, ' rata of, 
364 ; distance of, ib. 

Floor-boards, 407; cleaning, 
45 ; size of, 53 ; moveable 
or fixed, 229 

Flour candy, 4S3 

Flowers for bees, 3; aud 
honey, 301 ; structure 
and fertilisation of, 490, 
500 

Fly-catohers, 370 

Food, for bees, 44 ; mode- 
rate supply of, 69 ; recipes 
for, 93, 514; for the 
season, 155 ; of larva>, 
184 ; amount of, for 
winter, 45S, 510 

Foreign :— Australia, 234, 
255, 492; Austria, 138; 
Canada. 47, 441, 450. 
559 ; Denmark, 244 ; 
France, 4, 194, 215. 246, 
297, 481, 492, 547, 553; 
Greeca, 278; Hanover, 
232; Italy, 138, 148, 194, 
475 ; Minorca, 563 ; Na- 
tal, 563 ; New Zealand, 
163 ; Norway, 5-46 ; Si- 
lesia, 245; Spain, 24; 
Switzerland, 14, 138, 147, 
193, 541 ; Tasmania, 168 ; 
United States. 256 

Foreign bees, 97, 145, 173, 
175, 457 ; gleanings, 392 

Formic acid, 40, 115, 561 ; 
use of, 124 ; and carbolic 
acid, 165 
Forty-frame hive, 4S7 
Foul brood, 26, 52, 164, 181, 
188, 197, 206, 228, 242, 
250, 273, 324, 326, 336, 
365, 371, 391, 396, 39S, 
403, 417, 423, 434, 4,37, 
445, 447, 454, 457, 463, 
46S, 482, 489, 550, 556; 
query respecting, 176 ; 
kuowledge of, 217 ; in a 
district, 224 ; directions 
issued for cure of, by 
Lancashire and Cheshire 
B.K.A., 242; again! 259, 
538; suspected, 338; my 
experience with, 359 ; and 
profitable bee-keeping, 
432; curiug, 434; cure 
of, 454, 456 ; propngatmg, 
466 
Foul -broody hive,use of, 200 
Foundation, 45, 136, 175, 
219, 243 ; full sheets for 
sections, 41 ; making, ib.; 
when and how to use, 42 ; 
flat-bottomed wire, 45; 
fixing, 63 ; utilising last 
year's, 64; tests for, 130, 
161 ; purity of, 146 ; its 
brittlouess, 199 ; white- 
coloured, 314 ; fastening 
in skeps, 401 ; supply of, 
511 ; advantage of, 538 ; 
•u. worker-comb, 550, 572 
Foundation-fixer, 321, 431 
Four-bee-way sectious, 217, 

336 
Fowls and bees, 88 
Frame, deep, 64 
Frame-distance, 19, 117, 144 
Frame-block, 123 
Frames, 243 ; number of, 
53, 262, 453 ; reversing, 
64, 110; removing from 
full hive, 123; improve- 
ments iu, 125; sizo of, 
152; and sections, 174; 



combs filling, 239 ; spaces 

beneath, 308, 333, 379 ; 

number of, to winter in, 

330; position of, 444; 

withdivided top-bars, 511 
Fruit-blossoms, store from, 

93 
Fumigating combs, 566 
Fumigation, 250; required, 

51S 
Fumigator, 177, 199; sili- 

cylic, 164 

Galvanised iron reservoir, 

varnishing, 122 
Galvanised piping not; in- 
jurious to wax, 124 
Galvanised receptacles, 10 
Geese, value of. 555 
Glass hives, 129, 140 ; in- 
ventor of, 76, 83 
Glass shade, 200 
Glass on alighting-board 

a preventive of robbing, 

506 
Gleanings, 28, 39, 147, 286 
Gloves, 100 ; suggestion 

for, 104 
Gloucestershire, district 

work in, 527 
Glvceriue, 19; waxbalsain'- 

309 
Goat, stung to death, 2/2 ; 

and bees, 288 
Godfrey, R. R., 144,161 
Godman, A., 469, 474 
Good's candy, 44, 522, 553 
Gossip, 196 
Granulated honey, 51, 4S2, 

457 
Grape sugar, 212 
Grass befoi-e hives, 198 
Green, W. T., his Imperial 

hive, 326 
'Greenock' disease, 2S3 
Griffin, W. N., 234, 423 
Grimshaw, ft. A. H . his 

paper on ' The Vocal 

Organs of Bees,' 34, 56; 

his workin Yorkshire, 46; 

his paper ' Ou the Visual 

Organs of Bees, 318 ; his 

apifuge, 227, 516, 392 
Grizzly bear and the bees, 

421 
Guazzoni.his cornb-prasser, 

168 

Hannington, Bishop, an 
adventure with African 
bees, 525 

H a w k h u r s t Cottagers* 
Competition, 46S 

Healing salve, 309 

Heariug, organs of, in bees, 
57 

Heather, sending hives tc- 
the, 283, 303, 314, 327, 
339, 352 ; a trip to, with 
bees, 537 

Heather honey, 238 ; ex- 
tracting, 188, 314 ; util- 
ising, 389 ; crop of, how 
to make the best of, 243 

Heddon, J., Success m Bc'o- 
cultwe, 2 ; his hive, 50, 
63, 99, 101, 136, 141, 166, 
456 ; his syrup, 44 ; his 
recipe for syrup-food, 93; 
his plan of preventing 
swarms, 15S ; his apiary, 
471 ; subject to a bee- 
disease, 517 ; half-a-day 
with, ib. 

Hedges, willow, 30 

Hehner, Otto, 450 ; on the 
requirements of bees, 464 

Heredity, 23 

Hereford honey fair, 421 

Hessian fly, 354 

Hetherington, Car/tain, 
his apiary, 470, 473 

Hilbert's fumigating pro- 
cess, 250 

Hill's device, 417 

Hippuric acid, 417, 437 

Hive, a cheap, 484 ; mea- 
surement of, 89 ; 280 
pounds from one, 508; 
with twenty frames, ib. 

Hive-building, 554 

Hives, 3, 303 ; examination 
of, 4 ; dry, 23 ; patented 
in the United States, 52 ; 
position of, 4, 417; surface 
for, 27; smoke necessary 
in examining, 112 ; pack- 
ing, 122; changing, 177; 



INDEX TO VOLUME XV. 



with moveable and 
fixed combs, 211 ; price 
of, 212 ; aspect of, 223 ; 
removal of, 272; deser- 
tion of. 250 ; modern 
essential, 276 ; higher- 
roofed, 280 ; shading, 
2S7 ; for doubling, 453; 
broken into, 52S 

Hive covering-, 92 

Hive-construction, 165, 197, 
413, 417, 480 ; improve- 
ments in, by whom claim- 
ed, 42, X4S 

Hive-entrances, 4, 109, 140, 
165, 375, 452 

Hive-roofs, 379 

Hobbv, our, 285 

Holy-lands, 140 

Honey, 36-4; packing- for 
transport, 10 ; in Pales- 
tine, IS ; specimens of, 
28 ; uses of, 29 ; frames 
of, 44 ; in zinc vessels, 
73 ; and pollen producing 
plants, 77; harvest, time 
of, 112; judging, 130; 
what shall wo do with 
our ? 145 ; analysed, 155 ; 
a sting-averter, 116 ; as 
an article of food, 191, | 
357;whereitispriucipally | 
produced, if). ; as food for j 
infants, 207 ; a royal 
luxury, 213 ; versus sugar, 
235, 258 ; preventing un- I 
tinued treacle - valve 
affecting, 239 ; how and 
why plants produce, 254; 
the flavour of, 25S, 459 ; 
price of, 262, 503, 507, 
514, 536, 539, 519, 562; 
flow, 262, 4S2; harvest, 
277, 314, 354, 370, 385, 
453; taking, 277 ; market- 
ing, ib. ; transmission of, 
per railway, toshows,281; 
packing, 2SS ; disposing 1 
of, 238 ; used for curing 
erysipelas, 298 ; bleach- 
ing, 304 ; specific gravity 
of, ib. ; prospects, 308 ; 
with taste of prussic acid, 
314 ; when ripe, 314 ; 
keeping, 327 ; extracting 
from brood-combs, 327 ; 
Egyptian babe embalmed 
in, 331 ; making bright, 
337 ; and sugar, relative 
sweetness of, 339 ; using 
fermented, 339 ; ripening, 
351 ; exhibited, 352 ; in 
auv form, ib. ; black, 364, 
492; and pollen, 365; ob- 
stinate, ib. ; marketing, 
367 ; temperature for 
keeping, 383, 542 ; pre- 
servation of, ib. ; bitter, 
389; dark, 425; by the 
hundredweight, 372, 
400, 415, 423, 446, 455; 
tainted, 437; unsealed, 
ib. ; from unsealed sec- 
tious fermented, ib. 
candying quickly, ib. ; 
difficult to extract, 437, 
488 ; by the pound, 446 ; 
sale of, 475 ; uses of, in 
India, 481 ; granulated, 
482 ; as medicine, 486 ; 
large yields of, 487 ; sam- 
ples, 4SS ; old, for spring 
feeding, 508; linden or 
basswood, 510; sour and 
rancid, 552; price of, 573 

Honey associations, 230, 
312 

Honey beer, 144; beverage, 
275 ; vinegar, 281 ; wine, 
339 ; lemonade, 410 

Honey-bottle, Walton's, 44 

Honey companies, 2 

Honey company, another, 
529 

Honey-comb designs, 200, 
205, 228, 283 

Honey-dew, 212, 352, 411, 
419, 429, 542 ; produces 
dysentery, 375 ; use of, 
for feeding in spring, ib. ; 
and frozen bees, 401 ; 
estimation in which it 
was held by the ancients, 
ib. ; how produced, ib. ; 
caused by aphides, 420 ; 
in Suffolk, 421, 429 ; dif- 
ferent opinions as to its 
origin, ib. ; its taste, ib. ; 



large quantity of it, ib. ; 
its producers, 439, 449 ; 
its curative qualities, 450 

Honey-drop not, 528 

Honev, imports of. 2, 81, 
92, "96, 172, 225, 25S, 298, 
34S, 111, 453, 503, 513, 
548 

Honey-jars, 528 

Honey market, 153 

Honey locust, 39 

Honey - producing flowers 
and plants, 227 

Honey-sac, 212 

Hops, injuries to, by 
aphides, 419 

Hot v. cold systems, 363 

How to do it, 504. 524, 53? 

Howard frame, 153 ; sec- 
tions, 151 ; slotted divi- 
ders, ib. 

Howells, Rev. J., 213 

Huber's apiavv, 186 

Humble bees, 226, 207, 217, 
302,325; inNewZealand, 
168 ; the ways of some, 
237 ; visits to flowers, 254 ; 
and clover blossoms, 2S2 ; 
proposition for, 436 

Humming, 56 

Hut, in the, 107, 142, 206, 
226, '270, 358, 382, 476, 
483. 505, 5il 

Hybrids, 3, 195, 233, 323, 
364 

Hlusbrici'tes Jjehrbuch dcr 

Bieacnzuclit, 559 

Imperial hive, 283 

Increase, how and when 
to, 302 

Increasing stocks and 
honey, 100 

India, uses of honev in, 4S1 

Indian bees, 260, 3S6 

Inoculation, 385, 390, 412 

Interbreeding, 105 

Insect exhibition at Paris, 
4S1 

Insects at fault, 63 ; ferti- 
lisation by, of flowers, 
254 ; vision of, 2S7 

Instinct of bees, 152 

Introducing queens. Sec 
Queens 

Inventions, British and 
American, 7 ; new, in 
bee-appliances, 469 

Invertible frames, 132 

Invertible hives, S, 16, 25, 
38. 45, 51, 52, 75, 121. 123, 
134, 176 ; and how I use 
them, 99; are they water- 
tight ? 109 

Inverting, 327 ; frames, 
Canadian opinions of, 
146 ; sections, 89 ; skeps, 
165 

Ireland, bee-keeping, 2, 80 

Irish bee-keeping, past and 
present, 241 ; standard 
hive, 29S ; bee - keeper, 
424 

Irish B.K.A., sale of mem- 
bers' honey by, 416 ; stan- 
dard hive of, 461 

Italian hybrids, 2L0 

Italianising, 308 

Italians, Oarniolans and 
blacks, 283 ; their high 
qualities, 307 ; or hy- 
brids ?, 3SS 

Ivy honey, 518 

Jenkins, H. M., notice of 

his death. 34 
Jenyns, F. G., A Bookaboub 

Bees, 2 
Jonathan, how cousin, gets 

comb-honey, 289 
Jones, D. A., departure of, 

for Canada, 4 ; his works 

and apiary, 471 
Jones-Heddon hive, 75 
Jottings, 46, 80, 93, 118, 145, 

182, 224 
Journal, motto for, 69; 

hints for, 511 
Jubilee designs, 180, 283; 

year, how bee-keepers 

should honour it, 202 ; 

proposed show in year 

of, 221 ; the queen's, 265 
Judge, appreciation of, 415 
Judges, decisions of, 101 ; 

hints for, 131 ; at shows, 

their decisions, 427 



Judgiug, 162, 187, 425, 130, 
3S9, 402, 415 ; appliances 
at shows, 50 

July 4, 299 

Kandratieff, his apiaries, 

194 
Kaugaroo Island, 255 
Keep colonies strong, 509 
Keep geese, keep bees, 555 
Keeping honev, 327 
Kentrapone, 117, 133 
Kenworthy, (). J. Fox, 

death of, 45, 82, 145 
Killick's wax - extractor, 

76, 119, 313, 330 
Knickerbocker and Lock, 

queen-raising, 470 
Kohler method, 137, 293 

La Circ des AbciVcs, ct son 

Utilisation, 518 
Lady bee-keepers in Eng- 
land and America, 473 
Ladybirds, 449, 485 
Lancashire bee-cellar, 279 
Langstroth hive, 29 
Larva?, food of, 184 
Lavender-water, 388 
Layens, M. de, 13S, 146 
Law on bess, 239 
Leaf -cutting bees, 62 
Lectures on bees and bee- 
keepin?, 41, 133, 139, 
14S, 171, 182, 246, 403 
Lecturing tour, northern, 

222 
Lee's folding sections, 7 ; 
frames, sections, and 
crates, 69, 125, 145, 160, 
183, 206, 218, 225, 354, 
370, 385, 417, 431, 469, 
474, 552 ; fixing founda- 
tion in, 553 
Lcs Abcdles. 112 
Leuckart on the food of 

larva?, 185 
Ligurian bees, 97, 337, 361 ; 
preferred, 112 ; pure, 
122 ; loss of, through 
mismanagement, 153 ; 
keeping pure, 239 ; six 
stocks from two, 4L 
Lignriauising, 240 
Lincolnshire B.K.A., 369 
Linden honey, 510 
Little Wonder, 403 
Locality of apiary, 277 
Long words, 195 
Lowe, J., death of, 4 
Lowestoft apiary, 239 
' Ludovicus Vives, 490 

M'Knight, B.., memoir of, 
170 ; at Owen Sound, 4-71 

M'Lain, W. N., his experi- 
ments in controlling the 
fecundation of queens, 
431 

H'Nally, Messrs., 4S, 483, 
495 

Madagascar bees, 75 

Mahin, M., on getting rid 
of fertile workers, 147 ; 
introduction of queens, 
ib. 

Manipulating, 68, 354, 
392 ; tent at Manchester 
show, 465 

Manipulation, 4, 294 ; best 
time for, 283, 2SS, 308, 
373, 379, 400, 407, 412 ; in 
high wind, 339 

Maraldi and glass hives, 
130 

Marigold flower, plaster 
for wounds, 309 

Marketiug honey, 367 

Martins, 370, 399 

Matamata apiary, 169 

Meadows, W. P., his ex- 
tractor, ISO 

Mead or metheglin, 217 ; 
recipes for, 427 

Megachile muraria, 262 

Mehring, ef Frankenthal, 
his discovery of making 
artificial comb, 16S 

Mel et sal, 188 

MeUa, 275, 292 

1 Mel sapit omnia,' 16, 172, 
181, 188 

Metal ends, 211, 226, 303 

Meteorogical observations 
for July, 36S 

Methyl salicylate, 7, 117, 
2SS 

Mexican bee, 79 



Miee, 4 

Microscope, works on the, 

334 ; Mr. Cowan's in 

America, 472, 473 
Middle sections, removing, 

424 
Mid Wales, a visit on bee 

business in, 460 
Miller, Dr. 0. C, reply to, 

399 ; on bee-keeping as a 

livelihood, 479 
Minorca, bee-keeping in, 

Modem Bee.lccepiag, 2 
Monkeying with bees, 373 
Morren. C-, on the strac- 

ture of aphides, 44't 
Moth in hives, 200; in spare 

combs, 352 
Mouse, in a hive, 452 
Moveable frame-hive, in- 
ventor of, 76, 83 
Moveable bottom - board, 

211 
Moveablo comb system, 211 
Moviug bees, 39, 149, 210, 

409.478; half-a-mile,335; 

and uniting, 33S ; a short 

distance, 339 
Musty smell in feeders, 210 
My Bees, 501, 512, 521, 532, 

544, 569 
My year's work, 485 

Natal, bees in, 563 
Natural swarming, 204 
Nectar, 212 ; in flowers, 
object of, 184 ; secretion 
of, 455 
Neighbour, Messrs., inver- 
tible hive, 121 ; inver- 
tible section rack, 79, 
128 ; good example set 
by, 232 
Newman, Mr., of Chicago, 

471 
New races of foreign bees, 
139, 160, 175, 186, 195, 218 
New Zealand, bee-keeping 

in, 375, 3S3 
New Zealand and Austra- 
lasian Bet Journal, 33S 
Nitro-benzol, 488 
Nomenclature, 9, 17, 27, 1S7 
Non-swarming, 53, 144 
Norway, bee-keeping in,548 
Notes by the way, 150, 249 
Notes on current topics, 336 
Nouvellc Flore, 132 
Novice, experience of a, 87 
Novice's metal corners, 3SS 
Nuclei, 2S2 
Nucleus swarming, 134 

Obituary:— M. Mona, 14; 
0. Fumagalli, ib.; Jules 
Madare, ib. ; M. Gerard, 
■ib. ; J. Anderson, ib. ; A. 
Butlerow, ib. ; H.J. Jen- 
kins, 34 ; F. Kenworthy, 
45, 82, 146 ; J. Bolton, 
223 ; D. Stewart, 420 

Observatory hive, 64, 153, 
23S, 355 ; stocking an, 
100; and judging, ^403 

One and a half sections, 165 

One hundred pounds per 
hive, 455, 496 

One-pound bottles, 361 

Ontario bee-keepers, result 
of their exhibition at s. 
Kensington, 46 ; library 
of, 503 

Orchids and pollen masses, 
254 

Outlines of bee-keeping for 
beginners, 43, 67, 115, 135, 
179, 211, 231, 253 

Overstocking, 482 

Packing, 22 ; swarms, 200 ; 
honey, 238 

Packing-cases, cheap, for 
transmission of honey by 
railway, 271 

Painting hives, 119, 143 

Palestine bees, 18, 140 

Pallus Romulus, on meth- 
eglin and oil, 214 

Pai'allel v. right - angled 
frames, 363, 379, 384, 412, 
432, 522, 526, 531, 550 

Parallel system, 379 

Parsons and bees, 499 

Patent rights, 200 

Patents relating to apicul- 
ture, 522 

Patenting inventions, 69 



Pea-flour, 173, 135, 223 

Penrose's Carousal of Odin, 
214 

Peppermint, 38S 

Persevering, by, 35S 

Pheasants and bees, 64 

Philadelphia, Mr. Cowan's 
reception at, 472 

Philology, 1S1 

Phorodon humuli, 449 

Photographs of Swiss api- 
ai-ies, exhibited by Mr. 
Cowan, 183 

Phvsiological queries, S, 3S, 
75,99 

1 Pieces,' 176 

Pine-wood the best for hive 
making, 327; attractive 
to bees, 437 

Pipe-cover queeu-cae-es430, 
574 

Pitched paper for quilts, 
361 

Plauta, Dr. A. Yon, on cane 
sugar in honey, 29 ; on 
the colour of wax, 146; 
his experiments on the 
brood of larva?, 185 ; on 
brood-covers, 467, 4S1 

Platelayer's report, 456 

Plinths, 165 

Poison-bag, 115 

Poisonous )iouey, 76, 77, 
8S, 198, 2S2 

Poisonous plants, 205 

Pollen, separation of, from 
wax, 10 ; grains in honey, 
17 ; storing of, by bees, 
40; and syrup, 44; na- 
tural, 112 ; baskets, 212 ; 
dried, 239 ; iratberiug, 
245 ; masses, ^249, 520 ; 
vessels, 2d4 ; clogged 
combs, 339, and honey, 
493 ; carriers, 520 

Porto Rico sugar, 14, 51, 
53. 64, 124 

Position of apiary, 92 

Posterior legs of the worker 
bee, 503 

Poultry-farming, 167, 486 

Pound of honey, visits of 
bees to flowers for a, 363 

Praktische Imlcer, 542 

Preparations, 45, 204 

Preparing hives, supers, 70 

Preventing swarms set- 
tling on high trees, 61 

Propolis, 212, 552 ; use of, 
164 

Propolisation, preventing. 
175 

Queen, 35 ; finding in a 
swarm, 41 ; found on 
alighting - board, ib. ; 
preventing entering up- 
per boses, 100,124; dead, 
109, 210, 250, 352, 427; 
loss of, 112, 129; found 
alone, 123 ; depositing 
eggs, 124 ; a drone breed- 
er, 188 ; clipping wings 
of, 1S8; raise X in April, 
200; injured, 200, 294; 
introducing to two weak 
stocks, 219 ; unfertilised, 
229 ; impregnation of, 
239 ; our, and G-ovemour, 
265 ; her history, 266 ; 
and the bees, 202 ; lost 
and found, 301; joining 
swarm, 314 ; laying 
drone and worker eggs 
at same time, 323 ; cause 
of dead, 326; old, 3391; 
loss of, and uniting, 
352 ; diseased, 397 ; not 
finding the, 401, 423; 
driven bees without, 427; 
producing diminutive 
bees, 437 ; taking away 
diseased, 455 ; supersed- 
ing, 26S, 478; piping, 561; 
releasing at sunset, 574 

Queens, young, 19; raising' 
in swarming time, 40 ; 
age of, 39, 200, 47S ; ex- 
periment of raising dur- 
ing queen's presence, 59 ; 
changing, 110; croaking, 
ib. ; dying, cause of, 
118 ; return of, 165 ; 
raising of, 1S5, 362 ; ball- 
ing, 229 ; effect of cold 
on, ib.; observations on, 
266; changing, 307; fe- 
cundation of, 303, 324; 



Yl 



INDEX TO VOLUME XV. 



in section cases, 312 ; two 
in one hive, 337 ; in se- 
cond rear, 447 ; young, 
453, 462 ; by post, 531 

Queen- cell surrounded 
with drone-comb, 229 

Queen-cells, 212, 180; and 
drone hatching from, 
314 

Queen-excluding zinc for 
dividers, 77 

Queen - introduction, 147, 
154, 222, 262, 467, 493, 
555 ; another success in, 
258, 262, 407, 430 

Queen-mating-, 314 

Queen-raising, 210, 301, 
313, 315 ; in nuclei, 41 ; 
or introduction of queen- 
cell, 2S1 

Queenless stocks, 37, 64, 
69, 226, 364, 437, 508 

Queen Victoria's train and 
the bees, 317 

Queen-wasps, 89, 180 

Quilt,2U; position of .while 
supering, 47S 

Quilts, 407, 64, 478 j chang- 
ing, 4 ; porous, 175 

Queries, 111 ; bvabeginner, 
176 

Query, 551 

Rabbet, 9, 17, 27 

Races of bees, 2 ; crossing, 

22; the new means of 

interbreeding, 105, 298 
Railway station, bees at, 

213 
Ray nor feeders, leaking, 

210 
Raynor, Rev. G., his recipe 

for makincr carbolic acid 

solution, 402 
* Ready, aye, ready,' 180 
Red-backed shrike, 370 
Red Indians, amongst, 476 
Reed, F-, bis apiary, 382 
Releasing queen, 574 
Remedies for coughs, 309 
Removing stocks, 69, 123, 

219, 489 
Renfrewshire Stewarton, 

306 
Re-queen mv stocks, how 

may I ? 297 
Re-queening stocks, 250, 

327, 330, 336 
Reque-t. a, 222, 260 
Resuscitation, 164 
Retrospect, a, 1 
Reversible section rack,107, 

311 ; frames, 16, 110 
Rigb.t-n.ngl ed v. parallel 

frames, 556 
Ripening honey, 351 
Robbers, how known, 573 
Robbing, 53, 124, 136, 330, 

355, 365, 406, 573 ; pre- 
venting, 379, 475, 506 
Roofs of hives, 109, 211 
Root, A. I., 9S, 471 
Routh, Mr., answers to,192 
Royal jelly, 124,184, 238 

Salicylic acid solution, 8, 

28/134, 136,417; feeding 

with, 100 ; and borax, 

427 

Sorters 1 Company, 182, 188 

Salve for wounds, 309 

Sartori, M., his apiary, 

138 ; diagrams, 518, 552 
Schedules for shows, 103 
Schonfeld,Pastor,on brood- 
cell covers, 467, 480; on 
the food of larva 1 , 185 
Schulz, Otto, on artificial 

combs, 168 
Schwcinfurth, Dr., his ex- 
periences with African 
bees, 525 
Scotch bee-keeper, a, 322 
Scotch exhibit of honey 
at Glasgow, 421 



Scotch hive - manufac - 

turers, 100 
Scripture texts, 571 
Second-class examinations, 

442 
Second swarms returning, 

308 
Section, the one-and-tbree- 
quarter, 10S; distauce, 
154; the first, 280; broken, 
338 
Sections, 237, 354 ; utilising 
for feeding, 53; woods of 
which they are inade.147; 
in frames,165; unfinished , 
219, 330 ; removing, 222, 
283, 308, 336, 380, 452 ; 
skeleton case for holding, 
260; treatment of, 262, 
311, 312; in a time of 
drought, 288 ; removing 
propolis from, 304 ; fas- 
tened to separators, 314 ; 
breaking up, 339 ; taking, 
352; refusing behind 
hive, ib. ; slinging, 362 ; 
unsealed, 364, 47S ; re- 
moving middle, 3S4; 
orange - coloured, 427 ; 
the new, 516, 524, 53S ; 
bleeding, 529 ; still on, 
542 
Section cases and sections, 
127 ; Woodley's, 177, 237, 
431 
Section-crates, with queen- 
excluders, 186 
Seed-vessels, 254 
Selborne Society, 191 
Selected queries, 501, 511, 

524, 534 
Separating doubled hives, 

64 
Separating of wax, 76 
Separators, 143, 175, 237, 
294, 524; tin and wood, 
100 
Shades for swarms, 243 
Shelter, planting for, 511' 
Siebold, Professor von, 325 
Simmins, S., The Non- 
Sicavming System, 3, 348; j 
his self-acting syrup-can, 
68; hisUnionorUniversal 
hive, 385, 403 ; she of 
frames advocated by, 97; 
hive cover, 122; his comb- 
honey supers, 267 ; on 
buying and introducing 
queens, 291 ; his apiaries, 
335, 529 ; Modem Bee- 
Farm, 547 
Simplicity in feeding, 14 
Sirex gigas, 315 
Skep overthrown, 64 
Skep, from, to bar-frame, 

198 
Skeps, feeding, 22 ; making 
the best of twelve, 239 ; 
v. foul brood, 475; cover- 
ings for, 490 
Skin diseases, wax - salve 

for, 309 
Slots, width of, 154 
Slotted dividers, 150, 162, 

163, 501 
Smoke, 60, 135, 318, 395 ; 

how long known, 111 
Smoker, for bees, 141, 173 
Snow, clear away the, 38 
Spain, bee-keeping in, 24 
Spare combs, 207 
Sparrows and bees, 197 
Specific gravity of honey, 

304 
Spiders, 219 
Spinete, P., model apiary 

conducted by, 148 
Spircea, essence of, 8, 57 
Spreading biood, 124 
Spring, dwindling, 45 ; feed- 
ing, 53; flowers, 64, 68; 
management, 69 ; by 
Amateur Export, 232 ; 
examination of colonies, 



95, 132 ; work in apiary 
in, 93 

Stamens, 254 

Standard frame, 3, 16, 109, 
123, 132, 211, 564 ; Irish 
B.K.A.,461; top-bar,565 

Starters of foundation, 311 

Stands, 19 

Statistics, 410; wanted, 393 

Stewart, D., death of, 420 

Stewarton hive, 136, 174, 
273, 305, 335 

Stimulating, 77, 93, 112, 
118, 177/200, 210 

Stimulative feeding, 245 

Sting, 115 ; effects' of, 370, 
40^ ; preventers, 271 

Stock, the, 212; dwindling, 
53, 339 

Stocks, weak, 219; tra- 
velling by rail, 123 ; 
strength of, 219 

Stores, superabundance of, 
176; for winter, 354; de- 
ficiency of, 462 

Storifying, 207, 478 

Storifying hive, 212 

Sudeley, Lord, his planta- 
tions, 377 

Sugar for feeding, S9, 112, 
338 

Sugar syrup, 100 

Suggestions, 198 

Summer shade for hives, 89 

Sundries, 10, 16 

Sundry experiences with 
bees, 163 

Sunflowers and insects, 406 

Super, bees ascending to, 
283 

Super-crate, exhibited by 
Mr. Hooker, 186 

Supered colonies swarm- 
ing, 268 

Superficial area of sealed 
comb, 386 

Sivpers not accepted, 29 ; 
giving, 203; putting on, 
222; removing, 338; lclt 
on hives, 447; andsuper- 
ing, 532 

Surplus boxes, 243 ; cases, 
removal of, 268 

Sussex, and Yorkshire, 25; 
a voice from, 87 ; Asso- 
ciation, 259 

Swallows, 370, 394 

Swarm, how to put into a 
hive, 231 ; a vagabond, 
250 ; adventure, a, 280 ; 
erratic, 293 ; feeding, 
339 ; can it be left to 
evening ? 508 ; natural, 
placed on stand of parent 
stock, 508 

Swarms, 15S, 181, 222; 
putting together, 77 ; 
prevention of, 158; caus- 
ing them to settle, 173 ; 
and swarming, 212 ; pos- 
sible number of, ib. ; 
value of, ib. ; purchasing, 
223 ; setting up, 243 ; 
how to treat, 253, 288 ; 
returning, 273 ; small, 
339 

Swarming, 212, 373, 532; 

natural or artificial, 232 ; 

time of queens, young 

and old, laying eggs, 518 

Symington pea-flour, 89, 

175 
Syrians, 136, 139 
Syrup,136,181,230; amount 
stored, 136 ; in rusty tin, 
200 ; recipe for, 25? ; for 
winter-feeding, 417 
Syrup-feeder, 110 
Syrup-feeding, 23, 452 
Syrphida!, 450 

Tabanus bovinus, 314 
Tar, 64 ; for hives, 100 
Teachers and bee-keeping, 
43,49 



Temperature of hive, rais- 
ing the, 38 ; for keeping 
comb honey, 388, 542 

Third- class candidates, 
431 ; certificate, 64, 229, 
314, 352, 410 

Thirty thousand stings, 
412, 414, 444 

Thistle honey, 474 

Thoughts on current 
topics, 132, 173, 372 

Thymol, 250 

Tinker, Dr., his frames, 97 

Tit killed by bees, 84 ; and 
bees, 197 

Tits, 161, 226, 371 

Toads, 27, 371. 399 

Tomtits, 37, 486, 551; prob- 
lem, 531, 555 

Tooth-stopping, 309 

Top-bars of frames, 524 

Toronto industrial exhi- 
bition, 441, 472 ; recep- 
tion of Mr. Cowan at, ib. 

Transatlantic bee- keepers, 
511 

Transferring, 89, 112, 12t, 
134, 188, 273, 294, 315, 
416, 512; stores, 431; 
time for, 113 ; to smaller, 
sized frames, 206 

Transparent roofing, 208 

Trap for escape of bees, 
566 

Travelling box, 283 

Treacle, 403 

Trimorphism, 500 

Tristram, Canon, 42 

Trouessart, M., 464 

Turner's honey - squeezer, 
64 

Twichbells, 478 

Uncapped nymphs, 496 
Uncapping cells, 100 ; 

sealed honey, 123 
Unicomb observatory hive, 

29,41 
United bees fighting, 437, 

484 
Uniting, 41, 53, 165, 250, 

314, 339,352, 403, 521; in 

autumn, 462 ; queenless 

stock, 53 ; two weak 

skeps, 220 
Uric acid, 477, 4S7 
Unslaked lime, 250 
Useful hints, 2, et passim 

Van Deusen, Messrs., their 
wired foundation, 243 

Vaniere, Prtvdium kusti- 
cum, 127 

Tarnish for hives, 175 

Varnishes, 88 

Varnishing interior of 
hive, 210 

Vaseline, 8 

Veil, 135, 414 

Ventilation, 22, 164, 287, 
386, 457 ; in winter, 463 

Vespa Norvegica, 314 

Vienna, apiarian exhibi- 
tion at, 138 

Village clubs, 61 

Visual organs of bees, 318 

Vol. XV./end of, 567 

Von Berlepsch, on the pro- 
portion of honey to wax, 
146,148 

"Wales, visit to apiary in, 36 
Walton, E. C, his honey 

bottle, 44 
Ward, T. E., his cure for 

foul brood, 397 
Warm covering, 463 
Warning, a word of, 287 
Wasps, 175, 225, 295, 330, 
372, 38S, 406, 411, 414, 4 H, 
487; a word for, 373; 
and grapes, 223 ; how 
caught, 401 ; how to de- 
stroy, 402 ; injurious to 
bees, 384; nest of, and 
foul brood, 455 



Wasp-trap, an Irish, 456 
Water for bees, 45, 133, 173, 

212, 280, 300, 330 
Watertight roofs, 257, 296 
Wax extractor, Killiek's, 

39,53 
Wax foundation, 239 
Wax, 512 ; separation from 
pollen, 19, 53, 111; its 
uses, 29 ; production of, 
29, 126 ; imports of, 
91. 132, 553 ; ancient 
uses of, 126; history of, 
ib. ; adulteration of, 296; 
analysis of, ib. ; employ- 
ment of, for economical 
purposes, 308 
Wax-melting, 25, 42 
Wax-moth, 168, 220 
Wax-scales, 179 
W. B. C. metal ends, 165, 

217, 243 
Weather, passim 
Webster, W. B., his lectur- 
ing tour through Wales, 
1 ; his swivel frame- 
lifter, 33, 60 ; his fumi 
gator, 60, 392 ; lectures, 
4, 61, 216 
Weakening sections, 542 
Weight of combs before 
and after slinging, 104 ; 
in proportion to comb 
surface, 364 
* When doctors differ,' 96 
White ants, 21 
White earthen jar for 

honey, 236 
White, Gilbert, 419,430 
Wide sections, 488 
Width of sections, 198 
Wild flowers, our, 191 
Wintergreen, 7, 57, 154, 238 
Winter, making up stocks 
for, 239 ; passages, 44, 
132, 417, 439, 490, 503, 524 ; 
preparation for, 278, 407, 
452; stocks, 464; stores,. 
294; quilts, 510; flights 
of bees, 530 ; smallest 
amount of stores for, 
534 ; packing, 538 
Wintering, 164,430; amount 
of food for, 351 ; requi- 
sites for, 510 ; bees in 
cellars, 515 
Wire-cloth mesh, 89 
Wiring frames for founda- 
tion, 256 
Wired foundation, 259, 267, 
303, 335, 400 ; a desidera- 
tum, 511 
Woiblet spurembedder for 
fixing foundation, 115, 
136,139,144,151,177,186, 
197, 220 
Woodleigh, 152, 162, 175, 

217, 423, 462, 466, 536 
Woodley, A. D., his tin 
section cases, 177, 237 
431 
Worker-bees, 136 ; age of, 

157, 208, 228, 236, 249 
Worker-cells, 180 
Worker-comb, 180 
Work for B.B.K.A., 443 

Xenophon, his account of 
effect of poisonous 
honey, 198 

Yeast, 463 

Yorkshire, small voice 
from, 26 ; County Asso- 
ciation, 37, 50, 01 ; notes, 
299 

Young, Ivan, Pral-tish, 
302 ; at Toronto exhibi- 
tion, 441, 472 

Zig-zag slides, 528 ; en- 
trances, 552 

Zoubareff, M. A. do, his 
pamphlet on honey, 210 




Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Stbancieways' Printino Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c.' 



[No. 237. Vol. XV.] 



JANUARY 0, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



(Sfottorcal, Sotrtcs, #r. 



A RETROSPECT. 

We have passed the threshold of another year, 
but before we commence the activities and duties 
of that on which we have entered it is desirable to 
cast a retrospective glance on the progress of api- 
culture during the year 1886. 

In looking back, then, on the year that has just 
passed our mind is chiefly attracted to the numerous 
shows which have been held in various parts of 
the United Kingdom. We are pleased to be able 
to note these visible indications of the growing 
interest taken in apiculture by agricultural and 
horticultural societies and by the public generally. 
Wherever a meeting of a society for the pro- 
motion of agriculture, horticulture, or floriculture, 
is now held, the bee-keepers are invited to take 
their part in adding an attraction and in giving a 
zest to the show. The claim of Apiculture to be 
allied to Agriculture is now generally recognised. 
This has been notably the case during the past year. 
The bee department at the Royal Agricultural 
Show, held at Norwich, was no unimportant 
auxiliary to the attractions of that exhibition. 
The visit to the department by their Royal High- 
nesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, their 
daughters, and suite, will cause it to be borne in 
remembrance by bee-keepers. On that occasion 
the number of exhibitors was very large and the 
exhibits were of a very diversified character, and 
the most, improved methods of bee-culture were 
brought before the notice of British agriculturists 
in a very practical form. Again, when the Royal 
Horticultural Society renewed its provincial shows 
by holding one at Liverpool, the Council of the 
British Bee-keepers' Association rendered material 
assistance towards the arrangement of a depart- 
ment for bees, hives, honey, &o. The Royal 
Counties Society, which had held its meeting 
in 1885 at Southampton, this year held it on 
Southsea Common, on which occasion it was 
accompanied by that enterprising Association the 
Hants and Isle of Wight B. K. A. ; and as this was 
the first occasion when a bee show had been held 
in Southsea, this Association made the best of the 
opportunity thus presented. The meeting of the 
Lincolnshire Agricultural Society, held at Lincoln, 



was also an opportunity which the Lincolnshire 
B. K. A. took advantage of, much to the promotion 
of bee-keeping in that district. But the great and 
outstanding event of the year has been the South 
Kensington Exhibition. Never before has there 
been made so effective and complete a display of 
the products and appliances connected with bee- 
keeping. To be fully realised, it was necessary 
that it should have been witnessed. It was held 
in one of the finest buildings in the United 
Kingdom, in the large and commodious Con- 
servatory adjoining the Albert Hall. No less than 
290 exhibitors sent contributions to the Exhibition, 
and the amount of honey was calculated to be 
nearly twenty tons. The honey was of a superior 
quality, and it was exhibited in a most attractive 
form. There was a great rivalry among the com- 
peting counties for precedence. The premier prize 
was awarded to the Lancashire and Cheshire B.K. A. 
Conferences were held on the occasion, when im- 
portant papers were read by several leading bee- 
keepers. After an interval of five weeks the 
delegates from Canada exhibited their honey at 
the Exhibition. This exhibit consisted of about 
eighteen tons of honey ; but the flavour of the 
honey was by the best judges considered to be not 
comparable to that of the United Kingdom. The 
oprjortunity of practising fraternal courtesies and 
amenities towards the Canadian bee-keepers was not 
neglected ; and many pleasant and instructive 
meetings were arranged, in which the mutual 
methods of conducting bee-keeping in Canada and 
Great Britain were earnestly discussed. The ban- 
quet, which was held in South Kensington Ex- 
hibition, and the Conversational Meeting in the 
evening, are amongst the most pleasant reminis- 
cences of our retrospect. The visit of the Canadians 
will be long held in remembrance as a chief feature 
of the year 1886. 

There has been a considerable development of 
the work of the B. B. K. A. in the counties. Dr. 
Walker was specially deputed to visit South Wales 
with a bee tent. In Glamorganshire the cause was 
much advanced. Thence he proceeded to Cardigan- 
shire and Montgomeryshire. A lecturing tour was 
also conducted by Mr. W. B. Webster, who delivered 
lectures in the principal cities and villages in North 
Wales. Considerable progress has been made in 
Northumberland ; and as the Royal Agricultural 
Society will hold its next annual meeting, in July 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 6, 1887. 



at Newcastle, it is expected that the work already 
begun there will be then consolidated and com- 
pleted. The Association representing the counties 
of Lancashire and Cheshire has made considerable 
progress this year. By the presence of its repre- 
sentatives at the Liverpool and South Kensington 
Exhibition and by their regular attendance at 
the quarterly meetings of the B. B. K. A., the 
northern counties have been brought well in touch 
with the central Society. Ireland, too, has pro- 
gressed considerably during the year ; although 
not largely represented at the South Kensington 
Exhibition, it held its own, and secured a large 
share of the honours bestowed in proportion to 
the number of exhibits sent in for competition. 
The future of bee-keeping in the United King- 
dom materially depends on the loyalty of the 
affiliated Associations and the support they are 
prepared to render to the Central Society. There 
is yet much fallow ground to be broken up, and 
the work before the Parent Association is as 
arduous as it is important. May all bee-keepers 
give cheerful and ready assistance in promoting 
the progress of the work which yet remains to 
be done. 

In literature we may point to the large circula- 
tion Modem Bee-keeping, issued under the auspices 
of the British Bee-keepers' Association, has attained. 
A new edition, bringing the work up to the present 
times, consisting of 10,000 copies, has been issued. 
We may say, without fear of contradiction, that the 
circulation of this work is unprecedented in the 
annals of bee-literature, being far in advance of 
any work of a similar kind. Mr. Cowan's Guide- 
Boole has also met with much success during the 
year ; it has now reached its eighth edition, and 
the number of copies issued has been 15,000. The 
work has already been translated into the Swedish 
and French languages ; and arrangements are now 
being made for its being translated into Danish, 
Russian, and Spanish. Mr. Cowan has also sent 
forth a pamphlet on Doitbling and Storifying, which 
will prove of great service to bee-keepers desirous 
of increasing their produce of honey. A cheap 
edition of the Rev. F. G. Jeuyns' work on Bee- 
keeping for the Young has been published. The 
first volume of Mr. Cheshire's work is completed, 
and the second is being continued in monthly 
parts. 

By the aid of the various shows, and the action 
of the Honey Companies, the sale of honey has 
been much popularised, and a great impulse has 
been given to its sale during the year. Already we 
hear that the wholesale buyers arc unable to 
purchase sufficient sections to meet the demands 
made upon them. This is promising news for the 
cultivators of honey and emphasises the advice 
we have frequently given to bee-keepers, namely, 
not to place before the public immediately after 
the honey season the whole of the produce of their 
apiaries, but to keep it in reserve till they are 
warranted in asking and obtaining a higher price 
for their honey. We hope the attention of 
bee-keepers will, in the expectation of increasing 
amounts of honey being produced, direct their 



attention to the discovery of further utilities of 
honey in the way of beverages, comestibles, <fcc. 

During the year considerable attention has been 
paid to the introduction of new races of bees. 
From Cyprus, Carniola, the Holy Land, South 
Africa, America, &c, there have been considerable 
importations. These attempts to introduce bees of 
superior powers have found much encouragement 
amongst our leading bee-masters, but the English 
black bee still continues to hold its place in the 
estimation of the great body of bee-keepers. 

The imports of honey for the year are not yet 
complete ; we hope, however, in the course of the 
present month to have full statistics before us, when 
we propose to take the opportunity of dealing with 
both the honey imports for 1886 and the wax 
imports and exports for 1885. 

Notwithstanding the grand display of honey at 
the South Kensington Exhibition, the season of 
1886 cannot be pronounced to have been a prosper- 
ous one. In some localities it has been favourable, 
but the yield in the United Kingdom generally 
has not reached the average of previous honey 
yeai's. Hope, however, ever dwells in the hearts 
of bee-keepers ; and we trust, with enlarged expe- 
rience, and with improved appliances, their best and 
brightest hopes for 1887 may be fully realised. 

G. H. 

USEFUL HINTS. 

To our readers, old and young, experienced and novices, 
a hearty greeting with the new year : may it prove to 
each and all a year of happiness and prosperity, and not 
less so to our great care, the bees. The old departs, the 
new enters — enters in a mantle of white, departs with 
storm and hurricane, fatal, alas, to many a poor mariner 
—enters with joyous forecast, the pleasures of hope, to 
all, save the aged, the worn, and weary. Days are 
creeping out, fog and cloud will soon give place to 
sunshine, and our little sun-worshippers will soon again 
be flitting from flower to flower, and carrying home to 
their callow brood the precious burdens of pollen and 
nectar. At present many of our hives are deep below the 
banks of snow, but we cannot help anticipating, in 
thought at least, the good time coming. The late 
storms, we fear, will have disarranged many apiaries. 
Fortunately, our own have stood firm — not a hive over- 
turned, not a roof displaced. 

The departed year will assuredly rank as an annus 
mirabilis in the records of apiculture. Progress has been 
its watchword, and long will it be remembered in con- 
nexion with the gracious patronage of Royalty and the 
visit of Colonial apiarists to our shores. And not less, 
perhaps, by the importance of the bibliological additions 
to scientific and practical apicultural literature which 
have issued from the press. New editions of those truly 
practical works — Cowan's British Bee-keepers' Guide, and 
Modern Bee-keeping, have been called for ; and Mr. 
Jenyns' excellent little work, A Book about Bees, has 
been published in so cheap a form as to render its useful- 
ness to the rising generation tenfold that of the previous 
issue. Professor Cook, treating of the new work of Mr. 
James Ileddon, Success in Bee Culture, says : — 

' It ia wholly, from first to last, practical. Rarely does 
any work bring such a profusion of rich, practical hints 
as does this. On every page is some suggestion which 
commends itself to the wise apiarist. I would advise any 
bee-keeper who has not read Success in Bee Culture to 
procure a copy and study it thoroughly, since nothing will 
tend more to win success.' 



January 6, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



We need scarcely remark that Professor Cook is 
strongly in favour of ' inversion,' and uses the Heddon 
hive, of which he speaks most highly. He also refers in 
flattering terms to Mr. Simmins' brochure, The Nortr 
Siuarming System, as a 'racy little work from England,' 
and says : — 

' If unfinished combs next to the entrance of a hive are a 
sure security against swarming, it is surely an interesting 
fact which can be turned to good use. Mr. Simmius' idea 
of crowding bees into the sections reminds me of much that 
has been said by two of our distinguished bee-keepers, 
Messrs. Heddon and Hutchinson. Simmins' method of 
direct introduction of queens is not new in America. This 
work, I am sure, will interest and benefit the American bee- 
keepers who may read it.' 

We think the Professor confuses Mr, Simmins' former 
and later systems of ' Queen Introduction,' since his 
former plan, of introducing a queen with brood and bees, 
has been long practised in America and elsewhere ; but 
so far as we are aware, his later system, of introducing a 
queen sola, after dark, at the top of the hive, and after 
thirty minutes' fasting, has never before been set forth 
as a system, nor practised individually. We still, there- 
fore, adhere to our motto of ' Suum cuique,' in this, as in 
other cases. 

Hives and Standard Frames. — In our last ' Hints' 
we confessed to a longing for a larger frame, which might 
be worked in connexion with the present Standard, and 
expressed an opinion that such a frame might be success- 
fully introduced by private enterprise. We are pleased 
to learn that Mr. Simmins is of the same opinion, and 
that for three years his brain has been at work on the 
subject, resulting in the production of a hive for which 
he is now obtaining a patent. By the courtesy of the 
inventor we have been favoured with a sight of the 
drawings, and a full description of the hive. To this 
hive Mr. Simmins referred in his letter (No. 700), and 
stated that if there appeared a desire for a larger frame, 
he might at some future date describe the hive he used, 
in which could be worked advantageously a 14" x 14" 
frame together with the present Standard. Without 
going into a full description of the hive — which, we 
hope, together with the drawings, may shortly appear in 
the Journal — we may say the distinctive features of the 
hive consist of four novelties, which are more par- 
ticularly to be protected by patent, viz. : — (1.) A key 
arrangement for holding shallow frames and skeleton 
section-holders in place, for inversion, when desired. 
(2.) Folding skeleton section-frames, which can he used 
either with or without a rack, in various parts of the hive. 
(3.) A pliable adapting-board, and (4) a weather rabbet 
for protecting the joints of the hive. Besides these, 
there are other features entirely new to us, such as 
metal rests let into saw-cuts on floor-board ; a sunk floor- 
board forming a permanent feeder; as luve-entrances, 
small circular holes ; the plan of suspending the 14-inch 
frames, which are partly close-ended ; bee-space provided 
at top of frames instead of bottom ; an ingenious and 
simple plan of enlarging or diminishing the bee-space ; 
the shallow, or super-frames (12" x 6"), standing on end 
close up to the larger ones, &c. The hive itself, when 
complete, with roof, forms a most picturesque object, 
and its appearance is thoroughly English, sound, and 
substantial, and it is clearly impervious to weather. 

Taken as a whole it is simplicity itself, notwithstand- 
ing its various parts — all of which can be worked on the 
invertible system — although Mr. Simmins is not an 
advocate of the plan — and we cannot but aug'ur a suc- 
cessful future for a hive which unites in itself so many 
good points, and which can be worked with the greatest 
ease, both with the standard and larger frames. 

Flowers for Bees. — We have received a beautifully 
illustrated annual from Messrs. Webb & Sons, which 
they style Webb's Sjn-ing Catalogue of Vegetable and 
Flower Seeds, and in which thev give a short but useful 



essay on ' Flowers for Bees.' We quote the following as 
of considerable importance and interest : — 

' AVherever fruit trees are grown in quantity, either out 
of doors or under glass, no better assistants in ensuring 
fertilisation can be obtained than the bees, and some of the 
most successful market fruit growers attribute the regularity 
of their crops to the industrious aid of these insects. Most 
of our hardy fruit trees, however, flower in early spring, 
and there is a long period during which the bees have to 
seek their honey and pollen supplies in other directions. 
To assist in this we have prepared the following list of 
plants that are most serviceable for the purpose, and which 
are most frequented by the bees. The object is to obtain 
as long a succession of bloom as possible, and this can be 
effected with most annuals, or biennials, by sowing batches 
of seed at different times, so that plants are had in all 
stages. Have a good quantity of whatever plants are 
employed, as patches are not of much use, and will be 
scarcely sufficient to keep the bees at home, and it should 
be remembered that if this can be accomplished much 
time will be saved in the filling of supers, a quick reti r j in 
honey amply compensating for expenditure in the purchase 
of seeds. Four plants that should be grown extensively 
are Limnanthes Douglasi, mignonette, borage, and the 
corn-flower (Oentaurea cyanus). As much ground as pos- 
sible should be devoted to these. Sweet scabious is a good 
plant for summer flowering, and does particularly well on 
banks or mounds. Sweet alyssum and the white arabis 
also merit a portion of the ground, and will well repay for 
the space occupied. Wallflowers are almost indispensable 
in early spring, and cannot be too freely employed. The 
phacelia is a capital plant for a later period, as also are 
candytuft, stocks, and sweet peas. 

' Suitable additions to this list will be found in the 
following annuals :— Ambrosia Mexicana, Calliopsis bicolor, 
Cerinthe' major, Clarkia pulchella, Colinsia bicolor, Col- 
lornia coccinea, Gillia tricolor, Leptosiphon densiflorus, 
Lupins, Nasturtium, Phlox Drummondi, and Whitlavia 
grandiflora. Shrubs like the berberis, lilac, and ribes, are 
useful, and among trees the lime and sycamore are perhaps 
the best. 

'All the sunflower tribes are favourites with the bees, 
also thyme, and most herbs may be added with advantage.' 

It is a pleasing circumstance that one of our largest 
and most suocessful firms of seed-growers acknowledges 
the growing importance of apicultnre, as Messrs. Webb 
do by stating that : — 

' The number of amateur apiarians has increased greatly 
in the past few years, for, apart from the bountiful stores 
of honey so easily obtained under the modern system of 
management, it is now generally recognised that bees 
perform a most important work in the garden.' 

We may here mention that Mr. Cowan informs us 
that he has grown Echinops spheerocephalus for eight or 
ten years, and classes it high as a bee-plant. 

Many of our readers, no doubt, are well acquainted 
with Echinops" Ritro, an ornamental perennial border- 
plant, which bears a blue flower, and of which bees are 
very fond. 

Cyprians. — Much has been written respecting the 
Cyprian bee, some praising it highly, others condemning 
it utterly. Our own view, after some years' experience, 
is that it is, when thoroughly acclimatised, the best 
honey-bee of all. We have no difficulty in handling 
them, although, as with other races, colonies vary in 
temperament. The capping of their sections is extremely 
light, consequently the honey is more apt to ' sweat.' 
The breeding power of the queens is simply marvellous, 
and large hives, with ample ventilation, are required to 
prevent swarming. The cross between the Cyprian 
and Italian is one of the best, if not the best. Next we 
should place that between the Syrian and Italian, or 
between the Syrian and Black. All these hybrids are 
splendid workers, extremely prolific, and produce fine 
sections, though somewhat more lightly sealed than 
those worked by pure Blacks. The cross between the 
Carniolans and the Eastern races has not proved very 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 6, 1887. 



successful with us in a few cases we have tried, but 
we hope to experiment further in this direction. 

Thus far our Carniolans have failed to give anything 
like the surplus obtained from Cyprians, Syrians, Ita- 
lians, and Blacks, but they are, undoubtedly, most amia- 
ble iu temper, so much so, indeed, that ' a little child 
may lead them.' 

Entrances, Manipulation, Changing Quilts, &c. 
Frost-bound as the country is, and blocked with snow, 
it seems sadly out of place to discuss these matters, but 
when the thaw comes, and the sun shines, a change of 
quilts, from damp to dry, will be advantageous. En- 
trances aro best kept at summer's width, and should 
occasionally be cleared from dead bees and other refuse. 

When changing quilts the amount of sealed honey near 
the tops of the frames should be noted, and, if required, 
food must be supplied in shape of candy, &c, beneath 
the renewed quilts, since strong colonies will be breeding 
now, and the consumption, of stores will increase daily. 

But examination must be made on fine warm days 
only, and our watchwords must still be rest and quiet 
repose. 

After long frost dysentery will appear in many 
colonies, which must be treated as previously advised. 
Nothing tends more to keep bees healthy than an occa- 
sional cleansing flight. On Christmas Day, which was 
bright and warm, all our strongest colonies were in full 
flight, and their cheering hum spoke pleasantly of sum- 
mer days to come. 

Assuredly a sheltered position, with sunny southern 
aspect, conduces towards the healthiness of an apiary. 
Beware of bluetits and mice, keep the hives snug and 
warm, with plenty of covering, disturb as little as possi- 
ble, and make all necessary preparation for the busy time 
coming, and when at last the harvest arrives you will 
reap the due reward of foresight and industry. 

THE DEPARTURE OF MR. D. A. JONES FOR 
CANADA. 

The last of the Canadian delegates, Mr. D. A. Jones, 
of Beuton, Ontario, has taken his departure from our 
shores. Mr. Jones's time at the last was (as usual 
with parties sailing for the West) fully taken up, but the 
Lancashire and Cheshire bee-keepers were fortunate to 
have him spend his last evening in England (Wednesday, 
the 28th December, 1886) with some of their members 
at the Bear's Paw Restaurant, Liverpool, when the few 
members, who at the short notice Mr. Jones had given 
them of the exact day of his departure had been gathered 
together, spent a very enjoyable evening, Mr. Carr en- 
tering into a very interesting discussion on the merits of 
the improvements in the Oarr-Stewarton hive, and on 
the best means of putting honey up cheaply and attract- 
ively for sale. 

Mr. Jones, to those who saw him off at the steamer, 
expressed himself very warmly at the kindly way ho had 
been entertained during his visit to England. 



DEATH OF MR. J. LOWE. 

All who take interest in bee-literature and doings will 
receive with regret the sad tidings that Mr. John Lowe 
died on the 15th December at his residence, Slateford 
House, near Edinburgh . From time to ti mo d uring the last 
twenty-live years lie lias cnrichod the pages of the Journal 
<>f Horticulture with interesting communications on bee- 
subjects. He also, for a period, contributed weekly 
articles on the same subjects to the Farmer. 

Mr. Lowe was u skilled practical bee-master, and first 
set up an apiary, within Edinburgh, near the Dean 
Bridge, but I he Egyptian race which ho introduced 
proving offensive to tho surrounding inhabitants coni- 
pellod liim in remove it. 



As an able controversialist and elegant writer he had 
few equals. He held his opinions with great tenacity, 
aud to his skirmish with Mr. Woodbury iu 186-'! on the 
subject of foul brood, and his persistency in maintaining 
it was only an artificial disease created by experiment- 
alists, we are indebted for the efforts that were subse- 
quently made to discover its cause and cure. The 
controversy brought into the field the testimony and 
experience of the highest authorities of the day, such 
as the ' Renfrewshire Bee-keeper,' the ' Hampshire,' 
the ' Lanarkshire,' ' B. and W.,' &c, &c. The result of 
their evidence was to prove that ' foul brood ' was a real 
and not an artificial disease. 

As a man and member of society Mr. Lowe was 
genial, affable, and unwilling to offend, being animated 
by a true Christian spirit, and cherishing the kindliest 
feelings towards all. It was his lot to be bereaved of 
his wife and children, save one daughter who survives 
him, but with fortitude he bore the loss, and meekly 
bowed to the stroke. Many of his reflections having 
reference to time and mortality are embodied in beautiful 
pieces of poetry. 

Mr. Lowe was much respected by the circle in which 
he moved, and to show their appreciation of his worth 
and service in the Clydesdale Bank, where he long held 
a responsible position, the Directors, on his being attacked 
by paralysis three years ago, generously retired him on 
a life pension of 15(K. per annum. 

The death of such a man, followed as it was on the 
18th by that of Dr. John Mackenzie, who in 1860 wrote 
a little book on The Management of Bees, makes a great 
blank in the bee-world. 



MR. CORNEIL'S SECTION-CRATE AND 
SECTIONS.— AN APOLOGY. 

I received a letter this morning from Mr. W. Chitty, 
of Pewsey, in which he complains that in the B. B. 
Journal for November 18th I used words that go 
beyond friendly criticism. I very much wish he had 
called attention to them in tho Journal the following 
week, as it would have given me an earlier opportunity 
of tendering him, which I do now, my humble apology 
if any of my words have caused him any annoyance. — 
Amateur Expert, January 1st, 1887. 



FRANCE. 

At the close of the recent meeting of the 'Socioto 
Centrale d'Apiculture et d'Insectologie ' of Paris, a 
discussion took place regarding the Bee Association, or 
' Groupement Apicole,' so designated, to be formed for 
Seine-et-Oise. The Chairman pointed out that it was 
for the promoters of the movement to explain to the 
members present the basis upon which this new organiza- 
tion was to be brought about. Whereupon Monsieur 
Asset urged that in the articles of constitution provision 
should bo made for the establishment of a practical 
apiary, stating that, although the primary object of the 
proposed ' groupement ' was that of opposing certain 
municipal regulations which were considered an en- 
croachment upon the bee-keeping interests, the apiary 
ho advocated would serve as a means of raising funds for 
the Association . — L'Apicidfeur. 

According to tho Apiculteur, the duties payablo upon 
bee-produce, when imported into France bj' sea, are as 
follows: — Wax — Brown, yellow, or white, in admitted 
bulk, 1 franc per 100 kilos, except Algerian, which is 
duty free. When manufactured into candles, 10 francs 
per 100 kilos. Wax refuse in bulk is also free. Honey, 
when imported by sea, is subject to a duty of 10 francs 
per 100 kilos gross weight, which brings it up to about 
I 1 frniics por 100 kilos net. 



January 6, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



BERKS BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 
Windsob Branch. 

The above branch held its animal general meeting' at 
the Albert Institute, Windsor, on Thursday, December 
16th. The meeting began with the hon. secretary's 
report for the year 1886, and then followed the election 
of officers for the ensuing year. The hon. secretary, 
the Rev. R. Ellington, congratulated the society 
upon its satisfactory condition. In January, 1886, it 
became affiliated with the county society. The number 
of members on the books last year was 17. During the 
last twelve months they had risen to 42. In August 
the branch held a show in the grounds of Clewer Park, 
in conjunction with the Clewer Horticultural Society. 
Prizes were given away to the amount of about Gl. 
The manipulating tent, presided over by Mr. A. D. 
Woodley, the expert to the County Association, brought 
in between 21. and 31. to the receipts. There were some 
good samples of comb and run honey shown, and one 
cottager sent over 100 lbs. of tilled sections. Considering 
the size of the branch the show may be looked upon as 
very successful. The receipts amounted to 11/. 15s. 0d., 
while the total expenditure was 9/. Is. lid., leaving a 
balance of 21. 13s. Id. The hon. secretary was invited 
again to take office, and the former committee were 
unanimously re-elected. 

After the business of the meeting was concluded a 
social gathering of friends of members was held. 
Admission was by ticket, each member receiving two for 
distribution. Several members of the committee gave 
short addresses on various subjects connected with 
bee-keeping, and a discussion followed. There was a 
small exhibition of appliances by Mr. Sevenoaks, and. 
honey by the hon. secretary. Mr. John Minter, of 
Clewer Nurseries, brought a microscope, and exhibited 
some very interesting slides. A table, presided over by 
Miss Goring, a member of the branch, was set apart for 
light refreshments in the shape of tea, coffee, and 
biscuits, the arrangements having been carried out by 
Mr. G. Cartland. After a very pleasant evening the 
company dispersed about ten p.m., several persons 
having given in their names as members for 1887. 



(foresponftwa. 



The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents arc requested to write or, one side of 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," cjo Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see'2nd page of Advertisements). 

%* In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking of 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it appears. 

ELECTION OF COMMITTEE-MEN. 
[753.] As the time approaches when the members of 
the British Bee-keepers' Association will be called upon 
to elect the Committee for the ensuing year the thought 
occurs to me, as indeed it has on previous occasions, that 
some guidance from you would be of much value in 
regard to the choice of the candidates who may offer 
themselves for the coming year. In venturing to broach 
the subject, let it not be thought that any pretence is 
made by me to stand in any other position than that 
of an ordinary member of the Association, heartily 
desiring its welfare; nor more particularly let it be 
supposed that any observation of mine should imply 
other than the fullest appreciation of the invaluable 
services which the Committee has devoted in the past, 
and notably during the year now closing, to the interests 



of the Association ; but my feeling is that gratitude for 
these services should, besides securing for them a stereo- 
typed expression of thanks at the annual meeting of the 
members, show itself in endeavouring to make the Com- 
luitteo more perfect in its individual composition, so 
that the work performed may be the contributions of 
all its members. An examination of the reports of 
Committee meetings in the British Bee Journals shows 
that a certain number of gentlemen devote a large 
amount of time and labour, not to mention expense, in 
promoting the interests of the Association ; and it may 
be concluded that from this section of the Committee 
the numerous sub-committees are also drawn. Now as 
the interests of the Association are so faithfully guarded ■ 
by these more diligent members, it seems to be incum- 
bent upon the electing body that no imperfect workers, 
or drones, shoidd find a place in the new Committee. It 
is presumed that the number forming the Committee is 
requisite to carry on the work of the Association ; if, 
therefore, any gentleman now forming one of that 
number foresees the probability of his not being able to 
undertake his full share of the work, it becomes his duty 
to abstain from offering himself. 

You, Mr. Editor, may materially assist and influence a 
good choice by placing before your readers a record of 
the attendances of the several members at ordinary and 
special Committees during the past year, and by bringing 
under notice other eligible persons whom it would be to 
the interests of the Association to have upon the Com- 
mittee. 

And here the thought strikes me that desirable as 
it is that the Committee shall be within easy distance 
of the place of meeting, one exception might be made to 
secure if possible an eligible member residing in the 
district in which the Royal Agricultural Show is held, 
who would thus be able to render valuable assistance to 
the Committee in carrying out the important work of 
the bee department at such show. I merely put this 
forward as a suggestion, thinking that something practical 
might arise out of it. 

In venturing to open the subject 1 have endeavoured 
to avoid giving offence to anybody, and I may have erred 
in judgment in busying myself upon it, but if my act 
results in bringing assistance to the harder-worked 
members of the Committee I shall be rewarded. 

Wishing you a happy new year, and prosperity to 
the Bee Journal, as also to the cause it aims to promote, 
I am, &c, — J. Gahratt, JECockenden, St. Mary Cray, 
Dec. 28. 

[The record of attendances at Committee-meetings 
would only partially show the interest taken by the Com- 
mittee in the work of the Association, as a large amount 
of work is done by those who are unable to attend through 
means of the post. If a less number of Committee-men 
were elected by the members, and the Committee were 
given power to elect the remainder, as proposed by Mr. 
Stewart at the last annual meeting, many eligible mem- 
bers might be drafted in, and the large amount of work 
would be more easily overtaken. — Ed.] 



NOTES OF SEASON 1886. 
[754.] When I examined my hives in April I found 
all very flourishing and happy, except my two stocks of 
Ligurianised fiends, who had some honey left but no 
brood. I had removed their queens in October, and 
substituted two British princesses in their room, but the 
demons had evidently objected to the prospect of a 
peaceful reign, and had repeated the crime of January 
30. I placed in the midst of each hive a comb full of 
brood and having a queen-cell on it ; one stock im- 
mediately left the hive in disgust and quartered them- 
selves upon their next neighbours, leaving the brood to 
perish ; the other reared the brood and then left the 
hive, compelling the third hive from their own to make 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 6, 1887. 



room for them. They did all (and more) of the sentry 
work required in the two hives during the summer, and 
just because my gardener chose to work one day for an 
hour in front of them, they sallied forth and stung some 
men who were slating the roof of the house, a hundred 
yards off. Several were still alive in October who must be 
more than a year old, showing that the common idea of 
the working bee living only six or seven weeks in the 
summer is incorrect. Should any be still surviving next 
season I will let you know. Virgil gives seven years as 
the limit of a bee's life. Doubtless their numerous 
enemies, birds, &c, shorten their average life immensely, 
but I am not inclined to think that such industrious 
creatures die of premature exhaustion. 

Upon two of my hives I placed very large sections, 
12xox2 inches, with wooden separators. A few of 
these were filled with lovely large combs, quite even, 
of about 4i- lbs., but in most of them the bees had built 
from top to bottom four large lemon-shaped combs, 
attached merely by the button at each end ; the spaces 
between these were filled up with flounce-shaped pieces, 
broad and wide at the bottom and rising up to a point, 
built on to the dividers. It was a most beautiful 
specimen of constructive engineering, but not very con- 
venient for unpacking. 

Two swarms in succession absolutely refused to make 
themselves comfortable iu one of the hives vacated by 
the queenless Ligurians, though it was full of clear last 
year's comb. In each case they deserted it the next day. 
I suppose they knew by instinct that the habitations of 
the wicked could never be blessed. So I had to melt all 
the combs down and purify the hive thoroughly before I 
could get desirable tenants to take to it. 

On the whole, my yield of honey per hive this year 
was about half that of last year, which I think pretty 
good, considering that we had only twenty-one really 
fine days between May 15 and August 15. — C. C. James, 
Papworth St. Agnes Rectory, St. Ives, Hunts. 



A BEE-MAN'S TRIP TO AMERICA, 

And His Gleanings fbom some Tbans Atlantic 

Bee-keepebs. 

[755.] Acting on your suggestion I purpose for the 
benefit of our fellow-apiarians to take notes of such 
points of American bee-keepers' practice as are most 
likely to cause discussion or experiment in new directions 
in the old country, omitting all mention of such plans 
as most resemble our own. My object in this journey 
being chief!}' connected with the manufacture of ap- 
pliances my visits Will generally be to those who are well 
known in connexion with that industry. 

Db. Tinkeb, New Philadelphia, Ohio. 

A pleasant twelve days' sea voyage and a tedious 
twenty-four hours in ' the cars' brought me at 8 p.m. 
within a few minutes' walk of the doctor's fireside, where, 
though unexpected and unknown, a letter of introduction 
from my father and an explanation of the object of my 
visit immediately procured for me a hearty' welcome. 
Being unable to inspect bees or works at that late hour 
we naturally fell to talking of ourselves. The doctor 
had been suffering for some years from a slight but in- 
curable deafness, which he found to be such an impedi- 
ment to his obtaining eminence as a physician that he 
resolved to abandon Ins practice in favour of his present 
occupation, which had always been in accordance with 
his natural tastes. In his new vocation he has been so 
far successful that though of comparatively a few years' 
standing lie is already justly considered one of the best 
authorities on bee matters generally in the United States. 
He lias chiefly devoted his attention to the perfection 



of cellar-wintering, queen-raising, and the manufacture 
of dovetailed sections. He finds that if kept in the 
dark, bees go into the hibernating condition at a tem- 
perature of 50° Fahr., and that their slumber (?) becomes 
more intense and the consumption of food less as this is 
reduced, until 41° are reached, beyond which point 
activity increases and more food is consumed. In a 
cellar kept at 41° a stock remains quiet and without 
taking food for seven to eight days, when the bees wake 
one another up, have a concert and a feast, and again 
go to sleep for a like period, consuming only an average 
per stock of one pound of food per month, and when 
put out, after two and a half to three months' confine- 
ment, voiding very little fa3ces. Bees kept on their 
summer stands usually consume four or five times as 
much food, and are always much weaker in spring. He 
generally puts his hives into winter quarters about the 
middle of November, and on the first fine daj' in 
February he prefers to take out all stocks and give one 
flight, though he does not consider this necessary. They 
are then replaced in the cellar and the temperature 
increased to 48°, when breeding commences without 
feeding, and when spring weather becomes assured they 
are put on their summer stands. He is convinced that 
this method is a long way ahead of any other, and his 
opinion is supported by the fact that in the spring of 
1884 he was the possessor of the only live bees in his 
county, all others having perished. 

For queen-raising he much prefers the ' grafting 
process.' He removes the queen from any strong stock, 
and three days afterwards examines for queen-cells. All 
such which are deficient in royal jelly he destroys as 
worthless, while from such as are well supplied with 
their food he removes the larvse only, replacing them 
with others from worker-cells of the stock he selects to 
breed from, and being careful not to introduce any larva 
of over iV in diameter when curled up. For the removal 
of the larva? he uses a thin basswood twig, with the 
bark whittled to a long quill-pen-like point, and finds 
that by selecting small subjects a failure very rarely 
occurs. 

He thinks that queens raised from more mature larva! 
are generally the largest, but is of opinion that those 
raised from smaller worms generally live longer and are 
more prolific. 

An inspection of his apiary and machinery next 
morning proved most interesting. His establishment is 
not a large one, but by employing a special machine of 
his own invention, and by giving their manufacture his 
personal attention, he produces sections which for white- 
ness, smoothness, and accuracy, are admitted by his rivals 
to be unequalled. He uses only white poplar, which 
cannot be made into one-piece sections, but in spite of 
this drawback the beautiful appearance of his dovetailed 
boxes causes a demand which he finds it difficult to 
supply. 

A brief inspection of his apiary brought a very 
pleasant visit to a close, and I started on my road to 
Medina with mixed feelings of regret at leaving one 
whom I already respected and of pleasure in the prospect 
of making the personal acquaintance of the well-known 
veteran, Mr. A. I. Root, of whose establishment I intend 
writing you in my next.- — J. A. Addott, Medina, Ohio, 
U.S.A., Dec. 15. 



BEE-KEEPING IN CANADA. 

[75G.] Mr. C. N. Abbott's interesting letter under this 
heading, in 5'our last issue, will have done much to 
enlighten English bee-keepers on the way our children 
manage things apicultural in Canada; but it cannot be 
regarded as complete in itself. "With characteristic 
modesty, Mr. Abbott' has contented himself with merely 
mentioning the qualifications of his correspondent as 
those of a purely negative kind, such as that he is 'a 



January 6, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



young friend lately arrived at Ontario,' and ' a young 
man who is not, and never has been, a bee-keeper.' The 
letter you have already published, however, will satisfy 
bee-keepers that any short-comings or omissions on the 
part of the correspondent will be more than supple- 
mented by the graphic and humorous pen of Mr. Abbott. 
The hives and sections exhibited over here by our 
Canadian friends attracted so much attention among 
practical bee-keepers that it will be a surprise to your 
readers to learn that they have not been adopted in the 
country of their birth, and that those lovely sections we 
all so much admired at the Colinderies were produced 
in hives something like those of twenty years ago, and 
not such as Mr. Abbott has at Soivtb.aH, Why is this ? 
Mr. Abbott is manifestly prepared to discover a reason. 
I hope he will not disappoint us. Let him be careful, at 
the same time, to indulge in charitable criticism only of 
our late visitors, and not lay himself open to the charge 
of speaking unkindly of them as soon as their backs are 
turned, after they had received every kindness and hos- 
pitality during their visit, which, I trust, afforded them 
as much pleasure as it did ourselves. Apropos of such 
criticism, and in reference to Mr. Abbott's postscript, the 
Canadians regard their country as an integral portion of 
the British Empire, and you can hardly offend them 
more than by calling them 'Yankees.' — A British Bee- 
keeper. 



BRITISH AND AMERICAN INVENTIONS. 

[755.] Like ' Amateur Expert,' ' Renfrewshire Bee- 
keeper,' and others, I must add my protest against the 
theory that 'nearly all of the appliances have been 
furnished us by the inventive genius of the Americans.' 
Take one-piece sections of the present day as an example, 
and undoubtedly one of the most important and useful 
inventions. 

As I think probably very few bee-keepers are aware 
of the real origin of folding- sections, a short history 
correcting the generally accepted opinion that they are an 
American invention, may not be out of place at the 
present moment. 

At one of the annual exhibitions held at South 
Kensington, that for ' Agriculture and machinery used 
in connexion therewith,' and, if I mistake not, held in 
the year 1872, Messrs. Colman, of Norwich, had on 
exhibition, and in work, a machine for making boxes for 
packing tins of mustard ; these boxes had V grooves cut at 
the required distances, just in the same way as the present 
one-piece folding section. To make these boxes, boards, 
about 5 ft. long, 6 in. wide, and i in. thick, were passed 
through the machine, and came out the other end ready 
for folding together, and as rapidly as the attendant there 
could take them out of the way. I think all will agree 
that this was the first, and, perhaps, most important step 
in the direction of one-piece sections. 

As sectional supers came more to the front in 1875 
and following years, I, in the former year, having in my 
mind's eye the machine described above, could at once 
see its adaptability for turning out sections. Losing no 
time, I consulted an engineer in 1875, or the early part 
of the following year, and from other inquiries found it 
would be infringing the patent of Messrs. Colman, and 
was advised to let the matter drop. 

However, not to be outdone, I made folding sections 
as follows : — The two ends and the top were six 
or eight inches wide, in these longitudinal saw-grooves 
were made every two inches, cutting through the wood 
within one-thirtieth of an inch, and when filled could be 
rapidly and easily subdivided into single sections, by 
simply running a penknife through the saw-groove. The 
bottom part of the ends were grooved to receive bottom 
rails, and being accurately made to drive in tightly, kept 
the section in position. The top and the upper part of 
the two ends were cut through at an angle of 45°,- and on 



the outside, when lying out flat, end to end, a wide 
piece of tape was glued on, thus forming the joints 
corresponding to the thin part of wood left uncut in the 
V joints of sections as now made. 

This, then, the first folding section ever made, was 
exhibited at the Kensington Show of the B.B.K.A. and 
was awarded first prize at least one season before the 
American one-piece section was heard of in this country; 
and I have no hesitation in adding that, could I legally 
have applied the above machine to section-making, they 
would have been perfected in this country without any 
assistance from our American friends. I think there can 
be no manner of doubt this was a step two in the same 
direction ; and up to this time, as far as my knowledge 
goes, the Americans had done nothing whatever towards 
perfecting a folding section. 

What has followed since the time my exhibit was 
awarded a first prize requires no explanation further 
than that the Americans have simply followed out the 
idea first invented by Messrs. Colman, adapted to 
section-making by me, and still further carried out and 
perfected by the Americans in one-piece sections of 
to-day. 

In the face of these facts, I most emphatically contend 
that in no sense can the Americans claim to be the 
inventors of the sections in question. It must be highly 
gratifying to all English hive- makers, in the Journal of 
of the 9th December, to have such high authorities 
agreeing that our appliauces are far more substantial and 
better made with us than they are in any part of 
America. 

I note, and quite agree with your remark in the same 
issue, that the Americans have frequently taken ideas 
from us, which they do not credit us with, flagrant 
instances of which can be pointed out to this day. — ■ 
James Lee, December 23rd. 



NEW BEE-SUBJUGATORS. 

[756.] In your report of the Irish Bee-keepers' As- 
sociation, on page 583, you tell us that ' Mr. Sproule 
handed round a bottle containing a substance mentioned 
in Mr. Cheshire's new book for rubbing on the hands 
to prevent the bees stinging while manipulating.' This 
was called methyl salicylate, but in Dublin was only 
known and sold as ' oil of whiter-green.' 

I have not seen the second volume of Mr. Cheshire's 
new book, in which this substance is named, for with 
the second volume I am wise by experience, having 
with his first volume patiently waited, month after 
month, for the separate parts, only to find the whole of 
the first volume published, whilst the monthly sub- 
scribers had arrived but halfway through. It is only 
fair to say that the publishers allowed me the cost of 
my monthly parts on returning them and purchasing 
the volume. I wanted to do the same with the second 
volume, but they didn't see the affair in my light, 
so I am impatiently waiting for the second volume 
complete. 

As one who has taken some little interest in the true 
use of the bee's sting, I may be pardoned for having 
endeavoured for some time, by experiments, to discover 
a preventive against bees stinging, and this I have been 
doing until winter suspended my experiments, yet not 
before I bad achieved success satisfactory to myself. I 
have, however, the greatest pleasure in hailing Mr, 
Cheshire as the discoverer of, perhaps, the most useful 
article in the apiary, and I feel sure your readers will 
thank him for generously presenting yet another dis- 
covery to the public. 

Will you allow me now to say how far on the road 
I had gone (a different road but with the same goal) j 
afterwards to make some new remarks on the discovery 
which will facilitate the miking or obtaining it, anbl 



8 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 6, 1887. 



also to acquaint our fraternity -with another substance 
which I believe is equally efficacious ? 

On one occasion I had been attacked by bees on ray 
hands, from which 1 could not remove the smell of 
petroleum, although it was not discernible to myself. 
I had tried two or three good washings with soap in 
vain, so determined, as they were so susceptible to its 
odour, to use vaseline (the jelly of petroleum) as the 
vehicle or basis of my lubricant, anticipating that when 
the bee came to sample the surface of skin (preparing for 
business) with its too highly sensitive palpi or feelers, 
placed near the sting aperture, she would hud the ad- 
hesive and sticky slight film of vaseline, with which 
I had rubbed my hands, an unsuitable medium, besides 
rendering difficult the pincer-like purchase she obtains 
with her claws, by which to insert the sting. Scenting 
this substance successively with vanilla, vervain, berga- 
mot, lavender, thyme, lemon, &c, separately, and in 
various combinations or chords ; rubbing my hands with 
various herbs the essential oils of which, residing in the 
hairs of the leaves, were seized by the vaseline with 
which my hands were very slightly smeared, I had 
various degrees of success. We must bear in mind, 
en passant, that perfumes when skilfully mixed are 
capable of producing effects totally different from those 
of their separate components, that they may be tuned, 
so to speak, into harmonious chords or blends, just as 
the notes of musical instruments, or the colours on an 
artist's canvas may be so arranged as to produce an 
agreeable sensation upon the eye, the ear, or the 
nostrils. 



This is an Art 
AYhieh does mend Nature : change it rather : 
The Art itself is Nature. 

SlIAKESrEARE. 



but 



We must also not forget (hat the slightuess or intensity 
alone of almost every odour renders it agreeable or dis- 
agreeable to us (then how much more to the bee whose 
olfactories are susceptible to an incomprehensible degree). 
The scent of a crushed bee's poison in a hive arouses 
their anger, but the same chemical substance when 
' like linked sweetness long drawn out' may be as agree- 
able and charming to them as the aroma of queen or 
home to a lost bee. 

To resume ; I came to the conclusion that any very 
slight soupcon of myrtle, olive, savin, bilberry, barberry, 
or dark green smooth-leafed scented sap evergreens pro- 
duced very marked effects upon bees, to us favourable 
and the reverse, but this latter caused by intensity of 
the odour. 

I might have wandered about long enough without 
' striking ile,' but you will admit I was very warm, as 
we used to say at the game of ' hide-and-seek,' very near 
Gituitheria procumbens, partridge-berry, tea-berry, or 
winter-green, of New Jersey, from which is extracted 
Gaultheria oil, or oil of winter-green, and new elixir. 
Any way I had got into the family when I was amongst 
the Ericacea3, and I make no doubt that the whole 
family may be used as ' apif uges ' (may I coin a 
word ?), provided only that their scent be used weak 
enough. 

Speaking theoretically (until spring comes), I have no 
hesitation in saying that essence of spiroea (meadow- 
sweet) ' will charm the angry insects down ' equally with 
oil of winter-green. True oil of winter-green is very 
expensive, some 2s. per ounce, though, like charity, a 
little of it goes a long way. Being so expensive, however, 
it is well that readers of the B.B.J, should know that 
oil of winter-green and essence of spiraea may be pro- 
duced artificially by chemistry. Many chemists even 
are not aware of this, and 1 am in communication with 
a manufacturing chemist respecting the cost of artificially 
manufacturing these two substances. I will let you 
know the result so as to facilitate the cheapening and 



obtaining of them, at present difficult. Meantime the 

following may be of interest: — 

a ,. ,. • 1 , to j „,i ,. I = Essential oil of winter-green 
Salicylic acid + Wood ether -J ,- , . , ■ -, , f, . 
J I orsalicylateofoxideofmethyle. 

c ,. ■ t,. , ., , , , ) =Essence of spinea, or 

Sahcmc + Bicliromite of potash Saiicvlic acid 01 f H yauret 
+ Sulphuric acid f of sa i icyle . 

Oil of winter-green gently heated with an excess of 
of potash, adding afterwards an acid, deposits salicylic 
acid. 

Salicylate of oxide of ethyle C 4 H 5 O + C 14 H 5 O s , when 
purified, has the same smell as the true oil of winter- 
green, imitated by methyl salicylate C„H 3 + 14 H 5 5 , 
orCH 3 C 7 H 5 3 . 

Now comes the strangest part of the business:' — If 
methyl alcohol, or wood spirit, or hydra-ted oxide of 
methyl, be oxidised by means of a platinum w T ire heated 
to redness, and suspended in the same, the product is 
formic acid and water, the active ingredients in the bee- 
poison itself. Again, if salicyl aldehyde (syn. essence of 
spiraea or meadow-sweet) be oxidised, salicylic acid 
C 7 H 6 3 is formed, our remedy for foul brood. 

We have, therefore, salicylic acid administered at the 
head of the bees as part of its food, and we have, alas ! 
formic acid at the tail of the bee in its poison. Inter- 
mediate we have two apifuges (bee-tamers, subjugators, 
or what not), oil of winter-green and essence of spira3a, 
strongly-scented compounds of these two acids. I throw 
out the idea that bees will he more irascible during 
feeding with salicylised syrup than usual. Can we not now 
account for the beautiful scent we observe on opening 
some hives (especially demons), and also can we not 
account for the varying aromas of bees, by which they 
recognise their queen and co-inmates of the hive, and by 
which guide too they work peacefully in the dark? 

In using any of these apifuges it will be well to 
remember that failure will show not that the remedy is 
wrong, but that we, the dispensers, have probably used 
too much of it. 

Finally, I wish to tell your readers that Mr. Cheshire 
has opened a door by concentrating our attention on 
Gaultheria, and I shall be much mistaken if before long 
we find not only spiraea equally effective as a protectant 
against stings, but nearly, if not all, the carbo-hydrates, 
the volatile odoriferous essences of plants, such as berga- 
mot, carraway, cassia, cloves, lavender, mint, rose, 
peppermint, thyme, lemon-grass, and even turpentine. 
1 think we shall find the very slight rubbing of hands 
with any pure oil or vaseline, using not more than 
a pin's head size, afterwards brushing the hands care- 
lessly through a lavender bush or scented herb bed, 
rnbbing the hands together afterwards, will prove 
effective. — It. A. H. Giumshaw, Crag Hill, Ilorsforth. 
near Leeds. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL QUERIES. -INVEKTIBLE 
HIVES. 

[756.] On the larva assuming the pupa form, has it 
ever been noticed its relative position in the cells when 
the comb is in its normal position as built by the bees ? 
"Will inversion be in any way detrimental to the brood ? 
These questions seem to arise in connexion with the 
untried invortible hives, which I have no recollection of 
ever having seen alluded to, but which may, perhaps, 
bo more curious than useful, and yet it is a point worthy 
of notice. Some of our leading apiarists, from constant 
study of the internal economy of the hive, may, perhaps, 
throw some light on the question, which I cannot help 
thinking will not only bo interesting, but prove of some 
benefit also. I use the word 'untried' advisedly, and 
would add a caution to all but the skilled to take this 
advice of 'Amateur Expert' — to go slow ; and, to empha- 
sise the caution, would beg leave to refer to R. 1''. Holter- 
mann's communication in the Journal of Dec. 9th reply 



January 6, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



to a question at the late conference by Mr. D. A. Jones, 
one of the respected delegates of the Ontario Honey 
Exhibit ; and to the writer of the very valuable series 
of ' Useful Hints,' from which it appears the Kansas 
and Western U.S.A. bee-keepers have, after a season's 
trial, thrown the system overboard. If the system of 
inverting; is an aid to success, it will make headway ; 
but to rush to such a conclusion before testing' practi- 
cally would be simple folly, and would lead many to 
give up bee-keeping in disgust. — James Lee, Dec, 29£A. 



AMONG THE CA1INIOLAN BEE-KEEPEKS. 
By Thomas B. Blow, F.L.S. 

[758.] Whilst greatly obliged to Mr. Benton for the 
slight corrections he has made on my observations in 
Carniola, yet I take exception to some of his remarks, as 
all through the article I strove to state facts only as I 
found them, and about which I have no wish or intention 
to enter into controversy. 

I stated no reason for the mixed colouring of the bees 
around Trieste, though I did form an opinion of the 
cause, which is not the same as Mr. Benton's opinion. 

The block that Mr. Dokoupil uses I can assert, from 
my dealings with him, is a perfect success ; so is the 
candy he makes and uses with it ; and though I have 
only his word that he was successful in sending bees to 
America, yet I have no doubt whatever that he has done 
so, for all the bees I have ever had from him have 
arrived in splendid condition, so fresh that I should not 
have hesitated in sending them on to America. He has 
entirely discarded the use of comb-honey with his 
travelling-boxes, using nothing but candy, and I certainly 
am of opinion that he is the most advanced bee-keeper 
in his district. 

I was quite aware that very large apiaries were to be 
found around Laibach, and I stated ' that the district 
around is a great one for bees.' I knew, too, of the large 
hive-faetory referred to, and had the catalogue of its 
productions in my pocket all through my journey, but 
my object was bees rather than appliances, and I did not 
care to waste time in visiting it. I saw a number of 
frame and other hives of various patterns, but for ono 
frame-hive I saw at least one hundred of the boxes I 
spoke of. 

I am quite certain about the statement of Mr. Am- 
brozic. He said he bad sent many queens to South 
America by the plan mentioned, and that the loss per 
cent of queens was not great. He mentioned that out of 
one lot of thirty queens, twenty-six arrived safely and in 
good condition, and the voyage was a long one, too. I 
am sure bee-keepers would be glad to hear of Mr. Benton's 
plan of sending forty queens a long journey safely in one 
stock. Is it a plan only, or has it been successfully 
practised ? I must still stand firmly by my statement 
that Carniolan bees have not the restless tendency of 
other races when travelling, and this remark I apply to 
all other races. During my journey from Cyprus the 
bees I had with me never ceased to worry and gnaw at 
the wires that covered the openings in the boxes, and 
this caused great mortality. I shipped Eastern bees on 
to America from Cyprus for Mr. Benton, and these 
arrived here in just the same state, and more than half 
the bees were dead in each nucleus hive. The Italians 
have similar tendencies, though less decided than the 
Eastern races. 

I have imported from Carniola during the past 
summer dozens of full stocks, and they have always 
arrived in the most tranquil condition and with hardly 
a dead bee. 

I have the right, I believe, to speak with some 
authority on the suitability of the Eastern races of bees 
for this climate, as I have handled and had in my apiary 
a far larger number of stoclts of these bees than any 
other individual in England. I have raised various 



crosses from them and studied them a great deal. It is 
hardly likely that I should quietly drop these bees if they 
had had any good qualities after the trouble and expense 
of taking a journey to Cyprus and Syria. I admit that the 
Cyprians are better than Syrians, but that is not saying 
much, and I now unhesitatingly condemn both fur use 
here. They do not winter well, are very liable to 
dysentery, and to spring dwindling, and on an average 
season they will not produce as much honey as blacks. 
I do not make those assertions on the results of a single 
stock or season, but from many stocks oxtending over 
some years. Mr. Benton has bad no experience what- 
ever with these races in this country, and we must judge 
by results here. With regard to the question of their 
irritability and robbing tendencies, the less said the 
better. They have a reputation in this country that 
they will not readily lose. 

As I stated before, I have no desire to enter into any 
controversy or to charge Mr. Benton with change of 
opinion (as I changed my opinion of Cyprians after a 
year or two experience with them), but if we read his 
early experiences with Syrians they were then far ahead 
of all others, and now are despised. I do trust that 
Mr. Benton will abandon his profitless yearly Eastern 
expedition, and settle in Carniola, where there is great 
need of a scientific queen-raiser such as he, and 1 can 
assm-e him that he will have an unlimited demand for all 
the queens he may raise there, as no better bees can be 
had and none more suitable for our climate. 



NOMENCLATURE. 

[759.] I should think about the last thing you need 
have done in a recent number was to deprecate the 
giving up of the Journal by any one whom depressed 
apiculture did not prevent continuing it, or to offer any 
'excuse' for writing discursively on topics of general 
interest. To myself they were all very interesting, and 
I was glad to meet with the derivation of ' topsy-turvy' 
in a paragraph relating to a matter on which I had in- 
tended to write to you. As we shall soon begin a new 
year let us by all means start, if possible, with correct 
nomenclature. This was advocated some months ago in 
the matter of crates and racks, dividers and dummies, &c. 
I quite agree with you about the use of the words 
' reverse ' and ' invert,' but I am not sure that I agree 
with any one as to the sense of practising the plan in- 
dicated. What do the bees think of it, I wonder ? Has 
any one tried the effect of an entrance at top of front of 
hive, with suitable arrangements for movement inside ? 
Would the bees put the whole arrangement ' top-side- 
t'other-way ?' 

But nomenclature. I don't know why we have no 
right to use apiarian as a substantive. Sucli a practice 
is common enough with moderns and the man who wrote 
' Eheu,' &c. But as I was once denominated an aparian, 
or, if it must be written, apearian, why I go in for 
apiarist. 

But I have not got to my object yet. It does not 
much matter whether we call the article which holds 
the sections a crate or a rack, but I think a serious error 
is being made in the use of the word 'rabbet.' We 
could not on any ground call a bottle a cork, but some- 
thing similar to this is being done. You have copied it 
from Neighbour's advertisement of the Sandringham 
hive in which we read of shifting rabbets, and see that 
they are oblong pieces of wood which slip up and down 
in grooves. Now, surely it is the groove which may be 
called the rabbet, and not that which slides in it. One 
dictionary tells me that a rabbet is ' a joint in carpentery, 
a groove;' while the Glossary of Architecture, informs 
me that it is ' a rectangular recess or groove cut in a piece 
of timber to receive the edge of a plank.' Here at the 
edge it is no doubt most correctly spoken of, but I do 
not object to the use of the word by accommodation 



10 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL, 



[January 6, 1887. 



elsewhere, only we ought certainly to keep the term for 
the hollowed space, and not for that which fills it. This 
is topsy-turvy work with a vengeance, and much of it 
would prevent our communicating intelligibly with one 
another. The fact is that 'rabbet' is a corruption of 
' rebate,' something bated or beaten back, a term used 
in knitting, and a good example of a rabbet is the notch 
cut in a door-post to receive the door,— C. R. S., South 
Cornwall, December 20th, 1886. 



SUNDRIES. 

[760.] Our friend Simmins — and all bee-keepers ought 
to consider him as such — seems to have been somewhat 
'riled' at 'A. H. B, K.'s remarks anent queen intro- 
duction, and well he might. But hard words, you know, 
take a long time to smooth down again, while nothing is 
gained by using them. ' A. H, B. K.'s ' law ' is sound and 
practicable, but Simmins's is better, not in its efficiency, 
but in its simplicity. I have had considerable experience 
in both during the last season, and have been eminently 
successful with each. But who would go to the trouble, in 
the middle of the season, to deprive a stock of every means 
of raising a new mother, when by simply keeping your 
fresh queen in a receptacle by itself for half an hour the 
thing is done ? Here you only handle one bee, but to 
deprive a populous colony of eggs and young brood at 
such a time, why, it will not bear comparison. Your 
stock must be queenless for forty-eight hours, according 
to ' A. H. B. K.,' Simmins less than a quarter of the 
time. As to the success of each, they are about equal ; 
neither Mr. Simmins's plan nor ' A. II.°B. K.'s ' are in- 
fallible, but both are near enough to infallibility to be 
considered a great success. Queen-cages must be at a 
discount ; a very considerable one too. I would not give 
' tuppence ' for a bushel. 

One colony of bees, occupying two skeps, standing 
side by side, as seen by ' Engine-driver,' was observed by 
myself, and noticed some two years ago in B.B.J. 

Our American friends are ' going in ' for Mr. Cheshire's 
' foul-brood ' cure, and according to their experience there 
is nothing to beat it. I daresay they would have dis- 
covered this before if it had been an American that had 
introduced it. 

Professor A. J. Cook has discovered that coffee is 
about as pernicious to bacteria as water would be. 

Fancy a County Association giving up the circulation 
of the Bee Journal in the place of the county expert ! 
They say opinions differ. I should hardly think that 
the opinions of its members had been consulted at all. 

What must we store our honey in ? Mr. 0. Hehner 
tells of elder-wine becoming poisonous by being stored 
in galvanised receptacles, and honey will be so affected. 
I know an instance of a family being poisoned by elder- 
wine stored in red glazed crocks. Perhaps we had better 
not store honey in these likewise. We must stick to tin, 
it is far more preferable, if only for its cleanliness. 

Honey at \d. per pound net is the future price when 
' S. L. B.'s ' Mexicans are introduced. Why, bee-keeping 
then will lose half its pleasures (?). No more gloves, no 
more veils, but what a glorious time for the bees that do 
sting! Mexicans will collect, Ligurians, Blacks, &c.,will 
store, and we — well, it will be too common to eat honey 
then. — W. B. Wkijsteh. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS. 

E. W. P. — Separating Pollen from Wax. — Melt the wax, and 
keep it just melted, but not boiling, for five or six hours, 
then let it cool, and the separation will then be found to 
have taken place. 

J. C. Merrick. — Packing Honey for Transport. — Please 
refer to page 303 of previous volume, where you will find 
full and clear directions for packing honey. The directions 
referred to were issued by the Irish and other bee- 
keepers' Associations. 



business ^Directory. 



For the use of Manufacturers and Purchasers of Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

The Name and Address and Business of any Manufacturer 
will be inserted in this List, under one heading, for One 
Pound per annum. Additional headings, Five Shillings 
extra. Advertisers in ' The Bee Journal,' whose orders 
amount to Five Pounds per annum, will be inserted Free. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros,, Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T, B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Boktt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 

Edet & Son, St, Neots. 

Hole, J. R. W., Tarrington, Ledbury. 

Howabd, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour* Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, London, 

E.C. . 
Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 
Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King William St., Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C, 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F. , Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J. , Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 



BEE-KEEPERS' GUIDE; or, Manual of the 
Apiaby. By A. J. Cook. 14th Thousand. The whole 
work has been thoroughly revised, and contains the very 
latest in respect to Bee-keeping. Price 5s., postage Gd. 
BEE JOURNAL OFFICE, KINGS LANGLEY. 

NOW KE AD Y ! 

VOL. XIV. of 

IUhe ^British jBee Jo urna l 

EDITED BY 

THOS. W. COWAN, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 

Containing upwards of COO pages, with numerous Illus- 
trations, and Complete Index. 

Bound in Cloth, price 10s. Cloth Cases for Binding, Is. 
each ; post free, Is. 3d. 

KENT & CO., 23 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON; 
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Jan. 6, 1887.] ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



Special prepaid j££dvertisements. 

No reduction made for continuous insertion. 



Exchange Column. — Sales of Honey arid Second-hand 
Goods. — Intended to aid Bee-keepers in the disposal of Bee- 
produce and Appliances for which they have no further use. 
Terms : Twelve words and under, Fourpence ; for every ad- 
ditional Three words, One Penny extra. 

1. QIMMINS' ORIGINAL NON-SWARMING SYSTEM 
O includes also other subjects of the first importance 

to all who hope to compete successfully -with present low 
prices. 2*. &d., post free. 

2. QIMMINS' METHODS OF DIRECT QUEEN IN- 
O TRODUCTION, 6J<i. Of the Authok, Rottingdean, 

Brighton; Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent Street, and 127 
High Holborn; and J. Huckle, Kings Langley, Herts. 

BEE-KEEPING, Plain and Practical : How to 
Make it Pay. By A. Rusbridge, Is. 6d„ post free, 
Is. 84 Address J. Huckle, Kings Langley, Herts. 3932 

THE MANAGEMENT OF STRAW SKEPS. De- 
signed to teach the Cottager how to obtain the best 
results at the least possible cost. By attention to its teach- 
ings, Cottagers will be enabled to make their Bees a more 
profitable source of income than hitherto. Price One Penny. 
Six copies and upwards, post free. J.Huckle, KingsLangley. 



WANTED. — Copies of British Bee Journal for January 
7th, and October 14th, 1886. Full price given. 
Apply J. Huckle, Kings Langley, Herts. 

EXTRACTED HONEY.— From the Right Hon. Lord 
Sudeley's Bee Farm (situate in the Fruit Plantations), 
mostly from unfinished Sections, in clear glass bottles, with 
special label, or in bulk. Prices on application to Estate 
Office, Toddington, YYinchconibe. (156) 

CANADIAN HONEY TINS.— The 60-lbs. empty Honey 
Tins, in which the Extracted Honey was brought from 
Canada, can bo had at Is. 2d. each, including the box. 
Also the 10-Ibs. Tins, with self-fitting tops, at 3s. per dozen. 
Apply to J. Huckle, King's Langley, Herts. 

ADVERTISEMENTS WANTED for Insertion in Re- 
port of Derbyshire Bee-keepers' Association, at 10s. 
Whole Page. Address W. T. Atkins, Secretary, North 
Street, Derby. 

FOR SALE. — Foundation Machine, Observatory and 
Frame Hives. Apply to C. C. Cust, Temple Terrace, 
Dorchester. h 32 

WANTED, by an educated young Man, a Situation in 
an Apiary as Clerk or otherwise. Good references. 
Country life main object. Address B,, 28 Amhurst Park, 
London, N. 1 

FOUR DOZEN 1-lb. Sections of Comb Honey for Sale. 
Good Colour. Apply to W. Hanson, Corringham, 
Gainsborough. 2 

FOR SALE, Half-Hundredweight of good Extracted 
Honey, at 6<i. per lb. on Rail ; buyer find receptacles. 
Also Single Comb Extractor, in good condition, 5s. Address 
A, Snook, S. Marston, Swindon, Wilts. 3 

DO NOT LET YOUR BEES STARVE! 
Use specially prepared Soft CANDY CAKE, in 1 lb. 
Boxes, ready for use. Thomas B. Blow, Welwyn, Herts. 

Protect your BEES from the COLD ! 

FOR SALE, 200 PIECES of CARPET, Id. per 
Piece. 10.] dozen various sizes, principally 9 x 18 ins. 
Address T. Burberry, Basingstoke. 

BRITISH BEE-KEEPERS' PRACTICAL 
NOTE BOOK. By Thomas W. Cowan, F.G.S., 
F.R.M.S., &a. Crown 8vo, boards, Is.; postage Id. 
Indispensable for every Bee-keeper. Published byJ.HucKLE, 
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Send Post Card for CATALOGUE of 

KITCHEN GARDEN and FLOWER SEEDS, 

Herbaceous, Alpine, Aquatic, Spring- flowering Plants. 



BEE PASTURAGE: 

Dealing with the Propagation and Successful Cultivation of 
Honey and Pollen-producing Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, 

Price One Shilling, post free. 
HENRY DOBBIE, Cringleford, Norwich. 

TcTdealersT 

LARGE BUYERS supplied at very low prices 
with best CANADIAN BASS-WOOD V-CUT, ONE 
PIECE SECTIONS. These Goods are the best and 
cheapest in the market. Orders also being booked for the 
celebrated ' JONES -HEDDON ' HIVES, and for the 
' JUBILEE ' and ' IMPERIAL ' HIVES in the flat, ready 
to nail ; crated. Delivery in the Spring. Quotations given 
upon receipt of approximate number required. 

The BRITISH BEE-KEEPERS' STORES, 23 Cornhill, London, E.C. 

Manufacturers of Specialities may send Wholesale 

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GUIDE-BOOK PaM?HLETS.-lfo. 1. 



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TOR 

Extracted and Comb Honey, and the 
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By T. W. COWAN, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 
Post Free, Threepence Halfpenny. 

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BEE-KEEPERS' GUIDE BOOK. Containing Manage- 
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Price 6s. Gd. per annum, post free. 



T. G. Newman, 925 West Madison Street, Chicago, U.S.A. 

London Agents: Messes. GEO. NEIGHBOUR & SONS, 

149 Regent Steeet, W, 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. [Jan. 0, 1887. 






) VVA^i/ AVU11A/11X1V11J 



AND 



ABBOTT'S PATENT FRAMES. 



rtSSTE-W A.M:£!IS,ICiLM SECTIONS. 

Clean, white Bass-wood, V-groove. 

No. Length. Height. Per. 100. Per 500. Per 1000. 

1. — 4£ x 3| | 3s. | lis. | 21s. 

Six of these just fit our Woodbury Frame. 
2 — 6| x 3| | 3s. 6d. | 13s. | 25s. 

Four of these fit our Woodbury Frame. 
3. — 51 x 4i- | 3s. 6d. | 13s. | 25s. 

These fit our old pattern hives. 

4.-4 X 4^ | 3S. | lis. | 21s. 

The ordinary 1-lb. Section. 

5. — 6 x 5 ) 

5a. -G| x 5| | 3s. 6d. | 13s. | 25s. 

56. — 51 x 6| ) 

These are the 2-lb. Sections in most general use. 

6. — 4i x 4 | 3s. | lis. | 21s. 

Six of these fit the Association Standard Frame. 

7. — 6| x 4 | 3s. 6d. | 13s. | 25s. 

Four of these fit the Association's Frame. 

Special .quotations for large quantities on application. Weight per 1 00, from 6| to 8^lbs 



COMB FOUNDATIOJN. GUARANTEED pure beeswax. 



1 lb 2s. per lb. 

3 lbs. to 5 lbs. ... Is. lOd. per lb. 



5 lbs. to 25 lbs. ... Is. 9id. per lb. 
25 lbs. to 50 lbs. ... Is. 9&. per lb. 



50 lbs. to 100 lbs Is. 8id. per lb. 

SPECIAL QUOTATIONS FOR LARGE QUANTITIES. 



ZHIOHSTIErX" BOTTLES. 



Per Gross. 



Original Honey Bottles ... 15s. 9d. 
Screw-cap Bottles 25s. 



Per Gross. 



Opal Honey Pots 18s. 

New Half-pound Pots lOs. 



ABBOTT'S PATENT FRAMES, 27s. 6d. per Gross. 

ALL THE ABOVE ARE PACKED AND PITT ON RAIL FREE. 
ADDRESS— 

ABBOTT BROTHERS, 

SOUTHALL, LONDON. 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FOR 1887, FREE ON APPLICATION. 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Strangeways' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c. 



[No. 238. Vol. XV.] 



JANUAEY 13, 1887. 



[Published "Weekly.] 



tentorial, Harass, #r. 



HOW TO MAKE AN EXTBACTOB. 

We have "been frequently asked to give instructions 
for making an extractor. Although we do not think 
that it will generally pay an amateur to make one for 
himself, yet there are those who like to make all their 
own appliances, and for these we intend to comply with 
the request, and to give such details as may enable any- 
one who understands working in tin to accomplish his 
object. 

For this purpose we will select the simplest form of 
cylinder extractor, that known as 'Cowan's Amateur,' 
which has "been the type for most of the extractors made 
since its introduction in 1875. 

In our experiments on extractors, commencing in 
1873, we made no less than thirteen different patterns, 
and hy constant trial and alterations were able to decide 
on the best forms. Extractors were tried with four and 
six frames, hut we found these as unsatisfactory as 
Mr. Eoot, who says in his A B C of Bee-culture .— 
' Experiments have been made almost without number, 
and the general decision now seems to be in favour of a 
machine made entirely of metal, with everything 
stationary about it except what must he revolved. The 
momentum of heavy metal revolving' cans, or of honey- 
after it has left the comb, defeats the very object we 
have in view ; and nothing will so effectually convince 
one of the difference as an actual trial of the two 
machines side by side". With the light all metal 
machines the comb is revolved at the speed required 
almost instantly, and as soon as the honey is all out of 
the comb the operator is aware of it, by the decrease in 
the weight as he holds the crank in his hand ; but with 
the heavy, unwieldy machines the stopping and starting 
take more time than doing the work. The same ohjec- 
tions apply to making machines for emptying four 
combs at once. They require to be made much iarger, 
and are correspondingly heavy and unwieldy.' 

After trying extractors with revolving cans we found 
them so unsatisfactory that they were also given up. 
Experiment also enabled us to decide the distance the 
combs shoidd be from the spindles ; and this is of great 
importance, because if the combs are too near, as in some 
extractors we have seen, all the honey is not extracted ; 
and although it may be convenient to have a can as 
small as possible in diameter, yet there is a limit to the 
minimum size for securing efficiency. In experimenting 
many hundred combs were extracted and carefully 
weighed, the hees allowed to clean them, after which 



they were again weighed. The difference in the weights 
enabled us to determiue the amount of loss in honey, 
and by this means we were enahled to arrive at the 
most suitable measurements. 

Before proceeding we must here remark that no zinc 
or galvanised iron should on any account be used for 
extractors, or for any utensils for the reception of honey. 
The acid in the honey acts upon the zinc, and the oxide 
of zinc quickly poisons the honey. The same applies to 
galvanised iron, as the galvanising, as it is called, is only 
a coating of zinc. Nothing but tin or tinned iron 
should be used, and all iron parts coming in contact with 
honey should be tinned. We have always strongly 
insisted upon this, and have several times given our 
reasons for it in the Bee Journal. 

The illustrations, will, we hope, assist in better under- 
standing the construction of one of these extractors. 

As we have a standard frame we will give dimensions 
suitable for this frame, and anyone having another size 
will have to alter the proportions to suit it. 




FIC 



Fig._ 1 gives a vertical section of the extractor, and 
fig. 2 is a horizontal section through the comb baskets. 

We will commence hy makiag the spindle and frame. 
The spindle A is made by rolling up a piece of tin, and 
making a tube f of an inch in diameter. It will next be 
necessary to make the grooves for the cages to slide in, 
and these will also form the uprights at the angles B. 
Cut four pieces of tin 1EJ inches long and 3£ inches 
wide, fold a seam along the two edges £ of an inch 
wide, then turn these up at right angles J of an inch, 

and we shall get a trough in section like this J ~\. 

At one en d cut the corner, and turn up the edge i an 
inch thus | , as this will have to he placed to 



12 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 13, 1887. 



the bottom, and form the ledge for the comb baskets to 
rest upon. 
The frame for keeping these together, C C 0' C, fig. 2, 





Fig. 3. 
edge uppermost. 



ric a 

being 12 x 10 inches, we shall want strips of tin 
If inches wide with a seam folded on one edge J of an 
inch wide and an | of an inch wire folded in the other 
edge. These strips must be bent at right angles, so that 
when they are soldered together they may form two 
square bands 12 x 10 inches. Fig. 3 
will show the arrangement of these 
at the top and bottom of the frame- 
work. The four uprights can now 
be soldered on to these bands. Place 
one of these with the wired edge 
down, and with a little solder tack 
the uprights m their proper posi- 
tion. It will be noticed, by referring 
to fig. 2, that they have to be fixed 
to the long sides, C C, taking care 
that the piece turned up at the end 
of the slides is at the bottom. Now 
tack on the top band to the upper 
ends of these slides, with the wired 
Be careful before finally soldering 
that everything is perfectly square, or the cages will 
not slide in properly. When it is found correct the 
whole framework can be laid down in a position most 
suitable for finally soldering all together. On the two 
narrow sides solder two brace wires diagonally from the 
opposite corners, as shown in fig'. 3. One will lay flat 
against the wire cage when it is in position, and the other 
to complete the X will have to be bent where the two 
wires intersect, so as to make it also lay flat. If these 
wires be 5 of an inch thick and are well soldered at the 
ends and at the place of intersection they will be amply 
strong enough to prevent any bulging, even with the 
heaviest combs in the baskets. For fixing the spindle to 
this frame we must make two pieces, D D, in the form 
of an X. These can be made of strips of tin If inches 
wide, with wire folded in the edges for strength, or, if 
the wire is not used, the tin should be a little wider 
and folded three times. They should be when finished 
not less than lg inches wide. Fix them as shown in 
fig. 2, and solder them where they cross. Then bore a 
f inch hole in the centre of each, and push through 
the spindle, which must bo firmly soldered in its place. 

"We will now make the comb baskets or cages. These 
are in two halves, and are made two inches wide inside, 
so as to take combs of any thickness and sections, if it 
be desired to extract the honey from them. 

The wire cloth used for the purpose, fig. 4, is made of 
stiff tinned wire four to five meshes to the inch. Two 
pieces are required 15 x 9J inches and two pieces 
15 x 9j inches. Get a strip of tin long enough to go 
right round the edges E E f of an inch wide and turn it 
up at right angles, thus L J now place the wire cloth 
inside this and solder it in, being very careful to solder each 
wire. Next hammer down the turned-up edges flat on 
to the wire and again solder each wire to these. They 
will then present the appearance of fig. 4. We now 









— m — 






























































:::::::::£ 


:xr::: 

















have to make frames for them. The frames, however, 
have only two sides and a bottom. Tin 2J inches wide will 
do and turn up one edge at E 

right angles for j of an inch. 
Then bend them thus J 



the long ends F F, fig. 5, 
beingwhen finished 15 inches 
an I the short one Q 9f 
inches for two of them, and 
the other two must be ' a 
little smaller so as to fit 
into these. We say when " „. '. 

finished because we intend °' ' 

to turn in a bead with a wire to strengthen the top and 
give something to take hold of. The wire-cloth frame, 
fig. 4, can now be soldered into these frames, and we 
shall have half a cage as seen in fig. 5, which shows a 
frame of comb in position. e 

We then put a wire along 
the top II H, turning the 
tin over it and soldering 
the wire to the top end of 
the tin surrounding the 
wire cloth. The inner bas- 
ket which has to fit into 
the outer one need only 
have the wire fixed along 
the top on that side where 
is placed the wire cloth, as it would be obviously in the 
way if it were also at the ends. The baskets when put 
together are seen in fig. 6. Should the frames have pro- 
jecting shoulders, or long ends, holes must be cut 
in the bottom of the cages or in the wire cloth 
to accommodate them. 

The advantage of these baskets is that any 
thickness of comb can be put in for extraction. 
Pieces either from skeps or other hives can also 
he very eadly put in by opening the cages. 




Fig. 5. 



Combs containing brood can also be laid in ■= 
without damaging them, although we do not FIG 6 
recommend any but the experienced to extract from such 
combs. The combs can also be reversed without touching 
the frames by merely drawing out and turning the cages. 
Fig. 3 shows one pair of cages in position and the 
other being withdrawn. We prefer having a piece of 
folded tin, 1 1, fig. 2, fixed across where the crosses end, 
and this prevents any springing at the corners. 

The can has to be made lb inches in diameter and 24 
inches high. The top and bottom must have a wired 
bead and against it a strong hoop at least one inch 
wide and of T \ inch wrought-iron. This may be 
riveted on to the can. There is no difficulty in making 
any part of the can except the conical bottom, J, fig. 1. 
For this cut a circular piece, as in fig. 7. It must be 19 



K m 




no 7 



inches in diameter and a piece K L M must be cut out of 
it as shown, 2\ inches wide at K M. Turn up the edges 
K L, M L half an inch in width and draw the opening 
together. It will then present the form of fig. 8. Tack on 



January 13, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL, 



13 



temporarily a piece of tin across the opening- to keep it 
the right distance apart. Then turn down the edge all 





Fie 8 

round the circumference, and try this bottom in the can, 
and if it is too tight or too loose untack the strip of tin 
across the opening and fix it in the right place. The bottom 
can now be laid down and a trough-shaped piece, fig. 0, 
soldered over the opening on the turned up edges K L, 
M L. This must be cut a little larger than the wedged- 
shaped piece cut out of the bottom, and 
will form the channel leading towards 
the honey valve. The bottom can then 
be soldered from the inside into position 
as shown in fig. 1. Then punch a hole _._ c 
at N and solder in the honey valve 0. 
Before proceeding any further test the can by pouring- 
water into it, and if it leaks remedy the defects. 

The tin work is now ready, and we have only to put 
the machine together and put on the gearing. The 
amateur had better purchase the gearing P and honey 
valve 0, as it will be cheaper for him to do so than to 
make them. The bracket Q has to be screwed on to the 
can and the small gear wheel, which has a short length 
of iron rod R attached to it, is soldered into the top end of 
the hollow tin shaft into which it fits. A plain piece, S, 
carefully tinned, is soldered on the bottom, and this must 
work in a bearing T fixed to the bottom of the can, as 
shown in fig. 1. 

Should the bee-keeper prefer it, he can substitute for 
the gearing a cranked handle at the top end of the shaft, 
this being kept in its place by a wrought-iron bar placed 
across the can and screwed to it, but he must not expect 
the same speed with this as with the multiplying gear, 
nor does it work so smoothly or evenly. These extractors 
are also made with an extra can below them ; and in this 
case they have no conical bottom, but instead there is a, 
bar of flat iron for the bottom of the spindle to work 
upon. The bottom of the extractor is made to fit in the 
top of the can and a wire gauze screen is used through 
which the honey is strained. Of course if such a. can is 
used to hold about 50 lbs., both the conical bottom and 
the honey valve must be fitted into it instead of into the 
body of the extractor. 

We hope that the description as well as the illustra- 
tions will be sufficiently clear to enable the amateur to 
make his own extractor. 



BRITISH BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The next Quarterly Conversazione will be held at 
105 Jermyn Street, London, S.W., on Wednesday, 
January 19 th, commencing at six o'clock. Mr. R. 
A. Grimshaw, of Horsforth, near Leeds, has kindly 
promised to read a short paper on ' The Vocal 
Organs of Bee,?.' The Secretary will be glad to 
receive notice of additional subjects for discussion 
from other members. 

The annual general meeting of the members will 
be held at 105 Jermyn Street, S.W., on Wednes- 
day, February 16th, at 3.30 p.m. The chair will 
be taken by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, President 
of the Association. Notices of motion for this 
meeting should reach the Secretary not later than 
Monday, January 31st, 



Jtaip. 



CANADA. 

Our bees are once more in their winter quarters, 
and bee-keepers have a season of comparative leisure 
before them. 

Our methods of wintering in Canada are various. A 
few, but I think none, of our most advanced bee-keepers 
winter their colonies upon their summer stands without 
any further protection than the summer hive. It appears 
in the past, when the old box-hive was still the prevail- 
ing, if not altogether the hive in use, colonies were 
always wintered in this manner, and our fathers state 
winter losses were rarely heard of. It may be that the 
shelter at that time afforded by our forests aided them, 
and the increased manipulation of the bees, close extract- 
ing, &c, interfere with successful wintering now. 
Certain it is that forty years ago great winter losses 
amongst bees in Canada were rare. 

Two great methods of wintering bees are resorted to 
by Canadian bee-keepers, they are wintering in reposi- 
tories and outdoor wintering in clamps or their equivalent. 
Repositories are either specially made for the purpose, or 
consist of cellars under dwelling-houses, which have 
originally been built for household purposes and are 
often used by the bee-keeper for both. Repositories 
specially constructed, are either houses double-walled 
and packed with sawdust between, making them frost- 
proof cellars, generally with a workshop above ; these 
repositories are ventilated in various w 7 ays, the houses 
generally have sub-earth ventilation by means of a tile 
pipe, running a sufficient length and depth under the 
soil, to enable the atmosphere passing into it from the 
end remote from the bee-house to be of an equal tempera- 
ture by the time it enters the bee-house at the other end, 
and this irrespective of the rise and fall of the tempera- 
ture outside. A pipe, often a wooden box, generally 
forms the other and upwards ventilator, and this ventila- 
tor can be opened or contracted to further regulate the 
temperature of the repositor3'. 

The colonies are placed at least twelve inches above 
the floor, and piled one above another with the lids off, 
and the propolised cloths on ; sometimes the latter are 
replaced by clean cotton and a light chaff-cushion. 
Opinions vary as to the temperature of the repository ; 
all agree it should never fall below 85° or even 40°. 
The tendency has been for the last year or two to raise 
the temperature in wintering, and in consequence many 
favour a temperature not lower than 50° to 55°. 

Bees are generally placed in these quarters the latter 
part of November, and remain there until the bees can 
gather 'pollen and natural stores. Some will carry their 
bees out during early spring for a cleansing flight, and 
return them to the repository ; such a method is very 
generally condemned. Towards spring the tempera- 
ture is raised, and the bees commence brood-rearing, and 
all conditions being favourable when placed upon their 
summer stands are almost quite as strong, or even 
stronger than when placed indoors. 

When wintering outside in clamps, the hives have an 
outer case, allowing sufficient packing of chaff or saw- 
dust to keep out the frost, the lid is removed, passages 
bored through the upper half of the combs so as to 
permit the bees to pass from comb to comb without 
going around them (this prevents much loss), on the top 
bars of frames are placed strips to raise the cloth 
sufficiently to permit the bees to pass from comb to 
comb over the frames. The entrance is left open to allow 
the bees a flight when desired. We have a number of 
reports where hives were left covered entirely with snow 
for some time, and wintered well. We have also reports 
of colonies, which, buried in a dry soil over winter, and 
coming out in fine condition; but such practices are 



14 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 13, 1887. 



exceptional as yet, however satisfactory the results may 
prove to be. It is generally admitted that bees wintered 
on their summer stands and packed about with chaff and 
sawdust during- the cold winter and spring, are less liable 
to spring-dwindling, and build up in good condition for 
the early honey flow. — R. F. Holtebmanx, Brantford, 
Canada. 

SWITZERLAND. 

In passing a retrospective glance upon the main 
features of the year which has just closed from a bee- 
keeper's point of view, the Bulletin d' Apiculture de la 
Suisse Kormande arrives at the conclusion that in 
Europe it has proved exceptionally unfavourable to 
apiculture. 

In the course of its twelve months, adds the same 
Journal, the losses of prominent members of our com- 
munity have been very severe. Switzerland deplores, 
among others, the removal by death, of M. Mona ; Italy, 
Mr. C. Fumagalli, the author of a hive largely in use 
among Italians; France, M. Jules Madare, President 
of the Societe de la Somme, and M. Maurice Girard, a 
distinguished entomologist and author of a valuable 
book on bees ; Scotland has lost her James Anderson, a 
veteran of Scotch apiculture, who in his day was remark- 
ably successful with the Stewarton hive ; and, lastly, 
Russia has seen the passing away of Dr. A. Butlerow, 
Professor of Chemistry and of Medicine at the St. Peters- 
burg University. Dr. Butlerow was the promoter of 
modern bee-keeping in Russia, and his works are con- 
siderable, among which is a Russian translation of 
Berlepsch's book. The deceased doctor was also founder 
of a school of apiculture. 

€ttXX£B$0\X£ltnt£ t 



The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write or. one side of 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Boolcs for Review, 
&c., must be addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," c}o Messrs. Strangcways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Ruckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

%* In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when spcalcing of 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it appears. 

SIMPLICITY IN FEEDING. 

[761.] At one time I looked upon the work of feeding 
in large apiaiies as one of the greatest annoyances, and 
the necessary preparation a waste of valuable time. 
Syrup had to be made over a stove before it was thought 
possible _ that it could be appropriated by the bees. I 
was satisfied that all this labour could be avoided, and 
before establishing out-apiaries I determined, if possible, 
that it should be done. The result of careful experi- 
ments was the present system known as 'dry-sugar 
feeding,' by means of dummies filled and arranged" at 
the side of the brood-nest. Though the term applied to 
the new process was not exactly correct, as the sugar 
used (Porto Rico) is moist and soft, it is thus distin- 
guished from syrup feeding, and appears appropriate. 

Though invaluable for stimulative purposes, and in 
some cases to complete storage, at times it was still 
necessary to give syrup, when desirable, to feed rapidly, 
but this difficulty has been overcome by my self-acting 
syrup feeders. There was still, however, one other point 
to be overcome. 

Many stocks are either neglected by their owner, or 
happen to run short of food before it is possible to feed 
in the ordinary way. Hence the use of 'candy' during 
winter, than which there is no more troublesome nor 
expensive food to make ; expensive because of the great 
waste of time taken in its manufacture when one might 



be profitably employed at something far more remunera- 
tive. 

It is pretty well understood by practical bee-keepers 
that the outy suitable candy is that which always pre- 
sents a moist surface to the bees, without wasting too 
freely, great care being required to get it just right, as, 
if too dry, the bees will not make much use of it until 
they can obtain water, while if too soft the whole will 
run away in waste, making everything stick}-, the pooi 
bees included, and thus doing more harm than good. 

When I say that I have struck the ' happy medium,' 
and no more cooking is required, even for winter-feeding, 
or for supplementing the stores of those running short 
before spring opens, the importance of the following 
plan of giving uncooked sugar without the expense of a 
feeder will be acknowledged. Porto Rico sugar is of 
exactly the right condition to take the place cf candy, 
if only properly applied. There is only one way that I 
have found it can be done without waste where the bees 
are admitted to the sugar from the bottom of the lump, 
and that is, when placed on the frames just over the 
cluster, and pressed down tightly. 

First lay a sheet of newspaper over the frames, on this 
place several pounds of the above-mentioned sugar and 
press it down well all round. It then forms into a cake 
with a crust that I have known to support the weight of 
clustering bees and newly-built combs, after the bulk 
had been used in spring, just as if it had been an in- 
verted dish. No grains are wasted ; first, because of the 
pressure, and then the moisture of the hive causing all 
to adhere closely together. No liquid appears, and 
yet the sugar is always in the best possible con- 
dition for use. The body of sugar adds an additional 
protection to the bees, and, unlike sticks of candy, the 
crust is left till last, forming a complete air-chamber 
immediately above the cluster. 

A strong colony will soon open a way through the 
paper where it bulges down between the frames. For a 
weak lot a slight tear should be made to .give them a 
start. Instead of paper a piece of cheese-cloth can be 
placed first on the frame, and would be preferable if 
applied in mid-winter. 

It is hardly necessary to say that this sugar can be 
moulded to any shape to suit the formation of roof or 
quilting, which latter should be very warm. For slow 
feeding, where it is known the bees have some stores on 
hand, or for brood stimulation later, porous cloth only 
need be applied ; but where the case is urgent, or more 
rapid feeding is necessary, place a piece of oiled cloth 
next above the sugar, with smooth side to the same. 

In cases of emergency, where bees have been bought 
in spring short of food, and being in odd hives, 1 have, 
placed the usual dry-feeding dummy close on top of the 
frames, with the slot next to but standing across them. 
The hives being smaller than the ' standard,' no other 
feeders were at hand suitable. When covered up warm 
the sugar soon disappeared, and though side feeding is 
at times more convenient to the bee-keeper, without a 
doubt in cool weather, there is no place so suitable for 
the bees wherefrom to take their food as that immedi- 
ately above the cluster. 

I do not suppose every one will discontinue the 
preparation of bee-food by cooking, but at my own 
apiaries, of several hundred colonies, no time is now 
wasted in that manner, and I have no doubt this last 
application of ' dry-sugar feeding ' will be welcomed by 
many who are now getting anxious about the condition 
of their stocks. — S. Simmins. 



CAMPHOR AS A CURE OF FOUL BROOD. 

[702.] I think we may safely come to the conclusion 

that camphor is useless as a cure of foul brood, as no 

one in reply to my Query G74 writes in its favour, and 

two write against it, I certainly expected to see some 



January 13, 1887.] 



THE BEITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



15 



one write in its favour, aftev its being; recommended in 
the Journal by you, Mr. Editor, although you did not 
write from your own experience ; and if report is correct 
our County Expert carried a stock of camphor with him 
on his tour, so as to supply any one with it where they 
had got foul brood. But in one apiary where he recom- 
mended its use, it did about as much good as it did in 
mine. 

In reply to Mr. Ward, How are we to know when the 
disease has attacked the queen so as to displace her ? If 
I was not certain about the queen I mentioned in my 
previous letter, I certainly should not have any faith in 
any other, as I had the pleasure of driving the bees 
this autumn at the same apiary she came from, and 
there is no trace of foul brood there at that time, and I 
don't believe there is within three miles of them. 

He also says if the queen is healthy, the so-called 
Cheshire cure will cure a hive ; my experience says it 
won't. When I first found out that I had got foul 
brood, I at once sent to one of his recognised agents for 
some, so as to have the right article, and I carried out 
his instructions as near to the letter as I possibly could 
upon the two hives that were affected, but to no 
purpose. I reduced it to about four times the strength 
he recommends, and then they would not take it. I 
then tried spraying- the combs with it, but they gradually 
got worse, and at last I turned them out and put them 
into a clean hive, and before I would go through that 
process of spraying, &c, again, I should give up bee- 
keeping. I certainly mean trying one of his recom- 
mendations in the spring as regards putting some medi- 
cated syrup out for them to steal, and if it answers I 
will publish it in our Journal. Of one thing I feel 
certain, that there is no occasion to destroy your hives ; 
that they can be disinfected. Three years ago I sold six 
hives for a gentleman who makes his own hives, and 
who was adopting the standard frame, these not being 
standard size. Knowing that he had got foid brood, I 
did not like to have any dealings with him (and if I 
had known as much about foul brood then as I do now 
I certainly should not), but he assured me that the}' had 
been disinfected, and that there was nothing infectious 
about them ; they had all had bees in them and died 
out. 

I did not feel very easy about their coming upon my 
premises, so that I moved them as near direct as possible. 
Three went to one place, and the other three went to 
separate places, and they are not near one another by at 
least two miles. I examined the whole of these hives 
last autumn, and there is not a trace of foul brood in 
either of them ; so that the gentleman was candid in 
saying they had been thoroughly disinfected. Further, 
I don't think it is communicated in wax-foundation, 
as I have supplied these four parties with foundation 
bought through the Journal, and they have now 
amongst them more than a score of bar-frame hives all 
clean. 

I think Mr. Saddler has done us a good turn in pub- 
lishing his experience of foul brood. I quite agree with 
him that the simplest way of dealing with foul brood is 
to destroy the affected combs. I tried putting clean 
combs into the centre of the brood-nest whilst feeding 
with salicylic acid, but after about the ninth day they 
took the disease as bad as the others. He quite bears 
out my opinion that you may have the disease very bad 
in a hive, and yet the queen is not affected. Mr. Ward 
will say how do I know that. Just one instance. Two 
years ago a stock of Ligurians belonging to the gentle- 
man I have previousfy mentioned, had got it very bad ; 
he shook them off the bars into a straw skep, intending 
to keep them there for a couple of days, before putting 
them into another frame-hive, but not agreeing with the 
change they took flight, and went straight into the 
weather tileing of a gentleman's stable about half a 
mile off. As they bad become such an intolerable 



nuisance there, I was asked to come and take them out, 
which I did in September last, and there was not the 
least sign of foul brood anywhere ; and there was no 
mistaking the Ligurian bees and the old queen; they had 
one unbroken piece of comb over five feet long. 

I should like to see ' Knownothing ' give us his recipe 
for using Calvert's No. 4, as I consider Is. Gel. per bottle 
for such a small bottle as Mr. Cheshire's agents send 
out is far too dear, and then carbolic can be bought 
almost anywhere. 

I am sorry that I cannot endorse your opinion of Mr. 
King's article on Foul Brood. It appeal's to me to be a 
rare piece of Yankeeism. He puts one small measure of 
the dissolved phenol crystals into a pail, and measures 
with the same measure 490 parts of what I may call 
syrup, and then makes a mark upon the pail, so as to 
have a correct measure. I should call that anything but 
a correct measure. Only fancy filling this small measure 
499 times, and I cannot make anything else of it ! The 
odds are if he tried it over half-a-dozen timei, he would 
not make his measurements agree within hah? a pint on 
either occasion of trying. If he had quoted ounces or 
pints, I think any one could have understood it. And 
then when heated up to 150° Fahr. the bees would eat it 
with avidity. Let him try drinking his coffee heated up 
to that heat, and see how fast he could get on. And I 
have yet to learn that bees can take anything hotter than 
we bipeds can. 

And then he wants us to believe upon hearsay 
evidence that he has cured his large apiary of foul brood 
in less than twelve months by using phenol, according to 
his formula, not Mr. Cheshire's. 

I should imagine that the manager of an apiary of 
400 hives would be able to carry out Mr. Cheshire's 
instructions fairly well. And yet Mr. King says that 
in the experiments made with phenol previous to his 
taking them in hand, the solution had been used too 
strong, too sparingly, not half sweet enough, nor yet 
warm enough. And then to finish up, asks all that are 
interested to carry out Mr. Cheshire's formula literally 
and accurately. That last sentence has put me into 
a fog altogether. 

It seems to be admitted by all your correspondents 
that the Cheshire formula is too strong, and that bees 
won't take enough of it to do them any good until it is 
reduced. ' Knownothing ' says I am quite right in sup- 
posing that the disease is not propagated readily in a 
neighbourhood. I don't know when I said so ; at least, 
my opinion is quite the reverse, but there is something 
peculiar about straw skeps and foul brood, of which more 
anon. — Man of Kent. 

p.S. — Win ' Platelayer ' give us his experience of the 
last season, and whether his bottle of phenol is still on 
the shelf? 

[We do not think we can yet come to the conclusion 
that camphor is useless as a cure for foul brood unless we 
disbelieve the statements that are constantly made by 
competent bee-keepers of complete cures by its means. 
We know it has not been successful in some cases, but we 
have no personal experience, having fortunately succeeded 
perfectly well with salicylic acid when foul brood was 
raging fearfully in our own apiary. However, we see 
frequent reports of cures effected by means of camphor 
in the leading Continental bee-papers. We attended a 
large meeting of the Societe Komande d' Apiculture last 
October, and there met a gentleman who had successfully- 
cured his hives with nofhing but camphor. We have 
also heard of others who had succeeded with phenol, 
and even with common carbolic acid, as recommended in 
some German bee-books. In 13S5 we attended a meeting 
of the Italian bee-keepers, when this question of phenol 
treatment was discussed. It was not favourably enter- 
tained ; M. Tartuferi, one of the largest bee-keepers in 
Italy, and owner of a thousand hives, stating that he did 



16 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 13, 1887. 



not want anything better or simpler than salicylic acid, 
having had no difficulty in curing his hives with it. 
Both salicylic and phenol have now been in use for 
upwards of ten years, and both have their advocates. 
We must, however, admit that although we have seen 
large apiaries that had been completely cured with the 
former, Mr. King's is the only wholesale treatment with 
phenol we have heard of, and hope it may be as suc- 
cessful as he states. It is true we have never detected 
any of the germs of foul brood in honey under the 
microscope, even with the highest powers ; but it has 
not, we think, been conclusively proved that the virus 
of the disease may not be conveyed in it, and your ex- 
perience, borne out by that of others, is strong evidence 
in favour of the theory that honey may be the medium 
through which foul brood may be promulgated. Pure 
phenol in crystals can be purchased at 3s. a pound. 
There is no difficulty in making the solutions, see page 
]53, Bee-keeper's Guide Book, where the proportions are 
given. — Ed.] 

MK. CORNEIL'S SECTION CRATE AND 
SECTIONS.— AN APOLOGY. 

[763.] Having noticed 'Amateur Expert's' apology 
to Mr. \V. Chitty in your last issue, I felt interested to 
examine both the original paper in the Bazaar and also 
the criticism. Referring to these, may I venture to say, 
in the first place, that while it is always pleasing to see 
a writer willing to apologise for any offence, real or 
imagined, that he may have caused, I quite fail in 
this case to see how any reasonable person could have 
taken offence ? In the first paragraph relating to Mr. 
Chitty 's paper, 'Amateur Expert points out, but 
certainly not in an offensive manner, an error, which if 
uncorrected might have led many bee-keepers to spoil 
all their sections next year. Had I made such a mistake 
I should have felt grateful to anyone who set me right. 

The next paragraph appears to call for no comment ; 
and the same applies to the first part of the third : but 
if Mr. Chitty chooses to ' fit on the cap ' as to mislead- 
ing instruction in gardening and other journals— in 
which undoubtedly from time to time much that is mis- 
leading has appeared — I do not see that he need com- 
plain of unfriendly criticism. Had he complained that 
' Amateur Expert ' wrote under cover of a worn deplume 
instead of boldly signing his own name, I should fully 
sympathise with him. — J. Lin gen Seageb. 



SUNDRIES. 

[764.] Having made a few new hives this winter, 
and being rather fond of having names for some of them, 
I should like to have one named Mel sapit Omnia, but 
as I fear being a cause of offence to 'Amateur Expert,' I 
should like to get his permission to have it done, as in 
the Journal for Sept. 2nd, page 408, he threatens pains 
and penalties to anyone infringing his trade-mark. By 
the bye, I was wondering what had become of him, 
thinking perhaps he was hybernating, like the bees ; but 
it appears in our last, a fitful gleam of sunshine fetched 
him out, but only to reply to Mr. Chitty, and apologise, 
— for what ? — what I think was a justifiable action in 
pointing out some discrepancies in his (Mr. Chitty's) 
description of Mr. Cornell's super ? I hope we shall 
soon hear from him again, as we cannot afford to lose 
his racy, piquant articles which enliven all around, also 
his remarks and experiences have been very instructive. 
I hope he will not forget to give us his experience with 
bees that are bred from that Cyprian or Holy Land 
queen which he introduced last autumn. 

I should like to say a few words about the Standard 
frame. I think it is a pity after all the trouble and 
bother of settling on a certain size, that a few are think- 
ing and advocating changing, what to me appears a very 



suitable size. If any alteration is deemed advisable, I 
should think shallow frames would be the most 
suitable, like those advocated in the Secord by Mr. 
Carr, as at the late South Kensington show we had a 
specimen of what could be done with such a hive in a 
moderate season. — John Walton. 



A ROMAN RELIC. 

[765.] In 1868, a gentleman of Colchester (Mr. 
Joslin) found in his grounds a monument to a Roman 
soldier (centurion). An interesting description of it was 
written by the Rev. B. Lodge. A doubt arose as to the 
name, &c, of a small sword or hanger at the right side 
of the figure. And in a note we read that Forcellini, 
quoting Antonius Augustinus, says that the weapon was 
without a point, to intimate that the superior officer, like 
the queen-bee, should direct, but have no sting. 

Can any of your classical readers tell us anything 
about Antonius Augustinus, date, &c. ? — J. Lawson 
Sisson. 

[In 1587, Antonius Augustinus (or Antonio Agustin), 
archbishop of Tarragona, published a work, entitled, 
' Dialoyos de Medallas, Inscrwiones,y otras Antiyuedades. 
Ex Bibliotheca A. A. Plates, 4to. Tarragona, 1587.' 
There was another edition in 4to., Madrid, 1744. Of the 
above work there were two Italian versions. Also a 
Latin translation by And. Schott, Eol. Antverpias, 1617, 
and Autv. 1653-54, 3 parts, 68 plates. — Ed.] 



INVERTIBLE HIVES. 

[766.] May I be allowed to endorse Mr. James Lee's 
sound advice to bee-keepers, namely, to test new ideas 
practically before rushing to conclusions, and his further 
caution for all but the skilled ' to go slow'? A great deal 
of harm has, I believe, been done by those fertile 
workers, who have put forward crude, unfertilised notions 
in the guise of proved facts, and no doubt numbers of 
beginners have thrown up bee-keeping in disgust because 
they have failed to secure the impossible results these 
others professed to have obtained and promised them. 
It is an act of generosity, more or less, for a man to 
publish his ideas to the world; but what I complain 
about is that, in the bee-world especially, many writers 
forget to mention that their ideas are nothing more 
than ideas, and that they have never really been put to 
a practical test. 

On the other hand, it is unfair to condemn a system 
without trial merely because it is new, or, perhaps, 
because in a single instance, and under unknown con- 
ditions, it has not proved successful. My own ex- 
perience of the system of inversion, which Mr. Lee is 
entirely wrong in speaking of as untried, bears out this 
view. 

In 1885 I got some reversible frames frcm Messrs. 
Neighbour and others, but reversing them seemed to 
make no difference in results, as far as I could see ; later 
on, however, happening to read Mr. Garratt's very in- 
teresting article on reversing skeps, I determined to give 
the plan a trial. The skep on which I experimented 
was in no way a specially selected one, but one of 
average strength. The result surprised me. It gave the 
earliest sections in the apiary, and a number far in 
excess of the average per stock. A single trial cannot 
be conclusive, but this one, I need hardly say, has very 
much modified the opinion formed previously ; and I am 
very sanguine that, though reversing frames with its 
attendant disturbance of the brood-nest may do more 
harm than good, the Ileddon system, so well spoken of 
by the majority of those who in Americ.i have tried 
it, may be a very long step in advance. 

Bee-keeping on modern principles is in its infancy, it 
is hardly out of the experimental stage, and I trust 
English authorities on bee matters will, while cautioning 



January 13, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



11 



novices not to go too fast, give every encouragement to 
progress and experiment, and condemn nothing merely 
on the ground that it has not been tried, or that it is of 
foreign invention.— D. A. Thomas. 



POLLEN GRAINS IN HONEY. (741.) 

[767.] In answer to your correspondent in The 
British Bee Journal, 16th December, 1886 (741), page 
500, 1 drew attention to the beautiful object found in 
the honey-comb, ' pollen.' A paper of mine was read in 
reference to this object at the Koyal Microscopical 
Society meeting in 1865 — see Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopical Science, 1865, page 163. With regard to 
the various pollens which the bee collects they are far too 
numerous to name. They are often spores of different 
plants, as well as pollen, thus collected. The bee in 
collecting them makes up, or builds, the honey-comb, 
mixed together with the wax. If they are found in 
honey, it is by accident, or by pressure of the honey- 
comb, which is gently heated by the trade to extract 
the honey. Thus the polleu is often found in the honey 
of the shops, but the best way to get a great variety is 
to soften by gentle heat part of the honey-comb on a 
slide for the microscope ; your correspondent will find 
then numerous pollens and spores of plants. A better 
way still to exhibit the pollen is to gather them from 
various flowers, and immerse them in olive oil on a slide 
for the microscope. I have mounted many very suc- 
cessfully, having made it a study for some years. There 
is a difference of opinion in respect to the food of the 
larva; of bees. My belief is that honey forms the chief, 
and that pollen is not used as food. — Edmund Gill, 
Linn Villa, Sutton Hill, Surrey. 



NOMENCLATURE. 

[768.] I notice in your last issue that ' C. R. S., of 
South Cornwall,' calls attention to the word ' rabbet ' 
being improperly used in your columns. Johnson's 
Dictionary informs me that a 'rabbet' ' is a joint made 
by paring two pieces of wood so that they wrap over 
one another.' Now the shifting slide mentioned in 
describing Neighbour's Sandringham hive is itself com- 
prised of several ' rabbets,' so that it really ma)' be called 
a rabbeted slide. Would this term suit ' C. R. S.' better ? 
It seems to me a not very important matter to call atten- 
tion to. — Alfbed Neighbour. 



NOMENCLATURE. 

[769.] Mr. Editor, permit me to draw your atten- 
tion to letter 759, page 9 ('Nomenclature'). I am 
much obliged to 'C. R. S.' for opening up this subject. 
By looking over the dictionary you will see that a 
' rabbet ' cannot be any way but on the edge, or at an 
outside. Such a rabbet as used in Neighbour's adver- 
tisement no one can understand. The English language 
is not so scarce of words as to necessitate the use of one 
w-ord being used for two such different operations as the 
two mentioned. A rabbet has only two sides, that is, a 
bottom and one side. Now this one in Neighbour's adver- 
tisement has three sides, a bottom, and two sides. Our 
trade name for the latter is a raggle, although I do not 
find the word in the Dictionary. 

While I am at it I might make a remark about 
bumping. [You might try how 'jerk' would do instead of 
that very objectionable word ' bump.' It was no wonder 
that Mr. Johns had some difficulty about what was 
meant. We can understand the crate, but the rack we 
must try and keep from our bees. — N. P. 



COMMITTEE-MEN. 

[770.] Though a new member of the B.B.K.A., I 
would respectfully make a suggestion on the above 
subject which has occurred to me through reading Mr. 
J. Garratt's letter (758) with the Editor's foot-note, in 
the B.B.J, of the 6th January, 1887. The committee 
should doubtless be chosen from members who live at a 
convenient distance to attend the committee and sub- 
committee meetings, but why not allow county repre- 
sentatives, who are qualified members of the B.B.K.A., to 
be ex-officio committee-men, so that the county repre- 
sentatives might render assistance to the committee 
where the large amount of work arises, viz., when they 
are undertaking important work in his county ? — Nota. 



THE SALTAIRE EXHIBITION. 

[771.] While the question is at the front as to the 
Yorkshire B.K.A., &c, I would just like to ask you, 
sir, if a bee show could not be held in Saltaire during the 
great exhibition to be held there. The Prince of Wales 
is, I believe, going to be there, so if our friend Mr. 
Grimshaw with his active pen could only stir up some 
of the bee-keepers in the neighbourhood, something 
might be done as regards getting an assistant- secretary, 
seeing the whole county is too large for one, or, if it could 
be done, to be divided into parliamentary divisions, 
which is very feasible. Hoping something will be done, 
as to the show to be opened, I believe, in May next.— 
Samuel Watson, Brighouse. 

[The Secretary of the B.B.K.A. informs us that he has 
had some correspondence with the secretary of the ex- 
hibition alluded to by our correspondent. The B.B.K.A. 
anticipate no difficulty in securing such an exhibit, pro- 
viding the executive of the Saltaire Exhibition will 
provide the necessary attendance during the time. — Ed.] 



BEE-CONCILIATORS. 

[772.] I think most people agree that prevention is 
better than cure, and if Mr. Cheshire has discovered a 
means of preventing stings while manipulating, he has 
given a boon to the majority of bee-keepers by making 
it known in the generous manner he has done. 

In the past and at the present time bees are looked 
upon as so many incorrigible ' demons,' or ' fiends ' (see 
Journals), and we have therefore employed none but 
drastic measures, believing that anything of a mild 
character would be incapable of coping with their 
terrible diabolical natures. We have not studied their 
requirements, their rights, their claims, their feelings, 
but have driven, coerced, and even slaughtered them. 
Patrotism with bees is a crime. To defend home and 
stores a greater crime still. They must be subjugated. 
And how ? Why, like unarmed rebels before soldiers, 
bayonets, sent head over heels, followed by volumes of 
burning smoke, or Mr. Webster's 2>leasant carbolic fumes. 
But with all our subjugating apparatus we get stung. 
What we want is peace and no coercion, and I hope 
Mr. Cheshire has found the remedy. 

I consider Mr. Grimshaw's new coined word anything 
but appropriate for the ' family ' he got into. ' Apif uges ' 
would imply something to drive bees headlong in terror 
and confusion, and I feel sure that is not what Mr. 
Grimshaw wanted to discover when he commenced 
experiments last summer. 

Now, sir, ' bee subjugators ' have been used for many 
years, and have not proved absolutely infallible ; and now 
we are going to try another ' law ' I would suggest that 
it be called ' the bee conciliator.' Let us take advantage 
of the high development and fine, extreme sensitiveness 
of their olfactories, and present something of a pleasing, 
enchanting nature ; something to move into activity 



18 



THE BRITISH BEE JOUENAL. 



[January 13, 1887. 



those gentle, amiable, social properties they possess, and 
at the same time subduing' all pugnacious* propensities. 
I feel certain such a remedy will be found, if it is not 
already. — A. Geeen, Selston, Alfreton. 



THE BEES OF PALESTINE. 

(Extract from Natural History of the Bible. By H. B. 
Tristram, M.A., LL.'D., F.R.S.) 

The honey-bee and honey are frequently mentioned in 
Scripture, and bees were, from a very early epoch, 
reclaimed and kept in hives, as well as sought for among 
the rocks. The hive-bee of Palestine much resembles 
our own Apis meltifica, and still more closely the hive- 
bee of Italy and Southern Europe (Apis ligustica), but is 
decidedly smaller, and of a much lighter colour. The 
swarms, or colonies, are also generally more numerous, 
and the cells of the combs are of course a little smaller, 
while the combs themselves are frequently of great size 
and weight. It is the Apis fasciata of Latreille ; and 
now, as of old, is quite as abundant in a wild state as 
reclaimed. Indeed, the wild bees, of precisely the same 
species, are far more numerous than their hived relatives, 
and the greater quantity of the honey sold in the south 
of Palestine is obtained from wild swarms. 

Most of the allusions to bees in Scripture refer to 
these unreclaimed stocks, which when robbed attack 
their plunderers with great fury. Iu some parts of India 
so enormous are the swarm? of wild bees, that there 
are ravines which it is impossible to traverse, owing to 
the fury of their attacks. ' The Amorites, which dwelt 
in that mountain, came out against you, and chased you, 
as bees do ' (Deut, i. 44). ' Thev compassed me about 
like bees ' (Ps. cxviii. 12). ' The Lord shall hiss for the 
fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and 
for the bee that is in the land of Assyria' (Isa. vii. 18). 
In this passage allusion appears to be made to the well- 
known custom of arresting bees by loud sounds, a custom 
which has come down from the earliest times, and is 
practised among ourselves in the tinkling and jingling of 
iron utensils to induce a swarm to settle when it has left 
the hive. The word 'hiss' alludes to the call to 
attention universally used in Eastern countries, which, 
instead of ' hallo,' or ' hey,' is always ' hist ' or ' hiss.' 

The abundance of bees of old is attested by the 
frequent mention of the Land of Promise as ' a land 
flowing with milk and honey' (Deut. viii. 8). Few 
countries are more admirably adapted for bees than this, 
with its dry climate and its stunted but varied flora, con- 
sisting, in large proportion, of aromatic thymes, mints, 
and. other labiate plants, as well as of crocuses in spring; 
while the dry recesses of limestone rocks everywhere 
afford shelter and protection for the combs. Thus, the 
rocks are generally spoken of as the treasure-houses of 
the bees : ' With honey out of the rock should I have 
satisfied thee ' (Ps. lxxxi. 16). Wild honey is also found 
in trees. Thus, ' All they of the land came to a wood ; 
and there was honey upon the ground. And when the 
people were come into the wood, behold, the honey 
dropped ' (1 Sam. xiv. 25, 26). 

In Judges, xiv. 8, we read of a swarm of bees taking 
up their abode in the carcass of the lion which Samson 
had slain, upon which he propounded his riddle: 'Out 
of the eater cometh forth meat, and out of the strong 
cometh forth sweetness.' We must not suppose that the 
carcass was a putrid and corrupt mass, for in the dry 
season the heat will speedily render a carcass in that 
climate a mere mummy without any offensive smell 
until it is moistened, and the ants speedily clear away 
all the softer parts of the body, if any are left by the 
vultures, so that merely the skeleton and hide would 
remain. Even in this country, wrens and sparrows 
have been known to make their nest in the body of an 
exposed crow or hawk. 

in the wilderness of Judrea, bees are far more numerous 



than in any other part of Palestine, and thus honey was 
part of the homely diet of the Baptist in the desert, as it 
is to this day among the Bedouins, who squeeze it from the 
comb and store it in skins. Such stores the men possessed 
who petitioned Ishmael for their lives on that account : 
' Slay us not, for we have treasures in the field .... of 
honey' (Jer. xli. 8). 

Honey was from the earliest times an article of com- 
merce from Palestine. It was among the delicacies sent 
down by Jacob Math his sons to the governor of Egypt 
(Gen. xhii. 2), and is mentioned by Ezekiel among the 
commodities exported to Tyre : ' Judah, and the land of 
Israel, they were thy merchants: they traded in thy 
market .... honey' (ch. xxvii. 17). It is probable 
that in several passages honey (Heb. debash) stands for 
the Arabic 'dibs,' the sweet syrup made by boiling 
down the juice of the grape to the consistency of treacle ; 
but in most instances bees' honey is undoubtedly in- 
tended. Wax was also employed for various purposes, 
but not, so far as we know, for candles. It was an 
ingredient in various ointments and perfumes. 

The method of keeping domesticated bees has probably 
not varied from the earliest times, and they are reared, 
especially in Galilee, in great numbers. The hives are 
very simple, consisting of large tubes of sun-dried mud, 
about eight inches in diameter and four feet long, closed 
with mud at each end, having only an aperture in the 
centre large enough for two or three bees to pass at a 
time. The insects appear to frequent both doors equalty. 
These tubes are laid in rows horizontally and piled in a 
pyramid. I counted one of these colonies consisting of 
seventy-eight tubes, each a distinct hive. Coolness 
being the great object, the whole is thickly plastered 
over with mud and covered with boughs, while a branch 
is stuck in the ground at each end to assist the bees in 
alighting. At first we took these singular structures for 
orans or hen-houses. The barbarous practice of destin- 
ing the swarms for their honey is unknown. When 
the hives are full the clay is removed from the ends of 
the pipes, and the honey extracted with an iron hook ; 
those pieces of comb which contain J'oung bees are 
carefully replaced, and the hives then closed up again. 
Honey, wild or from hives, is always to be purchased, 
and it is used for many culinary purposes, and especially 
for the preparation of sweet cakes. It has the delicate 
aromatic flavour of the thyme-scented honey of Hybla or 
Hymettus. 

But, however extensive are the bee-colonies of the 
villages, the number of wild bees of the same species is 
far greater. The innumerable fissures and clefts of the 
limestone rocks, which everywhere flank the valleys, 
afford in their recesses secure shelter for any number of 
swarms; and many of the Bedouins, particularly in the 
wilderness of Judasa, obtain their subsistence by bee- 
hunting, bringing into Jerusalem skins and jars of that 
wild honey on which John the Baptist fed in the wilder- 
ness, and which Jonathan had long before unwittingly 
tasted when the couib had dropped on the ground from 
the hollow tree in which it was suspended. When we 
see the busy multitude of bees about the cliffs, we call 
to mind the promise : ' With honey out of the stony 
rock would I have satisfied thee.' Amidst all its deso- 
lation the Land of Promise is, even to the present day, 
' a land flowing with honey.' 

The Orientals have a sweet tooth, and are in the 
habit of eating honey to a degree that would nauseate a 
Western stomach. 

The Word of God is frequently compared in Scripture 
to honey for its sweetness (Ps. xix. 10, &c.) Deborah 
(bee) was a favourite and appropriate female name 
(Gen. xxxv.) 

The number of species of humble bee in Palestine is 
very great, and mason bees are especially numerous, but 
their stores of honey are too inconsiderable to have been 
an object of search. 



January 13, 188?.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



19 



smtxuB. 



Queries and Answers are inserted free of charge to Correspondents 
Mlicn more titan one query is sent, cac/i should be on a separate piece 
oj paper. 

Oar readers will greatly oblige us by answering, as far as their know- 
ledge and observations permit, the Correspondents who seek assistance. 
Answers should always bear the number and title placed against the 
query replied to. Any queries unanswered in this way will be answered 
by the Editor and others. 

[773.] Managing Stock on an Allotment Garden. — As some- 
time I may want to take some bees down into an allotment 
garden, I should be glad of the opinions of others as to 
the best way of managing a few stocks so as to run the 
least risk of losing swarms. I should not be able to go 
to look after them in the daytime, and only occasionally 
in the evening, as most of my spare time will be taken up 
among rny bees at home. I do not particularly mind 
whether I work them for comb or extracted honey ? — 
John Walton. 

[774.] Separation of Wax from Pollen, dc. — Can any reader 
of the British Bee Journal inform me how I can separate the 
wax from old combs, pollen, &c. ? Is there no cheap wax- 
extractor to be got that would be useful to a cottager ? 
or can I have one made, and what about the price ? I 
have tried the boiling process mentioned in your last 
number, and find it a very tedious job. It is a great 
waste to throw all old combs away, and I am not able to 
purchase an extractor at prices advertised. — A. S. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

All queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

J. B. — Treatment. — In the first place we think you erred in 
putting sections on your swarm, as the honey flow must 
have been nearly over at the time of putting them on. 
Secondly, when putting into winter quarters each comb 
should have been examined, and the bees confined by 
division - boards to as many combs only as they could 
cover, and, not having sufficient stores for winter, should 
have been fed. We advise you to leave them entirely 
alone, i.e., not to disturb, or even touch the hive, until 
a fine warm day enables you to raise the quilt, and, if 
food is required, place flat cakes of soft candy on the 
top of the frames, and cover up with dry and warm 
quilts. We think you will find the bees alive, but 
probably requiring food. The few dead, of which you 
speak, may be accounted for by the normal winter 
mortality. With the above exceptions your treatment 
was correct. 

S. L. B. — Carniolans. — You can prevent these from swarm- 
ing by giving them plenty of room, and carrying out the 
instructions given in the pamphlet. If you refer to the 
article you allude to, yon will see that we stated that, ' by 
giving plenty of room we were able to control them,' and 
that we did not given them up solely on account of their 
swarming propensities, but because we found other bees 
superior to them. 

W. (Salisbury). — 1. Distance of Frames. — We place our 
frames wider apart for winter, so as to get a larger 
number of bees to cluster compactly between each comb. 
It does not matter how thick the store combs are. Ours 
are usually 1£ to If inches thick. 2. Doubling. — When 
doubling, as soon as the two lower hives are filled with 
bees, and before they become too crowded, add a third 
or a fourth if necessary. 3. Stands. — The hives are on 
low stands, and are, when piled up, much too heavy to be 
turned over by the wind. 4. Empty Combs. — If you have 
empty combs, you should use these in preference, to 
brush the bees back upon. Failing combs, you can use 
foundation. You must make sure of brushing the queen 
into the hive. 5. Position of Apiary. — Our neighbour- 
hood is a good one, but we atti'ibute our uniform harvests 
to the use of young queens only, which we breed by 
selecting only the best, and destroying all those not up to 
our standard. We should not expect black bees to give 
us quite as much, but even these can be improved by 
selection in breeding. 



business ^Directory. 



of Bee- 



For the use of Manufacturers and Purchasers 
keeping Appliances. 

The Name and Address and Business of any Manufacturer 
will be inserted in this List, under one heading, for One 
Pound per annum. Additional headings, Five Shillings 
extra. Advertisers in ' The Bee Journal,' whose orders 
amount to Five Pounds per annum, will be inserted Free. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Burtt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 

Edey & Son, St. Neots. 

Hole, J. B. W., Tarrington, Ledbury. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, London, 

E.C. 
Walton, E. O, Muskham, Newark. 
Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King William St., Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour * Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn 

Walton, E. O, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, P., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 
Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Stotharb, G., Welwyn, Herts. 



BEE-KEEPERS' GUIDE; or, Manual of the 
Apiary. By A. J. Cook. 14th Thousand. The whole 
work has been thoroughly revised, and contains the very 
latest in respect to Bee-keeping. Price 5s., postage 6d. 
BEE JOURNAL OFFICE, KINGS LANGLEY. 

HOfV H !ES ^Sl X3> -52" ! 

VOL. XIV. of 

T[he ^British jBee Journal, 

EDITED BY 

THOS. W. COWAN, F.G.S., F.R.M.S., 

Containing upwards of 600 pages, with numerous Illus- 
trations, and Complete Index. 

Bound in Cloth, price 10s. Cloth Cases for Binding, Is. 
each ; post free, Is. 3d. 

KENT & CO., 23 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON; 
J. HUCKLE, KINGS LANGLEY, HERTS. 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. [Jan. 13, 1887. 

* HIVES and SECTIONS^ 



♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ - 



BEFORE ordering their season's requirements, Bee-keepers will do well to notice prices of Hives, 
Sections, Foundation, &o. &c, supplied by THE BRITISH BEE-KEEPERS' STORES, 23 Corn- 
hill, London, E.C. This Central Depot (opposite the Royal Exchange) will, it is hoped, prove a con- 
venience to Bee-keepers who may be in the City for a time, or in business. 

Arrangements have been concluded with Mr. D. A. Jones, of Canada, for the supply of the celebrated 
' JONES-HEDDON ' HIVE,— the Hive of the Future,— and the various improved Half-pound and Pound 
SECTIONS, as exhibited by him at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition. The construction of these 
sections is such as to enable the bees to pass freely from one section to an adjoining one, and experience 
has shown that they are filled more rapidly and completely than the old sort in common use in Great 
Britain. The sizes of the sections kept in stock will be — 4A x 4| x 2, 4^ x 4|- x 1A, 4A x 3A x 1-|. 
The old kind, with closed sides, will also be kept in stock and sold at the same prices as the other kinds, 
but the kind advocated by our Canadian friend are strongly recommended by us to purchasers. Those 
who intend exhibiting should not fail to use the new kind. These Sections are made of the best bass- 
wood, and will be found superior to, and of better finish than, those of American manufacture. 



The 'JONES-HEDDON' HIVE, 

Including bottom-board ; queen-excluding division board, made of wood and perforated metal ; cover ; 
two six-inch brood-chambers, each containing eight frames ; two surplus arrangements filled with sections, 
both with wide frames. Made of good sound Canadian Pine. Price, painted and complete, 17s. 6d. 

The brood-chamber is in two sections ; also the surplus arrangement, which may be interchanged or 
inverted at will. The cover, bottom-board, and top and bottom of each sectional case has one half of a 
regular bee-space, so that the surplus cases, with the sections, may be placed between the two brood 
chambers, or the latter part may be transposed or inverted — in fact, all parts of the hive are perfect!}- 
interchangeable. 

THE 'JUBILEE' HIVE, 

Double-walled, of good Canadian Pine, planed and with frames ; to meet the requirements of Cottagers 

and others. Price, 5s. 
Surplus arrangement for same, combining lift and super for sections. Price, Is. 6d. 

The 'IMPERIAL' HIVE, for Doubling. 

This hive has been so arranged that the inner walls on which the frames in the upper tier rest, can 
be taken out and the hive used for sections, if required. For wintering, the upper storey is inverted and 
slides down over the body of the hive, thus forming a very compact, (practically) treble-walled hive. 
Price, 12s. 

The 'Jubilee' and ' Imperial' Hives have been specially designed by Mr. D. A. JONES, the well- 
known Canadian Bee-keeper, in conjunction with leading British Apiarists. We hope this fact in itself 
will be a sufficient recommendation of the goods and a guarantee of their quality. 

SAMPLE SHIPMENTS EXPECTED ABOUT THE MIDDLE OF FEBRUARY. 



The CANADIAN Improved One-pound and Half-pound One-piece V-cut SECTIONS 

Of best basswood, in original Cases of 500 Sections, at lis. 3d. per Case. 

O D CT /"^ I A I — *" or ^ er to f aci ^ ate 0U) ' arrangements for supply of large consign- 
^J I £2i \J I #* Lb b meiits, and thereby reduce the cost of transport, we will allow a 

MISCOUNT OF FIVE PER CENT on all Orders for HIVES and SECTIONS 

received before 25th March. Orders will be executed in rotation, so ptleasc order early. 

No deposit required with order, but payment to be made before delivery, when purchaser 

receives notice of the goods being ready for despatch. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, London, E.C. 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Stkangeways' Pkintinq Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.o.' 



[No. 239. Vol. XV.] 



JANUARY 20, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



(Sbttoral, Julias, $t. 



BRAZILIAN BEES. 

The last volume of the Journal contained various 
inquiries respecting the bees to be found in Brazil, 
which were not, however, satisfactorily answered. 
Some light has been thrown on this subject in a 
work recently published in two volumes entitled, 
Three Thousand Miles through Brazil, by J. W. Wells 
(Sampson Low). Mr. Wells was a civil engineer 
engaged in extensive surveys in the vast country 
of Brazil, aud these volumes record the story of 
seventeen years of his life passed in the exercise 
of a profession which carried him over a very con- 
siderable portion of the country, and brought him 
into intimate relations with all the phases of 
Brazilian life. These years were passed in farms, 
in huts, under canvas, or with only the starlit 
skies for a canopy ; riding, tramping, boating, 
canoeing, or rafting on many streams and rivers. 
Great varieties of climate were met with in these 
peregrinations. 

The volumes do not record a specialist's researches 
and discoveries, but merely an engineer's matter- 
of-fact experiences. In his life in the woods, the 
campos, aud the marshes, he several times came in 
contact with the bees of that country. These 
are generally the stingless bees (sp. Melipona), 
which are so frequently met with in Mexico and 
other parts of the American continent, but he also 
describes some singular bee -nests, the homes of 
bees which are ' terrible stingers.' 

When surveying his first section, in the Rio 
Pariiopera, he came across some bees which are 
called Mandrasia bees. He says : — 

' There are many varieties of small black bees, not 
larger than a common house-fly — good charitable bees 
that make excellent honey and do not sting ; rarely a day 
passed hut we found a nest of the mandrasia bee. It is 
really wonderful how the men found them out; I believe 
I might have spent a week in the woods without dis- 
covering a nest. It is only done by watching a bee 
when it hovers around a tree-trunk without apparently 
any ostensible purpose; suddenly it will disappear, and 
an accustomed eye may be able to distinguish a small 
hole in the trunk not larger than a pea, and on tapping 
the tree it will be found hollow in the vicinity of the 
hole ; if the tree is felled and the hollow excavated with 
an axe, the cavity will be found to contain a mass of 
balls of thin brown wax, about the size of a large walnut, 



and filled with deliciously fragrant honey far superior to 
that of the common English bee. The bees fly about in 
myriads, but inflict no inconvenience beyond their sticki- 
ness, for they are so sticky that they seem as though 
they have just emerged from a honey-pot.' 

In passing from Masquita to Picada, while sur- 
veying his second section, he encounters others of 
the same species : — 

' A small black bee, common to the grass districts, is 
very troublesome and annoying ; it does not bite or sting; 
it worries one by its persistent creeping and crawling by 
dozens over hands, face, and neck, into eyes, ears, and 
gets tangled in the hair. Brush away a crowd, others 
instantly take their places. Open your mouth, a number 
are ready to explore it.' 

In certain parts these been are very trouble- 
some : — 

' Out in the open chapador there existed a con- 
siderable annoyance in the form of bees. This 
insect buzzes not, neither does it sting or bite, but it 
alights on one's flesh in myriads, and devotes all its 
energies to systematic tickling and minute exploration ; 
it gets into one's ears, eyes, nose, down the back, into the 
hair, into the clothes ; perpetual slapping availeth not, 
for if a dozen of the sticky things are smashed, a couple 
of dozen are hovering round for a place to prospect upon ; 
the nuisance can be avoided to a certain extent by 
wrapping one's head in gauze. Fortunately the pest did 
not cover a considerable area.' 

AVhen passing up the Valley of the Sapao, the 
author finds bees in ant-hills, with ' tons of honey :' 

' That day's march was up the valley ; a notable feature 
of the day was the number of ant-hills four to six or 
seven feet high, — constructed of clay originally by a 
species of white ant, but then occupied — certainly one 
out of every three — by "the bee of the white ants." These 
bees had turned the ants out of their quarters and domi- 
ciled themselves in their place. Without exaggeration 
I believe many tons of honey could be collected from 
these mounds ; in one hill alone we extracted sufficient to 
satisfy the appetites of every one — even the mules had 
their share. The honey is found in little compact balls 
of delicate black wax about one and a half inch in 
diameter; each ball is separate and distinct from its 
neighbour, and the honey is most excellent in flavour. 
The bees of course flew about us, but were perfectly 
harmless ; they are small and black, not much bigger 
than a house-fly. The mystery is how they can conquer 
and drive off the white ants; perhaps many a battle 
was fought before they gave up possession ; now the 
bees were evidently masters of the situation. Several 
dozens of the mounds were examined and more than a 
third were occupied by the bees, but only on two or 
three occasions was the same mound found occupied by 
the bees and ants.' 



22 



THE BEITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 20, 1887. 



On the Rio do Soniuo, a beautiful stream in a 
lovely country and climate, Mr. Wells saw some 
curious bee-nests, -which are built by another species 
of bee, very different from the stingless Melipona : — 

' The cliffs present bare smooth surfaces of variously 
coloured rocks, on which a very curious structure often 
attracted my attention ; in a full view it resembles a 
dark bullock's hide stretched and nailed to the wall of 
rock, averaging eight by six feet in length and width ; 
sideways it appears inflated and distended and culminates 
in a hanging point or apex, near its lower side. These 
curious formations are the nests of the shupd, a bee that 
produces great quantities of excellent honey, but are 
terrible stingers; and from the position the nests are in, 
half way up the smooth surface of the rooks, are difficult 
of access unless the gatherer is enveloped in leather and 
lowered down by ropes from above, which is sometimes 
done.' 

'AMERICAN BEE-KEEPERS' MAGAZINE.' 
The price of the American Bee-keepers' Magazine has 
been reduced to 25 cents (one shilling) a-year, and it is 
now one of the cheapest bee journals in the world. This 
paper was started in 1870, and was for over two years 
edited by H. A. King, assisted by Mrs. E. S. Tupper, 
Professor A. Wood, and M. E. Williams, during part of 
the time. It subsequently passed into the bands of 
A. J. King & Co., and is now edited by Messrs. Aspin- 
wall and Treadwell, who are both practical bee-keepers, 
as may be seen from their articles. The Journal has 
been very much improved since it was first started, and 
now contains practical articles by the leading American 
bee-keepers. We are able to judge of the improvements, 
as we have subscribed to it regularly since the first 
number was issued. Whilst wondering how they can 
print and circulate a journal forming a volume of over 
400 pages at so low a price, we congratulate the pro- 
prietors on their enterprising policy, and wish them every 
success. 

USEFUL HINTS. 

Weather. — 'First it hailed, then it blew, Then it 
friz, then it snew, Then there came a shower of rain, 
Then it friz and snew again : ' — are lines which well 
describe English weather during the last five or six 
weeks; and although we have now a decided thaw, 
nevertheless it is a very cold one, and on the higher 
grounds, under hedges, and other places, the wreaths of 
snow still remain, ' waiting for more,' as our weather 
prophets say. We scarcely remember a winter more 
calculated to try the various systems of autumnal pre- 
parations for wintering ; and where these have been 
faulty, or have not been made at all, especially where 
the supply of food has failed, the results will prove 
disastrous in the extreme. 

Examining Hives. — No doubt we shall all he anxious 
to ascertain the Condition of our colonies at the earliest 
possible suitable moment, but we must put in our caveat 
here, and deprecate any interference whatever with 
hives or colonies until that moment arrives. There is, 
perhaps, no kind of interference more injurious to bees 
than too early examinations after long and severe frost, 
when the abdomen is distended with faecal matter, and 
when the slightest excitement will assuredly cause an 
outbreak' of dysentery, which if the bees had been left 
to themselves might never have occurred at all. 

What to do. — Until mild settled weather arrives — 
weather in which bees can fly freely — let us content 
ourselves by keeping entrances clear, supplying soft 



candy, where required, under quilts, by changing quickly 
damp quilts for dry ones, and by carefully looking to 
roofs and covers, and guarding against leakage, or snow 
penetration ; all of which operations may, with care, be 
performed without the least jarring or disturbance. 
Where moveable floor-boards project beyond the hives, 
the projections forming a lodgment for snow and rain, 
and causing internal dampness, we advise a change for 
dry ones. 

Ventilation and Dampness. —As regards ventilation 
and dampness, however, as in most other matters, 
opinions vary. Professor Cook tells us that he sealed a 
large colony of bees with ice, frozen solid, at the entrance 
of the hive, that the colony remained thus, and also en- 
tombed in a snow-bank, for more than three months, 
and wintered exceptionally well. As the hive was 
glued, or propolised, at the top, he remarks that the 
ventilation must have been slight indeed, and hence he 
draws the inference that, under the best conditions, 
little heed need be given to ventilation. He tells us also 
that even during terribly disastrous winters bees have 
wintered in many cases remarkably well in very damp 
cellars. 

From Mr. Heddon, too, we have the statement, ' In 
all my varied experience and observation I have been 
unable to discover any ill effects from dampness, of 
itself. We ourselves are wintering all our colonies 
under enamel-cloth, which allows of little or no upward 
ventilation, and we all know that bees, in a state of 
nature, so propolise the interior of their domicile as to 
render it impervious to air or moisture.' 

Crown-boards v. Quilts. — Dr. Southward, who 
possesses a large apiary in Michigan, U.S., and has been 
very successful in out-door wintering, uses the old- 
fashioned wooden crown-board, which the bees propolise 
and glue down tightly. Over this he places chaff packing ; 
and in the very severe winter of 1884-5 he carried 
through his large apiary with almost no loss. 

May it not be said to those, therefore, who adopt the 
practice of placing absorbents in the shape of pervious 
coverings over their bees — Aquilam volare docetis, which 
naughty boys translate as having reference to grand- 
mothers and eggs P We have repeatedly noticed that 
colonies left unmanipulated in the autumn, with quilts or 
crown-boards well propolised, have wintered perfectly 
and have been amongst the foremost hives at spring. 

' Packing.' — Those who are in favour of the pervious 
quilt will no doubt be able to bring forward advantages 
possessed by it, but wherever it is used successfully we 
think it will be found that a good deal of outer packing 
— of sawdust, chaff, cork-dust, or even boards — has been 
called into requisition. 

Feeding Skeps. — In feeding colonies in skeps a large 
feed-hole — say of four inches diameter — is an advantage, 
since over this a large cake of warm soft candy may be 
placed, and will be taken with avidity by the bees. 

The quantity of food contained in a skep may generally 
be pretty accurate^ determined by its weight, when 
balanced in the hands of one who knows its age and 
history, without breaking it off from the floor-board, 
which should never be done during the winter, as skeps 
are propolised more firmly to the floor-board than are 
frame or box-hives of any description ; and it is best that 
they should remain so, having the entrance sufficiently 
large to admit of free ventilation, and to be kept clear of 
refuse. 

Crossing the Various Races. — Since our remarks 
on this subject appeared in last ' Hints,' we have received 
the January number of the American ApicuUurist, in 
which are some very able and suggestive papers by well- 
known apiarists on the methods of breeding bees in 
order to perpetuate desirable qualities. 

Breeding for Qualities. — Naturally the chief 
points to be considered in the solution of such a problem 
as breeding for qualities, are the prepotency of the queen 



January 20, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



23 



or the drone as regards certain points or characteristics, 
such as working qualities, temper, adherence to combs 
when under manipulation, comb-building, fecundity, &c. 
Dr. Tinker, who has given much attention to breeding, 
gives it as his opinion that 'the drone is prepotent in 
transmitting working qualities, disposition, and the form 
and size of the male progeny ; while the queen is prepo- 
tent in transmitting fecundity; comb-building faculty; 
peculiar maternal instinct ; and the form and size of the 
female progeny.' 

Heredity. — He is careful to state that no rule in the 
heredity of bees is invariable, but exceptions, which 
establish rules, occur in the heredity of all the animal 
creation; these exceptions are, however, so few that the 
rules can be depended upon in developing a superior 
strain of bees. He also goes so far as to assert that ' the 
coming bee will be a cross-bred bee, developed from 
Syrian or Cyprian mother stock : the cross will be with 
Italian drones.' Mr. Demaree, writing on the same sub- 
ject, says, ' I look to my breeding queens for the peculiar 
type of workers I want, and to the drones for 
temperament.' 

When in last 'Hints' we stated that 'the cross be- 
tween Cyprians and Italians was one of the best, if not 
the best,' we omitted to say that the cross alluded to was 
from a C} r prian mother and an Italian drone. Our 
Syrio-Italian crosses have also been from Syrian queens 
mated with Italian drones, both crosses having proved 
excellent workers and of gentle disposition. Under 
manipulation they are very quiet, closely adhere to the 
combs, and rarely show any disposition to attack. The 
cross between the Syrian queen and the black drone is 
also a good bee, but more uncertain in temper than the 
two former crosses. The above remarks refer only to 
the.first crosses, but we have no doubt that their good 
qualities may be transmitted to their progeny by careful 
breeding and selection. 

We should like to see our queen-breeders advertising 
queens thus mated, being well assured that no better 
bees, or bees better adapted to the English climate, 
than the progeny of such queens exist. It must be 
generally conceded, particularly in times of depression 
and severe competition like the present, that attention 
should be given to producing a superior race of bees as 
well as to improvements in appliances. In this matter 
there can be no doubt that other nations — e.g., 
Germany and America — are far in advance of us. Is 
it not a fact that there is not a single isolated apiary 
in this country where any particular race of bees can 
be bred in its purity ? We are aware of the various 
means by which, without complete isolation, queens may 
generally be caused to mate with selected drones, but 
there is always a doubt, hence the prevalence of the 
importation of queens into the countiy, many of which 
are of inferior quality. We do not even avail ourselves 
so far as we know of the best appliances for procuring 
pure fertilisation, such, for instance, as 'Alley's drone 
and queen trap,' which ought to be in use in every 
apiary professing to breed queens of specified races, even 
if possessed of an isolation of a two or three miles 
radius. Hence the constantly recurring complaints of 
hybridised queens being sent out as pure. Certainly 
there is room for improvement here, especially in the 
'selection of the fittest' both as regards queens and 
drones. These remarks apply not only to one race, but 
to all, since our native black bees, or German brown, 
ought always to be bred by selection. 

Dry Hives. — Our previous remarks on dampness must 
not be misunderstood, or misconstrued into an approval 
of keeping hives in a state of perpetual dampness. We 
have quoted authorities to show that, under certain con- 
ditions, it is not injurious for a time at least, and this 
we did with a view to discourage, too early, frequent, 
undesirable spring manipulations. But where dysentery 
exists, or hives have become saturated with moisture, or 



combs mouldy, nothing more conduces to the recovery 
of the bees than a change to a clean, dry, warm hive, with 
an application of warm porous quilts as soon as weather 
will permit ; and in extreme cases, weather failing, 
manipulation should be performed in a warm room, the 
hives being returned to their stands in the evening, when 
it is too late for the bees to fly. Tlris is much better 
than allowing the bees to perish in foul, dysenteric, 
damp hives. In such cases we always operate indoors 
by lamplight, and at night, when scarcely a single bee 
leaves the combs or becomes excited. 

Syrui>-Feeding. — A Warning. — Let us warn our 
readers against syrup-feeding for some time to come. 
The only admissiable food, before the end of February or 
middle of March— according to. the weather — is sealed 
comb-honey, candy, or diy sugar. Several cases of 
destruction of colonies by syrup-feeding have already 
come under our notice. The bees become excited, and 
with distended abdomens, perish, or, attempting to fly, 
never return to the hives. If the food is consumed in 
cold weather, befouling and besmearing the combs and 
interior of the hive with swollen bodies, they fall, and 
decomposition increases the evil. Frames of sealed 
honey should be slightly warmed before being placed at 
the side of the cluster, a centre hole being cut in the 
comb as passage-way for the bees. 

Preparations. — Again, we advise all, especially 
those possessed of the larger apiaries, to make prepara- 
tion for the approaching campaign — hives, sections and 
cases, foundation, and fixing the same in frames and 
section boxes — may well and profitably occupy spare 
time in the evening or otherwise. Hives which have 
been previously in use should be scraped thoroughly 
clean, disinfected, and repainted. Spare quilts and floor- 
boards should be kept dry and ready for use. Removal 
of hives to new positions may be made, and apiaries set 
in order, and kept neat, no accumulation of ' odds and 
ends ' being allowed, nor refuse of any kind. Where 
not objected to, sawdust spread around the hiye is 
beneficial, absorbing moisture and preventing the chilling 
of bees which settle upon it. Many other little matters, 
too numerous to mention, will occur to those who give 
thought and time to their bees. 



'AMATEUR EXPERT' WAKES UP AND 'JOTS.' 

* Mel sapit Omnia.' 

Hybemating! 'A. E.' hybernating ! No, no, friend 
J. Walton. It is with me, as it was with that immortal 
son of Vulcan, — 

' Toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing, 
Onward through life he goes ; 
Each morning sees some task begun, 

Each evening sees its close ; 
Something attempted, something done, 
Has earned a night's repose.' 

And then, besides that, 'Mel sapit Omnia 'with me. 
And so you wish to savour your new hive with ' met.' I 
thank you for the compliment ; put the words on, by all 
means. 

Since I 'jotted' last I spent a most enjoyable day 
with Mr. and Mrs. Jones and Mr. Corneil, who came 
down to my ' hive.' I showed them some of my local 
' lions,' which included a real primitive English apiary, a 
herd of shorthorn cattle, a nobleman's park and grounds, 
as well as a portion of the inside of the mansion, one of 
the finest private collections of old paintings in the 
kingdom, a real live Earl, and — would you believe it ? — 
an oak with the largest girth round the butt they had 
ever seen. Chalk that, please; that is one point for the 
old country. 

As the pheasants flew up he would call out for his 
shooting-iron, for, be it known, a mighty hunter is 
D. A. Jones, Our evergreens, most of which were new 



24 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 20, 1887. 



to them, gave them unbounded delight ; and to get clear 
of the fogs of London, and see the clear vault above 
them once more, gave them a far better character of an 
English winter than they had begun to entertain. 
I packed them up some few samples of seeds of things 
they saw, also sprays of various evergreens — holly, ivy, 
and mistletoe. Even the old people over yonder will 
feel young at the sight. One who left here when twenty 
years of age begged that a spray of holly with berries 
might be brought back to her. How one's heart goes out 
to them at the thought ! The Atlantic now rolls between 
us, but space can never divide hearts that are knit to- 
gether. But the leave-taking came at last — a true 
Canadian one — and now they are at home once more, 
amongst kindred and friends. 

I have heard from Mr. McKnight, who is full of 
' recollections of the enjoyable time they spent in dear 
old England.' May none of us say a word that shall 
mar the pleasure of those recollections. 

Now I predicted that we should all want to rush 
off and change our hives and appliances that we have 
proved for those that we have not, and this seems very 
near being realised. Let us, by all means, 'prove all 
things,' but, at the same time, take especial care to 
' cleave to that which is good.' I know of a ploughman 
that complained of his plough, and the farmer sent for 
the maker, who could not only make a plough, but guide 
it as well as a few men. Having gone a few furrows 
with it himself he told the farmer — a modern one, seated 
on his hunter — the plough had a serious fault, but it was 
all behind the handles. Well, it is much like that with 
our hives. Capable of improvement they are, but the 
chief fault, speaking metaphorically, is ' behind the 
handles.' 

I am highly delighted to see our esteemed friend, Mr 
J. Lee, keeps his pen from getting rusty. 

You will not give me much more room, but I am 
inclined to think if I wanted to work an ' off ' apiary as 
Mr. J. Walton suggests, I should 'clip the queen's wings,' 
put the hives on very low stands, and have alighting- 
boards right down on to the ground. 

As to that Holyland queen, thereby hangs a tale. I 
am not quite sure, but when I closed up in October there 
seemed every probability of my having a case for Mr. 
Cheshire, probably of arrenotokia. (What words these 
men of science find for us!) I have not yet quite shaped 
all my ' burning deeds and thoughts,' but must bring 
these discursive ' Jottings ' to a close by wishing you all 
' A very happy new year.' — Amatetjr Expert. 

SPAIN. 
In a letter addressed to the Bulletin d' Apiculture de la 
Suisse Romande, Mr. Fr. Andreu, of Mahon, Minorca, 
writes as follows :— ' The bee flora of this island 
is rich in honey and in variety. The only enemy which 
bees have to contend with are the northerly winds, 
which are terrible. There are plenty of old-fashioned 
apiaries ranging from forty and a hundred hives each, 
but only a very small profit is derived therefore, the 
hives being very much neglected and the cottagers 
ignorant of the art. The introduction of the new hives 
will revolutionise Spanish apiaries, particularly in these 
parts of the country. Then will the good quality of 
our honeys be appreciated abroad, which deserve to be 
better known than they are at present. When we first 
imported new hives from England, a few years ago, 
they proved to be a new article to everybody ; but the 
earliest results obtained with them were so good that 
they soon became a subject of general conversation and 
of articles in the press. Several bee-keepers adopted our 
hives as soon as they had seen the advantages they 
offered and the results we obtained from them. ° 



'We have every reason for being satisfied with the 
results obtained last season, one hive having brought in 
125 francs, or say an average of 90 francs per hive, 
although a great many of them had only been stocked of 
late. At present, however, they are all well provisioned 
witli plenty of br«od, so that better things are to be 
expected from them next season. 

' Our hives are mostly square in shape and on the 
supering system. 

' Generally speaking, everything new here in Spain is 
criticised, particularly anything relating to agriculture, 
but thanks to the good results we are obtaining and our 
offers to assist in anything we can, bee-keeping is attract- 
ing more attention than heretofore. There are already 
a number of small apiaries in this island, where the new 
system of hives predominates, and many are projected 
on the mainland.' 

DEVON AND EXETER BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 
Torquay Branch. 
The annual meeting of the above took place on 
Thursday evening, January loth, in Wood's Rooms, 
Torquay. The report and statement of accounts were 
read and adopted, the accounts showing a balance in 
hand of nearly 41. Mr. Masters proposed and Mr. 
Vallance seconded that the following should form the 
Committee for this year : Messrs. R. Kitson (chairman), 
H. Bradshaw, W. Winget, Rev. W. B. Davis, Messrs. 
G. Pullen, J . Coombes, J. Erench, and G. Vail, Hon. Sec. 
It was resolved that the meetings be held quarterly. 
Mr. Winget proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Kitson 
for all his work during the past year, which was 
seconded by Mr. French. 

The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write ok one side of 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessaHly 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
&c, must bo addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," c/o Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2ndpage of Advertisements), 

*** In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking of 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it appears. 

BEE-KEEPING IN SPAIN. 

[775.] Bee-keeping is still carried on in the old-fashioned 
style in Spain, and amongst the bee-keepers there are 
very few indeed who use modern hives. The hives in 
general use are most varied in form and in the materials 
from which they are constructed. Some are round, 
others square or long and are made of cork, basket-work 
covered with mud, straw and wood, and even hollowed 
trunks of trees are commonly used. 

In all Spain there are only three or four provinces 
where bee-keeping is carried on largely as a business, 
more especially in the Alcarria, where almost every village 
of any importance possesses from ten to twelve cohnen- 
ares, each of these containing from thirty to forty hives 
(colmenas). A colmenar [what we should understand 
as a bee-house. — Ed.] is a small structure of brick. Up 
the centre of this building is a passage into which open 
the doors on either side of it of the fifteen or twenty 
compartments which contain as many hives. Outside 
are generally placed two or three common hives to receive 
any of the swarms that may leave the hives in the col- 
menar. 

In the Alcarria the laws for the protection of hives 



January 20, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



25 



are very stringent. The bees are also frequently moved 
from one locality to another to lengthen the honey 
harvest. In the other provinces landed proprietors and 
farmers generally keep from two to six hives, but this is 
principally either for their own use or for amusement. 

Bee-keeping is still in a primitive condition, and not 
much attention is given to the bees. They are selected 
and purchased and their surroundings are kept clean, but 
they are then left entirely to themselves. They are in 
no way assisted, and are allowed to work in their hives 
just as they like without any interference on the part of 
the bee-keeper. 

Lately a few Spanish gentlemen have purchased from 
abroad modern hives made on the improved systems; but 
this has been more for curiosity and for their own amuse- 
ment than with the object of their general application. 

lake most of our large landowners, Mr. M and his 

brother Count de B are amateur bee-keepers; but 

as a member of several agricultural societies Mr. M 

takes a very great interest in such matters, and having 
read the French translation of your excellent work (the 
British Bee-keeper's Guide-book) thought it might be very 
beneficial to propagate the new methods and sound teaching 
it contains amongst our agriculturists. — C. Wellen- 
kAmp, Ckaflan Mallorga. 

[The Spanish translation is already in the press, and 
will be ready in time for the work of the spring season. 
—En.] 

WAX-MELTING. 

[776.] A lady correspondent is in trouble about 
melting her old combs, and no one of our many gentle- 
men bee-keepers seems to have sufficient chivalry to 
help her. I have not time just now to write much, 
but will tell her what I can in a few words. 

If } r ou are fastidious don't take the job in hand, it is 
' messy ' from beginning to end ; but if you do not mind 
a little mess you will like the wax when you have 
clarified it. Get a large saucepan and boil all your old 
combs in it, until all the wax has left the pollen and 
other debris. Next get a piece of cheese-cloth, or other 
strainer that you do not much value, tie it rather 
' baggy ' over a pan, and pour the contents of the sauce- 
pan on to it; you will then get the water and wax in the 
pan and the debris on the top of the strainer. If the bees 
are not flying, burn the latter out of the way or bury it, 
which you prefer; when the contents of the pan are cold 
the wax will be on the top, and you can remove it from 
the liquor, and of course throw the latter away. I have 
a tin baking-dish that holds about a quart, into this I 
put some water and also the wax, first removing any im- 
purities that might have settled on the underneath side 
of it. I now place this vessel inside a saucepan with 
some water in the latter, but not sufficient to make the 
tin containing the wax to float about. Now make the 
saucepan hot, but not boiling, and keep it hot as long as 
you can, but do not let it boil, and the longer you keep 
it hot, and the slower you allow it to cool, the clearer 
your wax will get. You may stand the tin dish and its 
contents in the oven if you have a kitchener ; but it is 
risky : you must watch the heat, and be sure to keep it 
covered or you will spoil the colour by making it dark. 
The impurities will again have settled, which you must 
remove. I wanted to say something about foundation 
malting and spoiling, but have not time, and perhaps 
some would vote me a nuisance and meddler ; but if this 
is any help to ' A. S.', or any in trouble like her, it will 
have answered the purpose of — Amateur Expert. 



SUSSEX AND YORKSHIRE. 

[777.] It is very probable that in the course of a few 
weeks I shall, for business reasons, be obliged to remove 
my place of abode from this my native county (York- 
shire), to the southern one, Sussex, and shall feel obliged 



if any reader of this Journal, who is acquainted with 
the neighbourhood of Petworth in that county, would 
give me some information under the following heads : — 
(a) Nature of bee flora in the district. (6) Time of 
honey harvest in an average season, (c) Prevailing 
winds, (d) Is there any heather near and at what 
distance ? Any other remarks likely to be useful would 
be gladly welcomed. 

Now a few words as to Yorkshire. I regard it, Mr. 
Editor, as a blot upon the reputation of this county of 
broad acres that its Association should be so inactive, to 
put it mildly. I have heard of the County Secretary 
once, and then it was only casually through a friend who 
had heard of a visit he paid to an apiary or apiaries in 
Ryedale. The district round here is a very good one for 
bees, and bee-keepers are multiplying yearly, until 
sections, which before the Royal Show of 188o were an 
unknown commodity here, are now getting difficult to 
sell. 

When I first heard of County Associations some 
three years since, I naturally expected that Yorkshire 
would possess a good one, but was disappointed to find, 
after some inquiry, that it existed ' somewhere in the 
West Riding.' Its existence must be infinitesimally 
microscopical, seeing that our energetic friend, Mr. 
Grimshaw, cannot 'spot' it. I hope he may be successful 
in galvanising it into life, and may he be elected district 
adviser. — Old Ebor. 



INVERTIBLE HIVES. (766.) 
[778.] I quite endorse that portion of Mr. Thomas's 
remarks when he says that ' many writers forget to 
mention that their ideas are nothing more than ideas, 
and that they have never really been put to the practical 
test.' As ' it is unfair to condemn a system without trial 
merely because it is new, or, perhaps, because in a single 
instance, and under unknown conditions, it has not 
proved successful,' so also is it unfair, and even wicked, 
to advocate the use of a certain hive for the purpose of 
selling it, or a certain system of management, with the 
experience of a single season, and with one or two hives 
only. 

1 am sure that the readers of the Journal as well as 
myself will be much obliged to Mr. Thomas if he will 
give us his ' own experience of the system of inversion ' 
in detail, and will also give the names of ' the majority 
of those who in America have tried it,' and have ' so well 
spoken' of ' the Heddon system/ and in what periodicals 
they have written, and when. 

A friendly discussion on the advantages or disad- 
vantages of this hive and system in the Journal will be 
at any rate as useful as the long discussions as to the 
latest fashion of introducing a queen, and may be the 
means of obtaining information useful to those who think 
with Mr. Lee and others that it is ' best to go slow ' in 
adopting radical changes in bee-keeping, especially for 
beginners, and that ' the old, experienced bee-keepers 
should thoroughly test these novelties first,' is the sound 
advice of Mr. H. R. Boordman, an experienced American 
bee-keeper. 

Although I quite agree with Mr. Thomas that ' bee- 
keeping on modern principles is in its infancy,' I also 
think that if a profit or income is desired from the 
pursuit, that simple, inexpensive hives, with standard 
frames and walls at least f inch thick, are all that are 
necessary to obtain success, providing always that the 
seasons are favourable and that the bee-keeper has fairly 
mastered the rudiments of the subject, and does not over- 
manipulate his bees, as in my opinion is generally done. 

There are not a few of us bee-keepers who cannot look 
back with regret at useless bee furniture, &c, that we in 
our novitiate have spent our money on. 

I cannot, as an old bee-keeper, close these few remarks 
without a word of caution as to the purchase of the 



2G 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 20, 1887. 



Jones-Heddon hive of the substance exhibited, I will not 
at present say anything as to the system, as I do not feel 
that sufficient time has elapsed since it was introduced 
to enable English bee-keepers to form a sound opinion. 
It also appears, from the statement of Mr. Ilolterman, 
of Brantford, in Canada (in the Journal, 724), who says, 
' to the best of my knowledge, and I am pretty well 
posted as to apiculture in Canada, that there was not 
one colony in the Heddon hive last winter,' that the 
Canadians have not any more experience in these partis 
cular ' invertible ' hives than we have in England ; and I 
venture to say that not one pound of the Canadian honey 
at the Exhibition was obtained from bees in a Joncs- 
Heddon hive. 

There is one thing that I, as a practical bee-keeper of 
thirty-five years' experience, feel bound to say, that f of 
an inch in thickness, as in the Jones-Heddon hive 
exhibited at the Conversazione at South Kensington, is 
not sufficient for the external walls of hives that are 
wintered out-of-doors in this country. 

In Mr. Ileddon's book, Success in Bee-keeping, he 
describes the thickness of his hives thus : — ' The end 
pieces being g, and the side pieces of J inch lumber after 
being dressed on both sides, the long pieces being nailed 
into the short ones.' 

I would suggest to those English manufacturers who 
propose making hives on this plan that they should not 
use less than, at the least, f-inch stuff for the outside of 
these single-walled hives. This will be just double the 
thickness of the hive exhibited by Mr. Jones, one of 
which I hope to try next season with an outer case. — 

J0HN T M. HOOKEB. 

FOUL BROOD. 

[770.1 The ' Man of Kent' is amusing in his way of 
slashing about a scientific subject, and in the second and 
third paragraphs of his last letter he jumbles up my 
name with that of Mr. Cheshire in a very funny manner. 
I beg to inform him I have no agents recognised or 
otherwise. 

As regards his replies to my question which he 
puts into paragraphs two and five, I do not consider 
either attempt any reply at all. If the 'so-called 
Cheshire cure' failed him because the bees would not 
take it 'four times stronger ' than recommended by Mr. 
Cheshire, nobody will blame the bees or Mr. Cheshire 
either, but when he says in his last paragraph that all 
admit the Cheshire formula is too strong, I find myself 
in ' a fog' as he is. 

No wonder his experience differs from mine and 
others, and that he can agree with Mr. Saddler that it 
is simpler to destroy the combs— and I should add the 
bees too— but even that he has tried without success, 
and the net result of his experience really is that when 
the bees themselves take the matter in hand and fly 
away to a gentleman's stable the disease is cured — 
probably by ammonia. 

If the ' Man of Kent' will kindly inform me how to 
distinguish a diseased queen from a health}' one without 
reference to her brood, I shall be ever grateful to him. — 
Thomas F. Ward, Church House, Highgate, Middlesex, 
Januarg 14, 1887. 

DRY SUGAR FEEDING. 
[780.] For the satisfaction of others I can endorse 
Mr. Simmins' plan of dry sugar feeding for or in winter, 
so far as regards skeps. It is not my own experience, 
but that of a life-long bee-keeper in Seascale. If he 
fears the bees are likely to run short of stores in mid- 
winter or early spring. Ilis plan was to fill a hand 
basin with raw sugar, tightly pressed down ; damp the 
face of sugar, then reverso the basin and place the 
same over the crown of hive, first removing the cork or 
plug in the eed-hole, covering all well up afterwards, 



and on next inspection always found the sugar taken 
clean up. I had this some four years ago, but never 
tested it. These skeps were within a quarter mile 
of the sea-shore, and exposed to storms from the west. — 
W. G., Rastrkk. 

A SMALL VOICE FROM YORKSHIRE. 

[781.] Having seen it stated in the British Bee 
Journal that we bee-keepers in Yorkshire keep very 
quiet about our doings, perhaps you will give me space 
in the Journal to make a few remarks as to my doings in 
the bee line during the last nine years, as I have been a 
bee-keeper for a little over that time, and perhaps keep 
bees on a different system to most of )'Our correspondents, 
I ma)- first of all state that I have tried most plans of 
keeping bees, and am, I may say, a good amateur car- 
penter, so that I can go into the profit part of the 
business as a guide, at all events, to the Yorkshire 
working man. 

I find that a hive with ten Woodbury frames is the 
largest that should be used for this county, and I also 
think that if any one has used Abbott's wide-shouldered 
frames they have no wish to try any others. I made a 
hive on Mr. Simmins' plan last year, but find the frames 
simply detestable, and I am sorry to have to say that, as 
I so heartily agree with, I may say, everything else that 
Mr. Simmins states. During all these years I have 
wintered a few single-walled hives, and find them just as 
good as those with double walls if the outside frames 
(two on one side and one on the others) are removed and 
dummies put in their place. This makes the hive double- 
walled on two sides, and I find seven frames the bees 
number to winter the bees on, as when confined to that 
space you require no chaff-cushions, slips at the ends of 
the frames," or winter-passages. 

My first swarm last year was from a single-walled 
hive, although I had four skeps and seven double-walled 
hives. I have never found the slightest difference 
between the single and double, if only the bees are 
confined on seven combs. I use the ordinary summer 
quilt. 

On looking at my accounts I find that at the end of 
1870 I was 4QI. Vis. 4rf. on the wrong side, but I then 
kept a good many bees and had a large stock (for me) of 
hives and appliances. At the end of last season I was 
■jOI. 7s, 7d. to the good for the nine years. I have, of 
course, put down all the honey as having been sold, 
although I have given a good deal away, &c, but I am 
putting myself in the place of a working man, in which 
case, perhaps, nearly all would have been sold. A 
working man, however, would not have got his account 
so much on the wrong side to start with, as I have 
always tried anything new that came out that I thought 
worth trying. 

One year I had mora than twenty hives and did not 
get a single pound of honey, and had to spend 71. on 
sugar in the autumn to keep them alive. I never knew 
such a season, and hope I never shall again. There was 
not a single bee alive, the following spring, in the whole 
district, except my own. 

My plan of keeping bees is as follows : 

Supposing I winter eight hives, and they each swarm 
twice, I put two swarms together, in every instance, on 
seven or eight frames only (according to size of swarms), 
and put a super on at once. This is supposing I have 
been able to give them old combs. If they have founda- 
tion, I put them on ten frames, feed for a few days, and 
then remove two or three frames and super them. This 
I have done for many years, and I can quite endorse 
what Mr. Simmins says about it at once crowding the 
bees into the supers. 
In 1884 I wintered 8 hives, and took 550 lbs. of honey. 

1885 „ 7 „ 600 lbs. „ 

1886 „ 15 „ 350 lbs. „ 
Last season was only a moderate one all over England, 



January 20, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



27 



The stocks, after they have swarmed, I always extract 
from, and I do not see that it does much harm disturbing 
the brood-nest. 

I have an idea that the swarms, being young bees, 
take better to supers. In the autumn I bring them up 
into pairs and join them, so that I always keep m}' bees 
strong in both summer and winter, and am never 
bothered with having worn-out queens. Yorkshire is 
not a very first-rate county for bee-keeping, so that we 
do not look for very great results, although I have taken 
more than SO lbs. in sections off one hive. 

Last year I tried Mr. Blow's Si x 4j sections, which 
work with a row of 4j x ±\ sections. 

In every case the bees started first with the large 
sections, and a most beautiful shape they are. I should 
like them better if they were two inches wide, as I never 
am able to get sections built out the right weight with 
dividers unless they are two inches wide, which is the 
only width I shall ever use, and I shall certainly always 
use dividers. 

As one of your correspondents remarked, ' We never 
hear anything of the Yorkshire Bee-keepers' Associa- 
tion.' I am not a member of it myself and do not 
think I should ever become one. I have often induced 
cottagers to start bees in frame-hives, but have always 
found them go back to the old skep : and with prices as 
low as they have become I do not think the average 
working man would make anything out of bees, and 
certainly not unless he was a good carpenter. 

If I ever joined an Association it would be for the 
pleasure I should have in talking over matters with 
brother bee-keepers, and not from any advantage I 
should expect to get from it. What greater pleasure 
can one have than talking with Mr. Abbott, say, for a 
couple of hours, over a good cigar ? — as I have had the 
pleasure of doing. I fear this letter has grown longer 
than it ought tc have done, but as I am letting off nine 
years' ideas in it, it seems to me miserably short, as I 
could go on indefinitely on such an interesting subject ; 
but perhaps at some future time you will allow me a 
little more space, Mr. Editor. May I recommend bee- 
keepers, during this stormy weather when the snow is on 
the ground, not only to shade the entrances, but to 
spread some loose hay, or straw, or leaves, all about the 
front of their hives. This will save hundreds of bees 
which would otherwise, if the sun came out, perish in the 
snow. 

I fear some may think that I am rather dogmatic in 
my views and have written as if I was able and wishful 
to lay down the law to others ; but such is not the least 
my desire, and my excuse must be that it is most difficult 
to condense a great deal into a small space without 
appearing to dictate. I do not altogether think it un- 
desirable for a cottager to keep bees in frame-hives, but 
with present prices very few would make it pay, and 
they must be pretty good carpenters. 

I forgot to say that I only keep black bees. Are they 
hardier than other breeds, or would, say, Italians winter 
as well on my plan without chaff-cushions, &c. ? Per- 
haps some one of more experience can tell me. How is 
it that people will go in for extractors with gearing ? 
Mine is one of Abbott's without gearing, and if I so 
desired I [could throw out all the brood with it. Very 
few turns, and the honey is out. Why get up unnecessary 
speed? — Abthur J. H. Wood, Bellivood, Ripon. 

P.S.— I ought to state that in 1886 I bought some 
skeps cheap in the spring (about March), so that I did 
not actually winter fifteen hives. If I did not explain 
this it woidd look as if I had not followed my plan of 
always doubling in the autumn. 

In 1885 I also had a skep in addition to the seven 
frame-hives, but as I sold the swarm from it, I did 
not count it in stating the amount of honey I took. 
-A. W. J 



TOADS EATING BEES.— SURFACE FOR 
HIVES.— MISTAKE OF A BEE. 

[782.] I am sorry that truth compels me to confirm 
the statement of Mr. Walton, that toads are very 
destructive to bees. The hive of a very strong stock of 
blacks had a small alighting-board, so that during 
the late honey season incoming bees collided against 
those that were leaving the hive and frequently both 
fell to the ground. To overcome this fault I placed a 
board sloping up from the ground to the edge of the 
alighting board, the hive being on nine inch legs. One 
night in June on visiting this hive w r ith a lantern I 
found a toad seated close to the edge of the alightiug- 
board. He apparently attracted the bees in some way 
(I heard no noise), remaining quite still until the bees 
were within his reach, when he pounced upon them and 
bottled one after the other most rapidly, taking several 
while 1 watched him. I removed the toad to a distant 
part of the garden, and altered the board so that it no 
longer touched the ground. On several other occasions 
I have found toads near the hives at night and have 
observed them pick up the bees that have been recently 
killed (such as robberd) and devour them. I have never 
observed them stand on their hind-legs to reach the bees. 

I find that a very good surface for hives to stand upon 
can be made by first spreading a layer of brick rubbish 
or stones, then a layer of fine cinder sittings mixed with 
a small quantity of gas tar, and then again a layer of 
sittings. This after wetting forms a solid smooth sur- 
face in which no weeds will grow and in which nothing 
will burrow. If four square tiles or bricks are let into 
the surface (taking care they are level) the leg's of hives 
resting upon them are preserved from decay, and there 
is no harbour for insects such as ants or earwigs. 

Curious Mistake of a Bee. — A lad)' ■ was sitting at 
needlework in June, 18S6, near an open window, upon 
the sill of which she placed her reel of cotton, the end of 
the reel that was uppermost (it was standing on end) 
had no label upon it. The reel had not been in this 
position many minutes before a bee with its legs laden 
with pollen alighted upon it and deposited its load of 
pollen in the hollow of the reel. After a few minutes 
it again returned with a second load and so continued 
for about two hours, during which time it had made a 
number of journeys, always returning loaded with pollen 
which it deposited as at first. Unfortunately the reel 
was removed and its contents thrown away without the 
result of the numerous journeys being observed. I 
should be glad to know if any of your numerous readers 
have observed similar behaviour in a bee. — Harold 
Adcock, Middleton, Northampton. 



NOMENCLATURE. 



[783.] There must always be different opinions as to 
the amount of accuracy desirable in treating of any 
given object. I am not too particular, I think, but 
sometimes I find it difficult to follow, as I strive to do, 
the descriptions of designs figured in your useful paper. 
Even if we accept Johnson's definition a ' rabbet ' as a 
' joint made,' &c, I do not think Mr. Neighbour is in a 
better position. He says ' the shifting slide is itself 
comprised of several rabbets.' What! a block of wood 
comprised of joints? Impossible. Fitted to others in 
its place by joints, but surely it cannot be made up of 
them, any more than the well-known ' trimmings ' in 
Pickieick could have been the leg of mutton. Strictly, 
I take a rabbet, or a scarf, &c, to be no thing at all, but 
only a form ; but waiving this I do not object to the 
groove in which the piece of timber slides being 
called a rabbet, though it is not strictly so, or, what 
is more like it, the piece taken out of the top of these 
moveable ends (of top hive), but if I understand aright 
that E E are the blocks of wood then I do think 



28 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 20, 1887. 



the right use of terms forbids to call them rabbets. I 
quite see Mr. Neighbour's position, and I assure him that 
I have no desire to act the part of the captious critic. 
He wants a handy word to designate his ingenious 
device, but he must not use one which is already 
applied to a form of juncture of two pieces of wood, 
and it is not for me to suggest one, which, in truth, I 
find not easy, for 'ends' and 'carriers' and 'blocks' 
are already appropriated. — C. R. S. 



A DISCLAIMER. 

[784.] A reference is made in the last issue of the 
Journal by ' Man of Kent ' to my ' Agents ' calling at- 
tention to the price charged for phenol as excessive. 
Since I have no agents, and stated so in the Journal 
now quite two years since, I ask who are representing 
themselves so to be ? When my experiments and dis- 
coveries were first promulgated, I agTeed to guarantee 
phenol and give directions through Messrs. Holland and 
Lyon, receiving a royalty of id. per bottle which 
royalty was to supply a sum to be devoted to further 
experiments. As a result, I have not received, as I 
before stated, sufficient to pay the postage of the letters 
I have been called upon to write in connexion with this 
subject. It is simply preposterous that I, who have not 
been excelled by any living bee-keeper in the amount of 
time and energy I have devoted without any thought of 
reward beyond that of following research and aiding 
my fellows, should be not once or twice, but frequently 
in your Journal, addressed as though guilty of extortion. 
I have sought no man's silver or gold, but, on the con- 
trary, have expended and am expending my own freely, 
in my devotion to scientific apiculture. I trust that care 
will be in future exercised that such statements as 
those made by ' Man of Kent ' may not appear, and that 
you will in justice publish this disclaimer. — F. 
Chbshiee, Avenue House, Acton, W. 

[It seems to us just possible that the phenol might 
have been purchased by 'Man of Kent' while the 
agencies were still in force.] 

GLEANINGS. 
In the Bienenzeituny, Major V. Mann gives his ex- 
perience with regard to drones having white eyes. 
He refers to what Baron V. Berlepsch says respecting 
them in the Bienenzeitung in 1885, p. 169 : ' I possess a 
Cyprian colony, in which there are several hundred such 
drones; only one single drone has eyes of the usual 
colour.' Major V. Mann says that in all his experience 
he never saw- a drone with white eyes return to a hive 
when once it left it. He has seen them in numbers in 
front of his bee-house crawling about in the grass, and 
saw them rise fifty or sixty cm., but always to drop 
down again. He also saw them come out of the entrance 
and crawl about on the alighting- board. Some were put 
into a box, taken into a room, and placed on a table, 
with the lid slightly opened. The drones did not leave 
quickly as other bees do, but came out languidh-, crawled 
on the table, and dropped on the floor. None flew to- 
wards the window. He concluded that these abnormal 
drones are blind. They, however, have a keen sense of 
smell. He placed half a ripe pear on the window-sill, 
and they crawled out of the box towards it, and re- 
mained upon it, but none of them attempted to go 
towards the light of the window. During the slaughter 
of the drones he observed those with white eyes were 
driven out much sooner than the normal drones. Six 
days after these albinos were driven out he examined 
the hive, and could not discover one, although there were 
plenty of others. "When he took hold of them a yellowish 
liquid f;eces was ejected, which does not occur if an 
ordinary drone is grasped. He is of opinion that these 
albino drones are diseased. 



In a note F. M. Vogel, who has examined them micro- 
scopically, says the eyes are quite transparent, the pigment 
being absent, and the hairs at the corners of the facets 
are also colourless. The simple eyes were also white. 
The lower of these simple eyes projected, and shone like 
a fine crystal. He agrees with Major V. Maun in con- 
sidering them blind. 

In the Chemical News A. B. Griffiths, who has been 
studying the action of salicylic acid on ferments, states 
that a solution containing 02 grains of salicylic acid 
per 1000 c. cm. of water quickly destroys some micro- 
organisms,[such as Mycoderma aceti, Bacterium lactis, and 
other. It seems to act upon and to dissolve the cell- 
walls of these organisms. Although living torula; are 
not destroyed, their activity is impeded by the solution 
of salicylic acid. Saliva does not exert its fermentative 
faculties in the presence of this acid. 

Replies ta (Jimies. 

*** In their answers, Correspondents are respectfully requested to 
mention in each instance the number and the title of the query asked. 

(773.) Managing Stock on Allotment Garden. — I have 
for several years managed stocks on allotment gardens 
half a mile away, and have had excellent results from 
the following plan. I use a hive containing twelve standard 
frames, having another the same size full of empty combs, 
which I place on the top when the first is full of brood, 
and when doing so (about the end of June) I take one 
comb of brood from the bottom hive, placing in the top one 
among the empty combs, and place an empty frame with 
narrow strips of guide, not in the place of the brood 
extracted, but immediately over the entrance and in front. 
This frame will not be filled with comb before the harvest 
closes, and the top hive will contain 80 lbs. of honey in 
a good season, and swarming is prevented. I have taken 
in this way over 100 lbs. from one stock. — T. F. Ward. 

[773.] Managing Stock on an Allotment Garden. — I 
should go to work on the non-swarming system, as bees 
always work better for sending off a swarm. Make it as ' 
soon as there are any drones in the hive. It is very easy 
to prevent after-swarming by giving them room to work in. 
Place two empty frames with comb starters in the front 
part of the hive next the door. As soon as they are drawn 
out replace them by others. Cut those drawn out to fill 
the sections. The best way to cut the combs is to have 
a box just to hold the comb with saw-cuts 4J x 4J, or the 
size of the inside of section, and with the comb so cut fill 
the sections. — E. L. Richardson, Grcsham House, Corbridge. 



xx cries. 



Queries and Answers arc inserted free of charge to Correspondents 
When more than one query is sent, each should be on a separate piece 
oj paper. 

Our readers will greatly oblige us by answering, as far as their know- 
ledge and observations permit, the Correspondents who seek assistance. 
Answers should always bear the number and title placed against the 
query replied to. Any queries unanswered in this way will be answered 
by the Editor and others. 

[785.] Clover for front of Hives. — A lady has a plot of 
ground in front of her half-dozen bee-hives which is 
generally full of weeds all summer, owing to her gardener 
being shy of the bees. Can any one advise her what 
mixture of white clover and other seeds to sow it with so 
that it will grass itself over? — Mrs. Sumner. 

[786.] Specimens of Honey. — I have been hunting up 
for some time now all the specimens of honey I can get 
hold of, and am anxious to make it as comprehensive as 
possible ; and I noticed at a recent meeting held in London 
that the following exhibited samples of honey which I 
would like to have the address of, viz., Messrs. Haw, 
Gardner, & Co., Liverpool (Chilian, Cuban, &o., honey), Mr. 
Liddell, Lancaster (English heather), and Mr. Carr, Higher 
Bebington (white clover). If any bee-keeper can give me 



January 20, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



! 9 



the addresses of any others who could possibly assist me in 
this matter I would deem it a great favour. — Altos. 



[787.] Would any of your readers give instructions for 
making an unicomb observatory hive? — Castle Douglas. 

[788.] Would some experienced bee-keepers kindly give 
treatment for bees badly troubled with dysentery ? Also, 
the most suitable coverings for hives ' kept in a bee-house,' 
for spring, when breeding is at the height ; for summer, 
during the honey-glut ; and also for winter ? Is the 
American-cloth so often mentioned in the B, B. Journal the 
same material as is often called oil-cloth ? — Fab North. 



<2Mj0£S ixom % Hiboes. 



Port Mohan-, Minorca, Dec. 27. — On Nov. 1st we looked 
over the eleven hives in our apiary. My best hive had ten 
combs full of brood, and the rest four or five each. (I had 
stimulated them just a little after the summer heats.) On 
the loth of this month, profiting by a very fine day or two, 
we looked them over again. Best hive had brood in only 
six combs, the rest in two to four. Shall not handle them 
again till the middle of February, when I intend to begin 
stimulating. We calculated they had 2 ewt. of honey for 
winter, which, though not sufficient in a cold climate, I 
consider all that is necessary in a country where they can 
pasture all the winter long when the weather permits it. 
One of my transferred hives occupied five storeys last 
summer, though it was transferred so late that only a 
fortnight's honey-flow fell to its lot (from May 1 to 15), 
and only 50 lbs. of honey were got out of it. By November 
we had reduced it to two storeys. On examining it this 
month we found the lower storey empty of brood and honey, 
and, as the combs were new, I thought constant passage 
through them to the upper storey would soil them, and 
reversed the order of things, putting the lower and empty 
storey on top. Now what I wish to inquire, Mr. Editor, is 
whether I did right in so changing the two storeys ? for 
evidently the bees had not intended to winter in the lower 
storey. I preferred to leave the empty combs on to taking 
them off, thinking the bees would at times occupy them 
and thus keep them clear of moths, &a. Our climate being 
comparatively mild (thermometer generally ranges about 
55° to 65" Fahrenheit, and never goes below 40°) I do not 
anticipate any bad results, but may be mistaken for all 
that. Two or three months ago I wrote a couple of articles 
on modern bee-keeping for one of the most influential of 
Spanish journals published in Barcelona, the Diario, which 
caused quite a sensation, and overwhelmed me with letters 
of inquiry from all parts of Spain. I have hopes that next 
spring will witness many attempts at bee-keeping in frame- 
hives on the part of amateurs. Whether success will attend 
their efforts is at best problematical, though under proper 
teaching much might be done in this beautiful climate. 
I am sorry I have succeeded in obtaining but a few sub- 
scribers to the British Bee Journal, as the generality do 
not understand the English language. French is more 
generally spoken, and I have therefore given course to 
many copies of Cowan's Guide in that language, also to 
the Swiss Bulletin d' 'Apiculture of Mr. Cowan's friend, 
Mons. Bertrand. — F. C. Andreu. 

[We should not have changed the hives in the way you 
have done, but would have preferred to have left only the 
one containing stores. The stores should be at the top of 
the hive where the heat is greatest. — Ed.] 

Honey Cott, Weston, Leamingion, January 10(7;, 1887. — 
Since my last echo, written at the beginning of December, 
the weather has not been suitable for bees getting out in 
any considerable numbers, but as we have had a fall of 
snow, I have found a few brought out by the reflection. 
On Saturday last snow fell to the depth of nearly a foot, 
and so made plenty of work in clearing the roofs of the 
hives, and putting blocks and boards to shade the entrances 
to prevent the bees being enticed out — to their deaths ; 
for I find, as a rule, when once they are on the wing they 
never get back to their hives when snow is on the ground. 
— John Walton. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

All queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of personal 
nterest will be answered in this column. 

W. C. C— 1. Wax.— In No. 186, Vol.XIV.,we gave statistics of 
the amount of wax imported and exported during the year 
1884, from which it appeared that we imported in that 
year 28,258 cwts., value 105,8132., and re-exported 10,378 
cwts., value 36,4672. ; in 188.3 we imported 38,295 cwts., 
value 140,253/., and re-exported 10,328 cwts., value 
26,7062. The value of the honey imported in 1885 was 
61,344/., but we are not in a position to say the 
amount or the value of the honey re-exported. — 
2. Uses of Honey.— The Rev. V. H. Moyle, who has 
devoted much time and attention to this subject, has pub- 
lished a leaflet showing the chief manufactures in which 
honey is an ingredient, which would render you much 
assistance. 2. Uses of Wax. — Wax is valuable for many 
purposes in this country, but it is of still more im- 
portance in parts of Europe and America. It forms a 
considerable branch of trade and manufacture as an 
article of extensive use in the religious ceremonies of the 
inhabitants. Humboldt informs us that wax to the value 
of upwards of 83,0002. was at one time annually exported 
from Cuba to New Spain, where the quantities used in 
the festivals of the Church are very great, even in the 
smallest villages. The value of that exported from 
Cuba in 1803 was upwards of 130,0002. At the Zurich 
Exhibition, in the year 1883, there were no less than 
twenty-two distinct uses of wax exhibited, among which 
were, — painting in wax colours, wax modelling, wax salve, 
wax plaster, wax tapers, moulds of teeth, anatomical 
preparations in wax, meerschaum tubes, wax matches, 
comb foundation, candles, medals, photographs, &a. 
Wax is applied extensively in the arts and manufactures. 

T. P. — Transferring Combs from large frames to Standard. — 
Do not attempt it until the weather is warm, or you will 
so check the prosperity of your stock as to render it 
useless for the season. You need not fear loss of brood ; 
even if you have to cut off some parts of the comb con- 
taining it you can give the cuttings for the bees to hatch 
out, the only loss being the few cells actually divided 
by the knife. In a strong colony this will soon be 
repaired. 

O. T. — 1. Combs Built Irregularly. — From your letter you do 
not appear to have been sufficiently careful in spacing 
your frames, and probably your hives did not stand 
level. Hence your difficulty. In your new hives keep 
your frame 1^ inches from centre to centre, preferaby by 
metal ends. — 2. Supers not accepted. — There are so many 
reasons for this that without fuller particulars we cannot 
name the special one. The colony which deserted the 
lower liive for the super, and made that its home, did so 
from the absence of queen-excluder, allowing the queen 
to ascend and make her brood-nest there. A conversation 
with some experienced bee-keeper would do more good 
than much reading. We hope you will suceed in future 
as well as you appear to have done in your first season. 

D. Shaw. — Langstroth Hive. — You cannot do better than 
use the Langstroth hive as you have done, but we should 
prefer having an outer casing, and the space between the 
two filled with chaff, for winter. When using the Carr- 
Stewarton we did not get more honey than we have done 
with the ordinary frame-hive, in which the bees developed 
much faster. Shallow hives were tried long before the 
moveable frame-hive was invented, and are still used in 
some places, but they have not been found profitable. 
We should advise you only to try one or two, and com- 
pare results before you go in largely for the Heddon hive. 
In this hive, the frames are always kept at a certain 
distance apart, by wide ends, and are kept in their places 
by means of screws ; but, having tried such frames, we 
should not care to use them again. We hope to be able 
to give a description and illustration of Shuck's invertible 
hive shortly. 

M. H. — Dysentery in an Observatory Hive. — We advise you 
to procure a small box, sufficiently large to receive the 
two frames — side by side — from the observatory hive, and 
to transfer frames and bees to this box. The frames 
should be transferred in the room in which the obser- 
vatory stands, and the sides, bottom and top bars of 



30 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 20, 1887. 



the frames (while the bees are upon them) should be 
scraped, or sponged, clean and a little salicylic acid 
solution, or Condy's fluid, applied, so as to wet the 
frames as little as possible. A cake of soft candy — 
[.finely powdered loaf sugar mixed with liquid honey to 
the consistency of putty)— should be laid upon the tops 
of the frames in the box, covered with thin paper and 
pressed closely down upon the frames. Cover over with 
Eeveral thicknesses of flannel or woollen cloth of loose 
texture, and over all a board to keep the material close 
to the frames. Place the box in the position which the 
observatory hive occupied, providing an exit for the bees 
to fly outside. It was an error to feed with syrup, and 
this has probably caused the mischief, but it is very 
difficult to winter bees in an observatory hive, especially 
small colonies, and it is doubtful whether yours will 
recover. Failing the box recommended, it will be best 
thoroughly to disinfect and clean the observatory hive 
and to return the bees to it. When transferring disturb 
the bees as little as possible. An expert would perform 
the operation in five minutes. 

Enquirer. — Soft\Candy. — We can recommend Good's candy, 
a kind of food much used in America, which ismade by 
mixing together liquid honey and very finely powdered 
loaf-sugar until the consistency of dough, or stiff putty, 
is attained. The paste is then laid on the frames over 
the cluster in the form of a cake, and covered with the 
quilt. 

A Hawes Bee-keeper. — We have forwarded a sample of 
your honey to Mr. 0. Hehner, and trust to be able to 
insert his report thereon in our next issue. 



Dry Sugar Feeding. — Referring to Mr. Simmins's letter 
on dry-sugar feeding, in last Journal, will he kindly state. 
Will the usual-size hole for syrup feeding cut in quilts, say, 
1J x J, be sufficient to pile the sugar over, or must there be 
a larger hole made ? 1 mean to have ticking next frames, 
the sugar placed on that, and then the thick quilts over the 
sugar, or American-cloth next the sugar if preferred, and, 
Will the sugar so placed do for stimulating feeding in the 
spring? — F. J. 

Croaking. — May I say that on several occasions I have 
heard such a sound coming from the hives as a correspon- 
dent called ' croaking ? ' I could hardly believe it came 
from a hive at first, but I have no doubt now. — Br. W. 

Hedges. — I also saw in the Journal a correspondent 
making inquiries about a hedge for the protection of hives. 
I would say that a willow hedge answers the purpose 
admirably. I planted such a hedge three years ago, by 
putting in willow sticks about four feet long, crosswise, 
and the first year it certainly protected the hives. Now it 
is seven feet high, and, although my apiary is in a very 
exposed situation, during the recent gales my hives and 
covers were not displaced in the least. It seems the best 
time to plant is early spring, and it requires constant 
clipping to keep it within bounds, but repays;the labour by 
making a thick, bushy hedge. My hedge is made up of 
several varieties of willow — I think six or seven — the 
bloom of which in spring is very pretty, besides supplying 
the bees with pollen.— Br. W. 



Erratum.— Pago 16, colmun 1, lino 16, for promulgated read 
propagated. 



.Show J^nnouncements. 

Giving Name and Address of Secretary, Date and Place of 
Show, Date of Closing Entries. Terms : Three Insertions 
and under, Two Shillings and Sixpence ; additional inser- 
tions, Sixpence each. No charge made to those Associations 
whose Shows are announced in our general Advertising 
Columns. 

July 11-13. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. Sec. J. Huckle, Kings 
Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Rickards, Poole, near Leeds. 



^Business ^Directory. 



For the use of Manufacturers and Purchasers of Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Appleton, H. M., Dowry Works, 256a Hotwell Road, 

Bristol. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Burtt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 
Edey & Son, St. Neots. 
Hole, J. R. W. , Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Meadiiam, M., Huntington, Hereford. 
Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 
The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, London, 

E.C. 
Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 
Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King William St., Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn 

Walton, E. C. , Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herta. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J. , Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B„ Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

BEE-KEEPERS' GUIDE; or, Manual of the 
Apiary. By A. J. Cook. 14th Thousand. The whole 
work has been thoroughly revised, and contains the very 
latest in respect to Bee-keeping. Price 5s., postage 6d. 
BEE JOURNAL OFFICE, KINGS LANGLEY. 

Iff O -W 15. 3ES A I> "5T I 

VOL. XIV. of 

Jlfhe ^British JBee Journal, 

edited by 

THOS. W. COWAN, F.G.8., F.R.M.S., 

Containing upwards of 600 pages, with numerous Illus- 
trations, and Complete Index. 

Bound in Cloth, price 10s. Cloth Cases for Binding, Is. 
each ; post free, Is. 3d. 

KENT & CO., 23 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON; 
J. HUCKLE, KINGS LANGLEY, HERTS. 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Sthanoeways' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c' 



[No. 240. Vol. XV.] 



JANUARY 27, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 




Bingham Smoker. 



€tnxtaxwl f Sottas, #r. 



HOW TO MAKE A BELLOWS SMOKER. 

A good smoker is an indispensable implement in the ' 
apiary. One of the best is the Bingham, and although 
there are many sold as Bingham 
smokers, some of these are only 
very inferior imitations of it. 
There is nothing more trying to 
the patience than to find, during 
an operation, that the smoker one 
is using will not work and will 
not send forth the needed smoke ; 
and yet it has been our lot, not 
unfrequently, to come across such 
a smoker when assisting a brother 
bee-keeper in his manipulations. 
We have seen some made in this 
country that worked quite as well 
as the originals, but the majority 
are made with a view to cheap- 
ness, and not efficiency, and quite 
regardless of the principles upon which a smoker should 
be constructed. 
The usual defects consist in using unsuitable springs, 
and leather for bellows, and in not 
making the entrance in the barrel above 
the blast-pipe in the shape of a funnel. 
This defect, if the pipe and the hole 
above it are not exactly in a line, causes 
a great deal of air which ought to be 
driven into the smoker to pass on one 
side, and the full power of the bellows 
is not utilised. The spring being of steel 
instead of brass, and 
the wrong shape,pre- 
veuts the bellows 
working smoothly 
and closing suffi- 
ciently, so that the 
whole volume of air 
in the bellows can- 
not be driven out. 
The only drawing 
and description of a 
Bingham smoker we 
know of is that 
given lately by Mr. 
Cheshire, but from 
his drawings it is 
evident that he has 
either never seen a 
*=■' genuine one, or else 

he has never dissected one to ascertain its mechanism, 
and has not understood the principles upon which 





Fis. 3. 



it is constructed. We need hardly say that if any 
one made a smoker from the drawing given by 
him, it would only resemble the Bingham in outward 
appearance, and would be no better than many of the 
imitations at present in the market. The illustration he 
gives ou page 13 of the prac- 
tical part of Bees and Bee- 
keeping, and which appears to 
be an exact facsimile of the 
illustration given in the first 
and second editions of our 
Guide-book (see illustration in 
previous column), with the 
smoke added, is that of an old 
pattern discarded in 1883 ; but 
even in this the interior is 
similar to the one we are 
about to describe, and which has been the only pattern 
sent out by Mr. Bingham since 1883. 

The illustrations we give are drawn one quarter of full 
size, or a scale of 3 inches to 
a foot, except Fig. 9, which 
is 2 inches to the foot. 

Fig. 1 is a vertical, and 
Fig. 2 a horizontal section, 
through the blast pipe and top board of the bellows. 
Fig 3 is a section of the bottom board through the valve. 

We will first make the tin work of the smoker. 

The barrel, A, is 2^ inches in diameter and 6J inches 
long. No solder should be 
used, as the heat would soon 
melt it and the smoker would 
come to pieces ; therefore all 
the joints in the tin work 
must be made without it. The 
lower edge of the barrel is 
turned outwards, and the 
bottom has its edge turned 
over this, as shown at B. The 
nozzle, C, is 5§ inches long, 
and fits over the top end of 
the barrel, tapering to the top, 
at which the opening, D, is 
half an inch in diameter. 

Three quarters of an inch 
from the bottom of the barrel 
bore a half-inch hole, E. Then get a piece of wood 
an inch in diameter, and cut one end to the shape of a 
cone. Place the pointed end in the hole and drive in the 
tin until you have a funnel as seen in the illustration. 
This funnel, although apparently of trifling importance, 
and is omitted in nine out of ten smokers as well as in the 
illustration above alluded to, adds greatly to their 
efficiency. If the blast-pipe does not correspond exactly 
with the hole in the barrel, without the funnel, part of 
the air is blown on to the round surface and is lost, 
whereas when it impinges on the inner sides of the funne, 
it is propelled forward, in the direction of the arrows, 




Fia. 4. 



32 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 27, 1887. 



1 1 


i ! 


■ 


3 
Q 


! i 


• 


W 


/'" 


--*U 


|» 


1 "1 




v_ 




X 







Pig. 5. 



through the opening, E, and not a particle of air is 
■wasted. 

We have next to make the support, F G, -which carries 
the barrel and the hand-guard. This should be a piece of 
tin 7i inches long and If inches -wide. At 1J inches from 
one end cut in f of an inch 
■with a pair of shears, on each 
side, and turn these edges 
over and hammer them down 
flat. Do the same thing at 
the other end and turn down 
the edges of the centre part at 
at right angles, thus : I I . 
Turn up the end, F, at right 
angles, and the end, G, at. an 
angle of forty-five degrees, 
as seen in Fig. 1. The dis- 
tance between F and G should 
be 4| inches from angle to 
angle. 

For the hand-guard, cut a 
piece of tin 6J inches by 4 
inches and bend it, as shown at I, Fig. 2. Then get a 
short piece, H, and turn up the end at right angles, 
thus : ]_• £ke top end must be shaped as shown at H, 
Fig. 2, as it is intended to support 
the barrel. This piece as well as the 
hand-guard can now be riveted to the 
support, F G. At | of an inch from 
the end corresponding to the hole in 
the barrel, punch a |-inch hole to 
allow the blast-pipe to pass through. 
The support is now ready to be fixed 
to the barrel by means of two rivets, 
seen in Fig. 1. The grating, L, is of 
sheet-iron, with" g -inch holes punched 
closely all over it. Two strips of 
sheet-iron, j$ of an inch wide, are 
riveted on in the shape of a cross 
and turned down right at angles to 
form legs, M, which must be 1| of an 
inch long. Before putting in the grating, spring the legs 
out a little, so that when pushed down the barrel it will 
be kept in position. 

"We will next make the springs. There is nothing- 
better for this purpose than No. 16 brass spring wire ; 
and this, together with the shape, is what makes the 

Bingham bellows work 
p ' H ) n so smoothly and plea- 

santly, without fatigu- 
ing the hand of the 



Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 



operator. The best way to make them is to drive into 
the edge of a piece of inch board two iron pins W of an 
inch in diameter, and projecting about f of an inch. 
Cut your wire 14 inches long and lay it on the board 
against the iron pins, so that both ends project the same 
length beyond them. By referring to Fig. 6 it will he 
seen that the end, P, is turned to 
the right over pin «, and the end 
to the left over pin b. Each end 
must have two complete turns and 
part of a third turn until the ends 
P and U stand at right angles, in 
the position shown in Fig. 6. The 
•wire is then taken off the pins and bent at N, until the 
two spirals meet and the wires P and O are brought in 
contact with each other, as shown in Fig. 7. Close to 
the coils give the wires a slight bend, seen in Fig. 8, 
which shows the spring when it is slightly pressed down, 
as it would be when between the two boards of the 
bellows. The springs, however, are stronger if left at 
right angles. The only metal work remaining to be made 
is the spring Q, of which a side view is seen in Fig. 1, 
and a plan in Fig. 5. This consists of a piece of No. 22 
brass spring wire 3 inches long bent into the shape shown 




in Fig. 1, so as to allow the valve sufficient play, and an 
eye is turned at the end through which it is fastened by 
means of a tack to the bottom board of the bellows. 

We will next proceed to make the bellows. For the 
wood-work we can have nothing better than well- 
seasoned yellow pine free from knots, as lime-wood, which 
is usually used, is not so common with us as it is in 
America. 

The pieces of wood necessary will be : 
Two pieces 5\ x 5 x f inchesj planed on both sides. _ 
Two pieces 4£ x J x T V inches at one edge, and i inch 
at the other, as shown at K, Figs. 1, 4, and 5. 

One piece S, Jig. 1, 4| x J x * inch, with a gioove 
tV inch wide, sawn half way through J inch from the 
ends. These are to allow "the wire to pass through 
which is used for fastening the support of the barrel 
F G to the woodwork. 

One piece T, 2-J x f x § inch. 
One piece U, 2 x 2 x j inch for valve. 
In the board, Fig. 4, taking as a centre f inch from 
the edge cut out with a centrebit a f inch 
hole. In board, Fig. 5, two inches from 
the edge, cut out a hole H inches in dia- 
meter. 

In piece S, at f inch from one end, 
bore a g inch hole, and drive into it tightly 
a piece of brass tube, the mouth of which 
is contracted to finch as seen at K. This 
contraction is easily made by driving the 
tube into a conical hole drilled in a piece 
of iron. Just below the blast-pipe chisel 
out a piece is inch deep to admit a strip 
of wire gauze which is to be placed there 
to prevent the possibility of any dirt or ash 
from the smoker getting accidentally into 
the bellows. 

The piece S can now be glued on the 
board, Fig. 4, in the position shown by the 
dotted lines, it being on the underside in 
the illustration. To prevent its being 
broken off, drive two wire nails through, 
and clinch them as shown in Fig. 1. Glue 
the strips R on each of the boards, with 
the thickest edges towards the hinge, and 
the piece T § of an inch away from K, 
Fig. 4. Secure all these pieces with a 
couple of nails each, but do not allow 
the points of the nails to go through the 
boards, and thus disfigure them. The piece 
of wood V, Fig. 4, is 3£ inches long by 
y S th inch square. The two ends are 
rounded, so as to allow them to fit tightly 
into the holes of the spirals in the spring. 
A piece of No. 22 wire is inserted through 
the holes, and lays along the side of the 
wood, and when the springs are in the 
position seen in Fig. 4 the ends of the wire are turned 
up, and prevent the springs from slipping off. 

The boards are now ready to put together, and to 
have the hinge put on. This is a strip of leather 5 inches 
long and 1 5 inches wide. 

Lay the two boards, Figs, 4 and 5, so that the strips 
K face each other. Then glue the ends, and put on the 
leather. The valve TJ can then be fixed. It has a groove 
sawn out through half its length to allow the spring Q 
to work in it and keep it in its place, and this side is 
rounded off as shown in Fig. 3. The valve can be fixed 
to a piece of leather W, 8£ x 2 inches, by means of a 
short tack driven through the centre, the point being- 
riveted on the other side. The wood of the valve 
should not be glued to the leather. Two tacks at one 
end, Fig. 5, will keep the leather in its place, and allow 
it to move freely up and down at the other end. Now 
nail the spring Q in its place, and put the loose end into 
the groove of the valve. Nail a strip of leather about 



January 27, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



33 



4i inches long by | inch -wide loosely over the valve, so 
that when this is open, the opening does not exceed £ of 
an inch. 

The leather used for the bellows should be Persian, or 
a similar strong and not too pliable leather, and must be 
cut to the size and shape shown in Fig. 9. The widest 
part of the leather is 2J inches, and the narrow ends 
1| inches. If many pieces are to he cut it is better to 
have the pattern made of sheet zinc to cut the leather 
out by. 

The spring being in its place and at right angles, we 
shall want something to keep the boards the exact 
distance apart while we are fixing on the leal her. This 
can be a stout wire cramp, bent thus j™~ |. the 

distance between the points being just 2f inches, or a 
piece of wood may be used with a notch the same size 
cut out of it. Carefully glue the edges of the boards, 
commencing from the narrowest part, and lay on the 
leather, starting from where the tapered part begins ; 
and before removing the cramp, drive in a tack close to 
the end in each board. The ends and other sides can then 
be glued, and the leather secured in its place. The two 
end pieces which have to go over the hinge are better 
fastened with paste. Where the ends overlap, the 
edges should be thinned down by paring with a sharp 
knife. All round the edge we can nail strips of leather 
j inch wide by means of tacks, of which there should be 
six on the longest side and five on the shortest. These 
strips of leather need not be glued. 

It now remains only to put the bellows and barrel 
together to complete the smoker. 

The support of the barrel is slipped on to the piece of 
wood S and a couple of tacks, as seen in Fig. 2, are driven 
into the wood on each side through the tin sides of the 
support F, G, which we previously turned down at right 
angles. As an additional precaution against accident 
and breakage we can tie the support to the wood by 
means of annealed iron wire, which is passed through 
the saw grooves in piece S and over the angles of support 
F, G. Bring the ends together and two or three twists 
with a pair of pliers will make all firm. 

If our instructions are carefully carried out we shall 
have a real Bingham that will send a greater volume of 
smoke, and that to a greater distance, than any other 
smoker we know. We have had such a smoker in use 
since 1878, and although we have been obliged to renew 
the barrel which became worn through from constant 
use, nothing has been done to the bellows, which is jnst 
as good as it was on the first day we had it. A smoker 
like this will burn almost any sort of fuel that will pro- 
duce smoke when smouldering. We use old rags, brown 
paper or sacking, but peat, decayed wood, or even 
ordinary fire wood will do, when it is well kindled. 
In using old rags we tear them into strips about four 
or five inches wide, and roll them up loosely until they 
nearly fill the barrel, they are then tied to prevent 
them from unwinding when stored away, for we always 
get a lot ready at one time. One end of the roll for 
about | of an inch is dipped into a weak solution of salt- 
petre and when dry this end will light easily with a 
match. Brown paper is rolled up in the same way, but 
we generally lay in a few straws, cut to the same length, 
between the layers. One end of these brown paper rolls 
is also soaked in the solution of saltpetre. 

When we use sacking it is generally from an artificial 
manure bag, as these cost us nothing. The edges of 
these rolls are also soaked in saltpetre solution to make 
them light more readily. Firewood is cut four inches 
long and split into pieces \ to f an inch square, and must 
be perfectly dry. To light if put a few live coals or 
lighted shavings into the barrel and fill up with the 
sticks. Put in the lighted end of either fuel used to- 
wards the grating. 

When the smoker is stood on end, as in Fig. 1, the 
upward draught causes the fuel to burn freely. When 



we wish to extinguish it the smoker is laid down on the 
bellows bottom and the nozzle plugged. A smoker pro- 
perly charged will burn for five or six hours without any 
replenishing. A roll of rag five inches long and 2| 
inches in diameter has lasted us during a whole day's 
operations. If the grating gets stopped up it can be 
cleaned with a wire, and the nozzle should always be 
kept clear. 

We hope these details will enable those who have 
asked us to give them to make an efficient smoker and 
will explain the reasons for the complaints we get from 
time to time about smokers not working properly. 



WEBSTEB'S SWIVEL FBAME-LIFTEE. 

This appliance, which was shown at the Conver- 
sazione of the British Bee-keepers' Association, held on 
the 19th inst, and evidently met the approval of all 
present, is the invention of Mr. W. B. Webster, and 
will no doubt supply a want long felt. 

As the illustration denotes, it consists of a handle 
H revolving on a swivel, a bar B, which carries two 
dogs or clutches D, one on each end ; these being opened 
by raising the rod B, but automatically closing by 
the pressure of the spring S on each end of same rod, 




^£5? 



two guides G G carry this rod and keep the whole firm , 
preventing any swaying of the clutches. Such is a 
description of this ingenious appliance; its manner of 
use will present itself to our readers. 

As is well known, in removing a frame from a hive, 
both hands have to be employed ; with this instrument, 
only one — the left hand — is needed, leaving the right 
hand free to do anything that is required, such as catch- 
ing the queen, on taking one off the comb the frame can 
be replaced in the hive, still only using the left hand 
to do so. If both sides of the frame have to be ex- 
amined, it can be turned round in its natural position by 
means of the swivel handle ; this will be found of great 
importance, as in the ordinary method the frames have 
to be turned upside down in order to examine the 
opposite side ; the bees being thus ' inverted,' commence 
righting themselves, throwing all into confusion, in 
which the queen joins, and so frequently escaping ob- 
servation. By the peculiar arrangement of the clutches, 
the heavier a frame is the tighter the grip, there being, 
therefore, no chances whatever of its falling. 

In the Ileddon hive this will no doubt be found a very 
necessary appliance, there being no ' ears ' to the frames 
to hold by, when any necessity arises for removing 
one. 



84 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL 



[January 27, 1887. 



BRITISH BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 
Committee meeting held at 105 Jermyn Street, on 
Wednesday, January 19th. Present the Hon. and Rev. 
II. Bligh (in the Chair), Rev. Dr. Bartrum, Rev. F. Gr. 
Jenvns, Rev. F. S. Sclater, Captain Bush, Captain 
Campbell, J. M. Hooker, H. Jonas, and the Secretary. 
The minutes of the last meeting having been read and 
confirmed, Dr. Bartrum moved, and the Chairman 
seconded, ' That this Association desires to express the deep 
sense of the loss the Royal Agricultural Society and the 
British Bee-keepers' Association have experienced in the 
death of Mr. H. M. Jenkins, late Secretary of the Royal 
Agricultural Society. Mr. Jenkins was always most 
willing and anxious to assist in the advancement of 
Britisn bee-keeping as an industry closely connected 
with the progress of agriculture; and this Association 
desires to express its deep and sincere sympathy with 
Mrs. Jenkins in the affliction that has befallen her, and 
begs to assure her that the memory of Mr. Jenkins will 
be long and gratefully cherished by this Association.' 

On the motion of Mr. Jonas, and seconded by Captain 
Bush, it was resolved to arrange for an expert's or 
lecturing tour in the Northern counties preparatory to 
the Newcastle Show. 

The statement of accounts for the past year, as audited 
and duly signed by the Auditor, Treasurer, and Secre- 
tary, was presented, and, after some discussion, was 
passed, and ordered to be printed in the Report. 

The Finance Committee presented a lengthy - report 
of the financial condition of the Association, accompanied 
by statistics and recommendations in regard to the ex- 
penditure during the ensuing year. 

Captain Bush moved, and Captain Campbell seconded, 
a vote of thanks to the Finance Committee, for their full 
and complete report. 

Prior to the Conversazione, which commenced at six 
o'clock, a meeting of County Representatives was held. 
There were present, W. Horton Ellis, Devon ; Mr. A. B. 
Lipscombe, Herts; Rev. W. E. Burkitt, Wilts; J. 
Garratt, Kent; T. J. Witt, Surrey; W. L. McClure, 
Lancashire and Cheshire. 

The minutes of the last Quarterly Conference having 
been read, Mr. McClure called attention to the rules laid 
down for the management of the County Competition at 
South Kensington, and on behalf of the Lancashire and 
Cheshire Association he was requested to state that it 
was considered advisable that in any such future com- 
petition the regulation as to corking of the bottles of 
honey should be dispensed with, and that the mode of 
fastening the mouths of the bottles should be left entirely 
to the discretion of the exhibitor, and that in the event 
of any method being adopted which in the opinion of the 
judges was not secure the same should be disqualified. 
In regard to sections, Mr. McClure further recommended 
that no limit should be made in regard to size or weight, 
and that the mode of protecting them from bees or other 
injury should be left entirely open, in order that scope 
might be given for new inventions in this direction. 

The matter having been discussed, the Chairman 
pointed out that the regulations had been made upon the 
recommendations and suggestions of the County Repre- 
sentatives themselves at a fully attended meeting ; and 
although some members of the Committee were in 
accord with Mr. McClure 's views, the majority were of 
opinion that for exhibition purposes it was necessary to 
have the regulations defined. In the event of any such 
competitions being arranged in the future, full con- 
sideration would be given to the views of the Lancashire 
and Cheshire Association. 

The meeting then resolved itself into the Conver- 
sazione, when among the audience assembled were the 
Rev. F. G. Jenyns, the Hon. and Rev. Henry Bligh, 
the Rev. Dr. Bartrum, Mr. Jonas, Captain Campbell, 
Mr. Meggy, Mr. Grimshaw, Mr. T. B. Blow, Mr. Hen- 



derson, Mr. Garratt, Mr. Sambels, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. 
Haviland, the Rev. W. E. Burkitt, Mr. J. Lee, and 
other gentlemen, and two ladies. 

The Rev. F. G. Jenyns (Chairman), in opening the 
proceedings, said the Committee felt great satisfaction 
at seeing so many friends of their cause gathered 
together for the purpose of hearing the paper which 
Mr. Grimshaw had kindly promised to read, entitled 
' The Vocal Organs of Bees.' It had been said — and he 
thought with truth— that there was nothing too minute 
in nature to justify the closest and most careful obser- 
vation ; there was no doubt that wonderful discoveries 
had, in many instances, been led up to from insignificant 
beginnings. At first sight it seemed to be unimportant 
what cause gave rise to the buzzing or humming, but at 
all events the subject was interesting to bee-lovers, as, 
indeed, was everything connected with the organization 
of the bee. He hoped and believed he would learn 
something that evening, which possibly some day or 
other might be turned to practical use. He knew very 
little respecting the organs of sound in the bee, and 
what little knowledge he had was gained from Mr. 
Cheshire. That gentleman, if he could have been 
present, would have no doubt contributed some valuable 
information to the discussion— valuable, because given 
by a very close observer who had a thorough acquaint- 
ance with the subject. 

Mr. Grimshaw, in the course of a few prefatory 
remarks, said he felt considerable diffidence in speaking 
on a high scientific subject before the select audience 
present that evening, and for the purpose of showing 
how the paper he was about to read had originated he 
wished to carry their minds back twelve months to the 
quarterly meeting held in January, 1886, when he had 
the honour of communicating to them by means of a 
paper his opinions regarding the bee-sting. On that 
occasion the discussion which followed trenched upon 
the subject of the vocal and auditory organs of bees, 
and his views thereon were asked. At that time he 
had almost completed a paper on the question, and 
he undertook with their consent to read it on tho 
earliest opportunity. He had now much pleasure in 
doing so, as follows : — 

The Vocal Obgans of Bees. 

It may be thought that the subject I have chosen to 
say a few words on is more fitted for discussion amongst 
physiologists than bee-keepers. Perhaps so ; yet the in- 
teresting conversation at the quarterly meeting just a 
year ago leads me to suppose that the more the bee- 
keeper studies the construction and habits of his 
favourites, the more successful will he become as a 
honey-farmer, exactly as the most economical and trust- 
worthy engineer is he who best has studied the scientific 
' why and wherefore ' of . the intricate machinery under 
his charge. If bees can hear, we may reasonably con- 
clude they have a voice. If bees have a voice, there is 
at once a strong presumption that they can hear, and 
that these two faculties are given them for the purpose 
of communicating with each other. I know of nothing 
in nature having the one organ without the other. 

It is on record that during swarming bees have been 
dispersed by the noise of a band of music, re-assembling 
in the intervals of silence. The whole of an apiary has 
been suddenly aroused by the noise emitted by an in- 
jured queen, the bees stinging every living thing within 
reach. A sound uttered by the Death's-head moth 
{Acherontia atropos) is said to paralyse them. The 
queen and imprisoned young queens evidently hear and 
reply to each other before the issue of a swarm. Kirby 
tells us {The Honey Bee, Nat. Lib., p. 54) that the an- 
tennas, ' by a peculiar structure may collect notices from 
the atmosphere, receive pulses or vibrations, and commu- 
nicate them to the sensorium, which communications, 
though not precisely to be called hearing, may answer 



January 27, 1887. J 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



35 



purpose.' I wonder why this is not precisely 
lied Bearing ! Then, again, they are provided 



the same 

to be called bearing ! Then, again, they are pr< 
with depressions on the antenna; which Mr. Cheshire 
reasonably suggests are ' auditory hollows,' connected as 
these depressions are with the end of a nerve, precisely 
as the auditory hollow on the transmitter of a telephone 
is connected with the telegraphic nerve-wire. Such an 
extremely sensitive diaphragm may easily be susceptible 
to myriads of impressions from members of their own 
kind, although not responding by visible signs to un- 
intelligible tones made by methods used upon them in 
vain by modern scientists. 

It is well said* that we ourselves are not visibly 
affected by the sound of booming cannon, the roar of 
thunder, or the surging of the waves on a rock-bound 
coast ; yet let a child's tiny shriek fall on one's ear in 
our crowded streets and all is alarm and agitation. To 
deny the power of hearing to bees because they don't 
respond to our sound productions, is equal to doubting 
the efficacy of the telephone or microphone when their 
transmitting accuracy is disturbed by violent usage. 

Much could be advanced, and innumerable instances 
quoted, in favour of the theory that our favourite insects 
can hear, much also that they cannot ; amongst the 
ancient unbelievers being- Linna3us and Bonnet: Aristotle 
and Huber remain doubtful, yet the latter somewhat 
inconsistently gives instances of sounds uttered by them 
with the effects produced upon the hearers. Then comes 
the question, Can they speak P I mean by speaking the 
utterance of sounds intelligible to themselves. 

Dr. Wollaston (Ins. Misc., p. 104) says, ' Since there 
is nothing in the constitution of the atmosphere to 
prevent vibrations much more frequent than any of 
which we are conscious, we may imagine that animals, 
like the crickets (Grylli), whose powers appear to com- 
mence nearly where ours terminate, may have the faculty 
of hearing still sharper sounds which, at present, we do 
not know to exist ; and that there may be other insects 
(this is what I wish you to specially notice), having 
nothing in common with us, but endowed with a power 
of exciting, and a seuse that perceives, vibrations indeed 
of the same nature as those which constitute our ordinary 
sounds, but so remote that the animals who perceive 
them may be said to possess another sense, agreeing 
with our own solely in the medium by which it is 
excited, and possibly wholly unaffected by the slower 
vibrations of which we are' sensible.' This is what I 
call a fair description of intensely sensitive auditory 
organs. Flies on the diaphragm of a microphone have 
been heard to utter trumpet tones otherwise inaudible 
to us. 

If I can show that bees utter sounds certainly under- 
stood by us, how many more must there be which we, 
with out comparatively coarse appreciation and imperfect 
comprehension, are unacquainted with ? We all know 
the lazy contented boom of the drone, as contrasted with 
the irritated whizz and whirr of the disturbed honey- 
gatherer. We recognise the contented hum of the quiet 
prosperous hive in opposition to the sharp ' poop, poop ' 
of theloit queenless bee. The sounds of swarming are 
as distinct to us as are our own distinctive notes. Many 
of these regular tones, 'familiar to us as household 
words,' are doubtless of no special moment to the bee, 
yet they show to their community that ' all goes well,' 
everything is as it should be outside the hive ; these 
involuntary notes are a sort of perpetual assurance that 
the outside world is going on much as it should. 

Our vocal organs, as we know, consist, firstly, of a 
reservoir of air in the lungs, which can be compressed 
by means of the diaphragm and the rib-muscles, and 
expressed either gently or with considerable force ; and, 
secondly, of an air-tube (the throat), at the opening of 
which is the glottis. It is the striking of air upon the 
lips of the gl ottis which, with muscular contraction and 

* Cheshire. 



expansion tightening or slackening them, causes the 
varying- sounds of the human voice. Let them be so 
tightened that they touch each other, and their vibra- 
tions become so rapid that a high note in the scale 
results ; slacken them, and the notes fall in exact ratio. 
From the human voice let us go to the sound produced 
in some musical instruments — the oboe, the bassoon, and 
various others. Here two pieces of reed are scraped 
down until they are exceedingly thin ; they are fastened 
together and placed within the lips, when, after a little 
practice, we are able to produce the peculiar buzzing 
notes which give to reed instruments their characteristic 
charm. 

So, I contend, is it with the vocal organs of bees ; 
they have their air reservoirs (I do not allude to the 
trachea in the abdomen) which serve for them the same 
purposes as our own, namely, for oxygenizing the life 
fluid, and for uttering these signals to others of their 
kind which we term language. 

Behind each of the bee's four-wings, two on either 
side, are spiracles or air-throats, and these are so placed 
with regard to the wing, that upon air being expelled 
from the reservoirs, it impinges upon the edge of the 
wing exactly as the air from the lungs of the musician 
strikes upon the edges of the reeds, or upon the lips of 
the glottis in the case of vocalists, causing such vibra- 
tions as produce notes. Add to this, muscular tightening 
or slackening of the film, and its height or depth is 
varied. This, I imagine, will produce the voice-tones 
which may be a perfectly comprehensible language to 
bees, although unheard by us, in the same sense as a 
whispered conversation at the other end of the room 
would be here inaudible. In passing : — A j'Oung sou of 
mine has informed me that last season he repeatedly 
observed his pet humble bees vibrate their wings when 
not extended so as to join the two side wings together 
by the bent plate and hooks, and that the sound pro- 
duced with the wings, so to speak, loose, were quite 
distinct in tone and character from the usual bee-notes. 

I do not suppose this theoiy will ever be more than a 
hypothesis until we introduce the receiver of the micro- 
phone into the observatory-hive — not a difficult thing 
for scientists. As for the well-known notes we actually 
hear, it is no new theory that they are produced as 
Swammerdam says : — 'By the motion of the wings, which 
is increased by the internal air propelled out of their 
bodies through the air-tubes at the same time ; for some 
of these pipes open with wide apertures under the wings. 
Certain cavities, also, fit for receiving and vibrating 
the air, and formed under and behind the wings, 
contribute to this. Xor must the shoulder-blades be 
excluded from their share in this music, since they are 
placed just above the wings, joined to the chest, and 
having under their breadth the openings of several air 
pipes. It is thus the motion of the wings, with the 
assistance of all these parts, and by force of the pro- 
pelled air, makes the humming noise peculiar to that 
insect.'* Reaumur attributes the sounds of bees ' to the 
wings beating more or less rapidly against the air, ac- 
cording also, it may be, to the different angles at which 
it is struck; t and he expressly says, that a bee whose 
wings are eradicated is perfectly mute. Hunter, on the 
the other hand,J affirms that, though the wings be : i 
off, and the legs held fast, they can still emit a shrill 
peevish sound, as they can also do when their wings are 
smeared with honey, and even when they are held under 
water, which he observed to vibrate at the point of 
contact with the air-holes at the root of the wings. 

Since writing the above, the sixth part of Mr. 
Cheshire's admirable work on bees has appeared, and he, 
as ever, goes most exhaustively into the question. He 
quotes Landois, who noticed three tones in the flight 
sound : — (1), the wing beats, (2), vibrations in the 

* Biblia Nature, i. p. 168. t Memoires, p. 617. 
+ Phil. Trans. 1792. 



30 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 27, 1881 



abdominal rings, (3), notes from the true vocal apparatus 
placed in the stigmatic orifices (he stopped these with 
wax and brought the humming to a close at once). Mr. 
Cheshire tells us that the wings undoubtedly do the 
buzzing, but the humming is as clearly the outcome of 
an apparatus within the spiracles of the bee. He goes 
on to describe this anatomically, and concludes by 
attributing the voice of the bee to sounds emitted by 
plaited and fringed curtains lying behind the edges of 
the spiracle, these curtains being played upon by air 
puffed in and out at the will of the bee. Whether by 
this means, or by the air being forced against the wing 
edges, by vibration of the wings, or by all of these 
methods, I hope I have shown you that there is a strong 
weight of evidence, containing facts which if not al- 
ready known to us may be easily verified, in support of 
the assertion that bees, in common with many other 
insects can hear, by organs not dissimilar to ours, that 
they can also utter varying voice tones by a method also 
much resembling that producing the voice-tones of man 
and the greater part of animated nature which inter- 
communicates impressions and desires, and that these 
two faculties, hearing and speaking, are possessed by 
bees, not without an object, as we can perceive always 
in the works of nature if we examine them closely, but 
with the distinct object of being used as we use language, 
and as every other animal uses language which possesses 
the apparatus suitable for vocal signalling. 

Granting this much may we not, without disagreeing 
on points of anatomical structure, conclude that the 
voice of bees is duplex, first vibratory by the wings as 
exemplified by the hummer wood, continuous during 
flight, and conveying only a general assurance of con- 
tentment or alarm ; secondly, truly vocal by means of 
the air-sac (the lungs), the spiracle (the throat), and one 
or more vibrating lips against which the air strikes in 
respiration, producing notes some of which even we can 
hear and understand? The vibratory method I will 
illustrate by the hummer and the truly vocal by the 
oboe reed. 

[The discussion on precediug paper, with the remainder 
of the matters discussed at the Conversazione, will be 
given in our next issue. — Ed.] 



€axxt8$avfotm£. 



The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be talcen of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to ■write on one side of 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee ofgoodfaith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
£c, must be addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," c/o Messrs. Strang sways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin* s Lane, London, W.C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

* m * In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when spealdng oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige (>y mentioning the 
number of the letter, a3 well as the page on which it appeal's. 



TWO VISITS TO AN APIARY IN WALES. 

[780.] (Jlanrafon, the residence of Nicholas Bennett, 
Esq., J.I', for Montgomeryshire, is situated in the lovely 
valley of Llawry Glyn, through which the noted trout 
stream, the Trannon, flows. Although Glanrafon is only 
a few miles from the summit of Plynlimmon, contrary to 
what might be expected, it is admirably situated for bee- 
culture, being sheltered by lofty hills covered with rich, 
honey-yielding plants flowering at various periods of the 
year. In the spring immense quantities of plants of the 
orders Salicaceae and Corylaceaj shed their pollen; the 
latter, however, has little attraction for bees, being wind- 
fertilised ; but, later on, in addition to other honey- 



yielding plants, scores of acres of white clover are 
cultivated — thence an immense quantity of honey of the 
richest aroma might be collected ; but, 

'Alas ! full many a flower is born to blush unseen, 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air.' 

Some of the hills appear to be gilded when they are 
covered at a period of the year with the blossoms of 
Lotus corniculatus (a plant much visited by bees). At 
the same period one hill is a mass of thousands of 'white 
butterflies,' the flowers of the sweetest of plants, Orchis 
bifolia. There are also miles of plants of the order Eri- 
caceae which tinge the mountains with the purple heather. 

Mr. Bennett may truly be said to be a disciple of Dr. 
Bevan, having enjoyed the friendship and acquaintance 
of the ' bee-doctor' in his early dajs for a considerable 
time, and from him learning a great deal of bee-keeping, 
&c. 

Mr. Bennett is now advanced in years, and vast im- 
provements have been made in apiculture since Bevan's 
time, but still with very great regard for his first bee- 
master he shows his visitors a very rare work upon bees 
by his friend Dr. Bevan. Mr. Bennett has all his life 
studied bees with his favourite hives, facsimile Bevan's, 
from which he has taken immense quantities of the 
richest and most beautiful honey. January, 1886, found 
the apiary consisting of a large number of Bevan's hives, 
and, alas ! the poor bees gone to their final rest, except- 
ing one solitary colony in a very weak condition. It 
might be mentioned that the much-respected mother of 
this gentleman, Mrs. Bennett, when only fourteen years 
old, found a stray swarm on the Plynlimmon Hills, and 
successfully hived it herself in a milk stean (a small milk 
pail),without help, from which the whole of the neighbour- 
hood has been supplied with stocks through her kindness. 
Mrs. Bennett had great delight and success with her bees, 
but she has gone to her rest many years ago, and the 
stocks of bees in the apiary dwindled down to almost 
extinction. The surviving queen was found in possession 
of a space between the ceiling and floor of a large room 
of the hall — the bees of which plundering all hives in 
the vicinitj r . As it has been impossible to disturb ' the 
Gipsies,' as Mr. Bennett has named them (and it might 
be added Mr. Bennett has the greatest regard for Gipsies 
of another kind, and is a true and good friend to them), 
they must have an immense quantity of honey, having 
never swarmed and being each year exceedingly strong 
in bees. 

Mr. Bennett has taken immense quantities of honey 
of delicious aroma and other good qualities, but at the 
time of the visit he was sorely distressed about his 
stock in Bevan's hive — ' his sole remaining joy,' or ' last 
of his flock.' He consented with great reluctance to 
have the hive opened or examined ! — knowing nothing of 
the modern methods of bee-keeping, having not even so 
much as heard of the existence of the British Bee 
Journal. No John Peels about, and work of County 
Associations complete, &c. However, one of Bevan s 
hives was prepared for the reception of moveable frames 
— frames prepared and all got ready for transferring the 
stock to the new hive — but, upon turning it out, behold! 
the honey had been extracted by the six-legged bees to 
their dwelling already mentioned, and only about half 
a pound of bees left, but queen extra muros ! A few 
days after a frame with -adhering bees was lifted out of 
the now modern hive, a fertile queen was placed right 
in their midst, which was joyfully received, and which 
eventually built tlio colony into a very successful and 
prosperous one. Mr. Bennett was amazed at these pro- 
ceedings, telling a friend some time after that he thought 
he was fifty years in advance of any bee-keeper in his 
neighbourhood with his Bevan's hives, hut now he found 
he was fifty years back ! 

1887, January. During the year such progress has 
been made, such knowledge gained, that Sir. Bennett 



January 27, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



37 



expressed to me that lie could hardly have believed it 
could have been possible to have made such alterations 
and improvements in his apiary. There is now a good- 
sized bee-house filled with hives, of course with moveable 
frames and all latest improvements ; a large row of hives 
containing Standard sized frames, suitable for the pro- 
duction of comb or extracted honey, and all capable of 
working on the very latest systems of honey production. 
The hives are arranged most artistically amongst the 
shrubs of his pretty and picturesque garden. The 
manipulating house is fitted up with improved Kaynor 
extractors, wax extractors, honey ripeners, &c: arrange- 
ments and apparatus for queen -raising; compartments 
for sections and feeders, &c; in fact, a complete arrange- 
ment of modern bee-keeping apparatus. Then there is 
the workshop fitted with a beautiful lathe, built by the 
late R. lioberts of Manchester, connected with which is 
a circular saw, drilling machine, fret-saw, &c. ; and an 
adjoining room fitted up as a complete smithy. It 
should, however, be mentioned that Mr. Bennett has all 
this for his private amusement and pleasure, and in no 
way with a view to pecuniary interest. He is a most 
ingenious gentleman, and has devised some very useful 
plans for feeding bees, preventing bees from robbing, 
and others connected with managing and arranging 
hives. 

Perhaps the fellowing illustration of the cleverness 
of Mr. Bennett may be useful to some of your readers. 
Fitting up a hive with moveable combs he fixed it in 
such a manner that the 'Gipsies' were forced to travel 
through it — this was easily done by making a hole at 
the back of the hive and fixing it on the outside of the 
entrance of the wall through which the bees made their 
way to and from their inaccessible stores ; but, for a long 
time, no notice was taken of their furnished apartments, 
until Mr. Bennett hit upon the plan of placing a comb 
containing eggs and brood into this hive ; the bees, as 




A Floor-board. E Feeder. 

B Sheet of Tin perforated. F Uncovered Spout to pla( e in D. 

c Holes in perforation, |" diam. G Bee Entrance. 

D Entrance for Feeder. 

he calculated, immediately took possession, filled eight 
standard frames with honey in a week, wax foundations 
toak their place, and a very large quan- 
tity of honey thus secured at various 
intervals during the season. Mr. Bennett 
has also invented a floor-board and a 
modification of Messrs. 
Neighbour's feeder, by 
means of which condemned 
bees may be fed. 

This parish contains an 
enormous amount of sick- 
ening superstitions con- 
nected with bee-keeping and bees, ail account of which 
I am afraidwould make these notes too long ; but, with 
your permission, I shall be pleased to communicate at 
some futuie time, — T. Boxner-Chambeks, F.L.S., 
London, 



Feeder. 



YOBKSHIEE COUNTY ASSOCIATION. 

' Another race the spring and fall supplies ; 
They droop successive, and successive rise.' 

[700.] I fear your readers are getting ' Yorkshire 
relish ' ad nauseam, but I intend to pursue the subject 
relentlessly until one of four things happens: (1.) Until 
you, pere Editor, are sick of the question, aud your gorge 
rises proportionately with my choler. (2.) Until we are 
convinced, by a communication from the Hon. Sec. that 
the Association is so working as to justify its fitness to 
survive, that it has a raison d'etre. (3.) Until it ex- 
plodes with pop-gun report, and melts into thin air, 
leaving us unfettered to form new Associations in 
districts where we will not ' give to airy nothings a 
local habitation and a name ; ' or finally (4.), Until the 
B.B.K.A. emancipate us by expunging the Association 
from their books. 

With all respect to the Hon. Sec. (who, I hear, is an 
estimable gentleman) may I ask one pertinent question ? 
Does he read his B.B.J J and, if so, why does he leave 
us so totally in the dark by not responding to our 
inquiries either in love or auger ? Neither contemptuous 
silence nor sulks befit the occasion, for if my com- 
ments call forth no repty, surely those of your other 
correspondents should command some sort of courteous 
consideration. Even the gods of wood and stone had 
their prophets who spoke, but now, alas ! the invocation 
to Baal brings not the fire to our sacrifice. 

' For ever close the impenetrable door ; 
It naught avails that in its torpid veins 
Year after year life's tottering spark remains.' 

Instead of ' Up mounts the chief ' to tell us of the 
Association and its work, so that helpers might join in 
it, we have only the gloom and silence of space. Poor 
Milton's lines steal into the mind : — 

' The sun to me is dark and silent as the moon 
When she deserts the night, hid in her vacant interlunar cave.' 

I want to make a dreary, dry, and weary subject 
arouse the interest of my brother bee-keepers of the 
county, hinc illce laclwymce. Are we to conclude that 
our Hon. Sec. scorns to speak, or dreads to speak, under 
some such idea as, ' Sh, sir, if I utter but a single tone 
the whole thing will collapse?' Would we could cre- 
mate it, and preserve ' the sacred ashes in a little urn,' 
perchance to be mistaken for Prince's mixture by some 
snuff-taking New Zealander ear. Macaulay ! 

I saw in an index the other day ' Bees and rheumatism,' 
I should have liked to read something about ' Bees and 
bile,' for my bile was very active on the 0th inst. when 
I received the following, the signature, &c, of which I 
will suppress : — 

1 Dear Sir, — Excuse me for being so bold as to write to 
you, but as I have seen your name in the B.B.J., and as I 
am a Yorkshire bee-keeper, I should be glad to join any 
Society that would be a help to us in bee-keeping. I did 
join the Yorkshire Society, and I wrote twice for infor- 
mation about my bees, and I got no reply until the contri- 
butions became due, but declined to pay. I have fourteen 
frame-hives. There are only two more in our village, and 
they are all for the brimstone pit here. I shall be glad, if 
you ever come my way, to give me a call, as I take a great 
interest in bees.' 

Such a letter ought to do more either to awaken the 
Association into new life, or to give it the coup de grace, 
and cause it to be put decently away than any amount 
of appeals or diatribes from — R. A. H. Gbimshaw. 



TOMTITS AGAIN. 

[701.] 1 wish to say a few words on the black-headed 
tit. I have four good stocks of bees in bar-frame hives. 
On the 12th of January I noticed something or other 
had visited two of my hives by the zigzag blocks under 
the porch having been removed, as they did not fit very 



38 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 27, 1887. 



tight ; and about fifty wings and legs of bees were lying 
about near to the hives. I kept watch for about half 
an hour, and I saw, to my surprise, that it was a black- 
headed tit, and then it was at the entrance tapping, 
when out came a bee to see what was the matter. No 
sooner had it appeared than Master Tit caught it and 
flew away with it. He came back in five minutes and 
fetched another, and I got my gun and shot it ; then I 
set a trap at the entrance and caught two others. I 
can prove that they were not dead bees before they 
were caught by them, for they disturbed the bees so as 
to cause several to flv about. — B. W. 



APIFUGES. 

[792.] Mr. A. Green (page 17) considers the word 
inappropriate. I certainly paused before I dared take 
the extreme liberty of coining a word ; but as far as I 
can see it must hold the field until a better is given ; one 
not twice its length and having an absence of euphony. 

If the Latin dictionary be referred to, the vevbfur/io will 
be found to bear the construction, to run away, to be off, 
to vanish, avoid, forbear ; and it was in any, or all, of these 
senses I used it (there is semi-conciliation here), not in 
the sense of a helter-skelter, terrified stampedo down 
amongst the frames. If we use bee-conciliators we shall 
in all probability find our hands covered with bees during 
manipulation, a consummation not devoutly to be wished. 
■ — R. A. H. G., Horsforth, near Leeds. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL QUERIES. -IN VERTIBLE 

HIVES. [756.] 
[793.] I see James Lee, in B. B. J. of January 6, very 
properly calls attention to the state of the larvae in the 
cells when the comb is in its normal position as built hy 
the hees. J. Lee asks if inversion is detrimental to the 
brood, and he seems very strongly to object to invertible 
hives, which, he says, have not been tried. I beg to say 
I have tried them with several hives this season, and all 
gave me nearly double the amount of sections. 

I see D. A. Thomas gives a good account of inversion 
with one hive, I having tried several, claim a right 
to say it is a good plan, and it seems not to hinder the 
bees in their work, as breeding goes on the same ; and 
my hives went into winter stronger than any other hives 
that were not inverted. I do not like the reversible 
frames, as they disturb the brood-nest too much, so I 
think the Heddon hive just what is wanted, and mean to 
try a few this next season, as I did so well with my 
upside-down ones last; and as the Jones-Heddon hive 
is so cheap I advise the cottager bee-keeper to try it. 

Bee-keeping is now taking a step in the right way, I 
think. With the valuable B. B. J. first (not the 
expert), and the British Bee-keepers' Stores with its cheap 
appliances, keeping down the price of hives of fancy 
dealers, and the British Honey Company last, but not. 
least, to buy our honey for cash and to sell it cheap, so 
all can have a taste ; with the New Year and the Jubilee 
Year too, I trust the cottager is going to have his chance 
to gather honey to help in these bad times. It was out of 
his reach when hives were such a price and no market for 
his honey. — Devonshihe Dumpling. 



SALTAIRE EXHIBITION. 

[794.] I notice on page 17 an appeal from Mr. Samuel 
Watson for something to be done towards getting together 
a bee show at the above exhibition about seven miles 
from here ; and it is suggested that I should ' stir up ' 
some of the bee-keepers in the neighbourhood. Now, 
Mr. Watson, don't you think I've done a fair share of 
stirring up lately ? You see our five-barrod-gate of an 



Association prevents any action beyond 'stirring up;' 
anything more would be audacious presumption so long 
as it hangs with the proverbial tenacity of a creaking 
gate. 

I can assure the Secretary of the B. B. K. A. that the 
attendance at Saltaire will be enormous, and it woidd be 
a fitting opportunity for the County Association to rise 
to the occasion and distinguish itself; but let us have no 
fiasco. If we have anything let them give us such 
manipulation as will tend to promote scientific bee- 
keeping in the district. — R. A. II. G., Horsforth, near 
Leeds, 

CLEAR AWAY THE SNOW. 
[795.] In most towns there is a law requiring every 
householder to clear away the snow without delay from 
the front of his own house. As our bees are not able to 
do this for themselves their masters should make it a 
point of conscience to do it for them, and thereby save 
thousands of precious lives. Snow has been lying in 
front of my apiary for twenty-four days, and this morning, 
feeling sure that the brilliant sun and milder weather 
would have wakened up my pets, I went to enjoy the 
sight of their pleasure. The whole scene was alive with 
them, as on a tine day in April ; but alas ! the snow was 
plentif ully sprinkled with dead and dying, those who had 
alighted and fallen upon it becoming quickly numbed 
and stiff. My wife, ever fertile in resource, suggested 
covering the snow with ashes, so I shovelled it away as 
fast as I could, clearing about two yards in front of the 
hives and sprinkling ashes plentifully over the remaining 
patches of ice. Straw or hay would probably have done 
as well; but I shall always in future make it a rule to 
clear away the snow immediately after a fall, and thus 
guard as well as I can against their first flight being 
fatal. I did not observe a single bee that had settled on 
the snow recover itself. 

While watching one of my hives I was greatly sur- 
prised to [see an unmistakable drone make its appearance. 
Dan any one tell me what has been observed of drones 
surviving the winter ? I thought they were never 
allowed to try the experiment. I doubt if this one will 
be allowed to re-enter. I also noticed one bee dragging 
out a team of three dead ones fastened together length- 
wise by the feet. I thought it did both his brains and 
his heart great credit. — C. C. James, PapioortJi St. Aynes 
St. Ives, limits, January 19th. 



RAISING THE TEMPERATURE.— A CHEAP 
FEEDER.— WAX EXTRACTOR. 

[796.] In examining my stocks during the cold 
weather last spring, I used an indiarubber hot-water 
bottle placed over the frames to prevent loss of heat. 
After removing the box of cork-dust on top of the 
quilt, I placed the bottle on the calico quilt, leaving the 
two back frames clear which may then be examined, 
and so on ; before closing up I put a loose quilt over the 
bottle for a minute or so, so as to confine the heat; it 
may then be removed, and the corkdust-box replaced, 
the bees will not only have suffered no loss of heat, but 
will probably have gained some by the transaction. I 
did not find it excited them if not kept on too long ; but 
on one occasion when I raised the temperature too high 
in a stock suffering from d3 r senteiy, it made them leave 
the hive in large numbers, they voided their fpeces very 
freely, and I noticed a marked improvement in their 
condition afterwards, and dysentery soon left them ; I 
infer, therefore, that when bees are lethargic from being 
in this state, raising the temperature on a suitable day 
may be of great advantage to them. 

Those who continue to use syrup for spring feeding 
instead of following the very excellent plan Mr. Siua- 
mins has given us for feeding with dry sugar, can make 



January 27, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



39 



very cheap feeders by taking- a piece of wood six inches 
square, cutting a two-inch square hole in the middle, 
and covering this with a piece of tin four inches square, 
tacked on at one corner, having previously bored about 
a dozen or so holes in it, corresponding with the hole in 
the wood ; this forms the stage over the feed-hole. Invert 
over this with a small tin shovel the ordinary glass jam 
or marmalade jar, of which there are usually quantities 
about. This feeder can be made by anyone for a few 
pence except the shovel, which should cost 6rf. I have 
used nothing but this the last two years for autumn 
feeding. 

Wax ExrEACTOB. — For this purpose I bought last 
year a tin saucepan and steamer, 7 in. in diameter, at 
a cost of Is. Id. In the steamer I had a tin dish made 
1 in. deep, raised by strips of tin I in. off the bottom, 
and the same distance clear from the sides all round, 
with a small spout from it, coming through the steamer, 
extending about 3 in. beyond and downwards at an 
angle of about 45°, for the melted wax to run through. 
In this saucer I have a perforated zinc cylinder, with 
bottom of same material, J in. less in diameter than the 
rim of the dish, raised j in. from the bottom by cross 
strips of tin, and coming up to the top of the steamer to 
hold the wax to be melted. These additions cost me Is., 
so that I have a very serviceable wax extractor for 2s. Id. 
I may say I followed as well as I could the plan in 
Cowan's Guide-Booh. Would this suit your correspon- 
dent < A. S.' (774) P— W. H. Jenkins. 



AN EXPERIENCE IN MOVING BEES. 
[797.] A recent experience of mine may possibly be 
useful as a warning to other bee-keepers. Last Monday 
I moved a skep to a stand some ten yards distant, in a 
diagonal line, from its former position. For three or 
four weeks before the snow had been lying all about 
and the bees had not left their hive for a longer time 
than that. I thought it was quite safe to move them, 
and was so advised by a friend more competent than 
myself. The next day was warm and bright, and the 
bees came out in numbers. I was away from home all 
the middle of the day and did not see them flying ; but 
the next time I looked at my hives, on Thursday morning, 
I found more than fifty bees lying dead on the alighting 
board of an erupt} 7 wooden hive I had placed on the old 
stand, and several more bodies scattered about the neigh- 
bourhood. The only way I see of accounting for this is 
the following. I had placed a plank leaning against the 
front of the skep during the tnow to shade the entrance. 
It did not prevent ingress or egress, but I suppose it so 
disguised the front of the skep as to make it unrecog- 
nisable to the bees who returned, and that they 
accordingly flew off to the old position and then perished. 
Had I known the thaw was coming so rapidly, I should 
have, of course, removed the plank; but on Tuesday 
morning the snow was still so deep and so glaring in the 
sun, that I thought it better to leave it. I am afraid the 
loss of life will be serious at this time of the year ; it is 
sad to see the beautiful yellow Italians lying crowded 
on the alighting board of the empty hive. — F. 0. 
Hodgson. 

GLEANINGS. 

Our attention has been called to our translation and 
summary of Dr. de Planta's researches on the nectar of 
plants to the last but one paragraph, on page 543 of pre- 
vious volume. Dr. de Planta has explained to us more 
clearly the ideas he meant to convey with regard to 
cane-sugar in honey. The paragraph should therefore 
read thus : — ' Whilst cane sugar is present in a great 
number of nectars, and often in considerable quantities, 
it is, on the contrary, generally rare in honeys, and 
is frequently entirely absent. It is found only in the 
honeys of the Alps in relatively larger quantities.' 



In the Bulletin d 'Apiculture de la Suisse Komande, 
G. de Layens says that when a queen is removed from a 
colon}' with a view, for example, of making an artificial 
swarm, the bees build drone-comb, and from this bee- 
keepers have generally concluded that they continue to 
do this until the queen becomes fecundated. By his 
experiments and observations, he concludes this is a mis- 
take, and that from the moment the young queen 
leaves the cell to the time she is fecundated the bees 
build worker-comb, and not drone-comb, as many bee- 
keepers think. 

In the AmericaiiBee Journal, T. J. Burrill says : — The 
flowers of the honey locust (we presume he means 
Gleditschia triacanthus) are what botanists call poly- 
gamous, that is, they are sometimes perfect, having both 
stamens and pistils, and sometimes these organs are in 
separate flowers. In this case they are evidently upon 
different trees, and the case is not a very uncommon one. 
Probably these trees will continue year after year to do 
just the same thing ; still it would not be surprising 
upon close looking if some of both lands of flowers 
should be found on the same tree. 

In Hice-Bees indigenous to India, J. 0. Douglas says 
Apis dorsata builds under boughs, normally a single 
comb, but under favourable conditions, as in caves, it 
duplicates its comb. Cells, four and a half to the inch, 
no drone-comb differing from worker found in any comb 
examined. In a comb from S. Coimbatore the actual 
measurements were — three cells = ■045", i.e. 215" each, 
or 4'65 cells per inch; other three were '225", '218", 
'230"; average, 4'425 per inch. The Sikkim variety is 
larger than that found in the plains, and the hill varieties 
generally appear darker and larger than those of the 
plains ; specimens from Jubbulpore are very light- 
coloured. A comb of the Sikkim variety would be 
interesting, to ascertain if it differed from the comb of 
the plains, and if it has drone-cells. In many parts it 
migrates at certain seasons, and it leaves its comb 
readily on failure of pasturage. It is reputed vicious, 
but this is not confirmed by experts; nor is its sting- 
exceptionally severe. This bee is confined to the plains, 
or does not extend beyond about 3000 feet of altitude. 
It builds no special drone-comb, all its cells are the same 
size, and its drone is not differentiated from the worker, 
as is that of other species, but is of the same size arid 
shape as the worker, excepting that it has the eyes 
meeting as in the drone of A. mellifica. 

In the Biencmcirtseliaftlif/es Centralblatt M. Ugen 
describes his experiment with regard to the requirements 
of water by bees. He says at certain seasons bees require 
water more than at others. They cannot raise brood with- 
out it, and he finds in the spring they need more than at 
any other time. Owing to inclement weather in the 
spring they are frequently unable to get any, and many 
perish in the endeavour to find it. He lias tried various 
ways of supplying it in the hives and finds the best is by 
filling combs with water, and placing them in the hives 
near the outside, putting a comb of honey on the outside 
next to them. He found weak colonies did not take the 
water, and the quantity consumed by the various stocks 
was in proportion to their strength. When bees are 
supplied with water in this way they do not fly out to 
get it, consequently the mortality is much smaller. 

In the Bee-keepers' Guide J. E. Pond, junr., says, 
' Every bee-keeper of experience knows that bees don't 
like to store honey in shallow cells, and that they won't 
rear brood in cells more than regulation depth. My 
thoughts on this just gave me a clue to the whole busi- 
ness. My top bars are g-inch wide. In early spring I 
shave the combs in brood-chamber to just the width of 
the bar, and replace them in the hive just bee-space apart. 
When the honey season begins I put on sections and the 
bees at once occupy them, for they find the room the}' 
want for storage, and they at once use it; the brood- 
chamber being used only for its legitimate purpose, viz., 



40 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 21, 1887. 



that of rearing brood. Of course the size of the chamber 
must be proportioned to the size of the colony to produce 
the best results; but no matter how much room is given 
honey will not be stored in shallow cells so long as space 
can be found in which to work up deep ones. This with 
myself is not a matter of theory ; it is one of experi- 
mental knowledge. I have practised the above method 
for four seasons and find the results the same.' [This 
entirely agrees with our experience, and with what we 
have for many years taught, and for this reason we use 
no projections or distance-guides to our frames. — Ed.] 

In the Bulletin if Apiculture de la Suisse Bomande, 
E. Bertrand says one colony headed by a Cyprian queen, 
raised at Nyon in 1885, a daughter of one received direct 
from Mr. E. Benton a few years ago, has shown qualities 
worthy of being recorded. It gathered this season about 
40 kilos (about 88 lbs.) which is the maximum quantity 
of honey collected by an}' colony during this bad season. 
After the honey harvest, i.e. from 8th to 24th June, it 
gave six natural swarms of which four weighed from 
2.900 kilos (6 lbs.), to 2.200 kilos (nearly 5' lbs.), and 
two smaller ones and the stock still remained strong. 
The colony rapidly developed in the spring, and wishing 
to raise queens under the best possible conditions they 
were kept a little cramped for room, notwithstanding 
that they were supplied with two supers which increased 
the size of the hive to 100 litres (about 6100 cubic 
inches). Notwithstanding this room the bees crowded 
outside; 80 queen-cells were constructed. The mother 
of this colon}- was crossed probably with an Italian or a 
cross breed drone, the workers being well marked. The 
workers produced are very active and tolerably quiet, 
which he particularly mentions as a contrast to the 
character and the want of activity of the imported queen. 
He says home-bred Cyprians the same as Italians pro- 
duce superior bees to those imported. The cross breeding 
seems to produce excellent results, and the introduction 
of Cyprians into an apiary ought to give bees with good 
qualities. The future will be able to settle this point. 

In the same journal we find M. Du Pasquier stating 
that he employs quicklime as a remedy for bee-stings. 
It neutralises the poison which is an acid. 

In the Canadian Bee Journal G. M. Doolittie says he 
uses side storing only in connexion with top storing and 
never recommends exclusive side stoiing. Bees, he says, 
prefer to build combs at the sides of the hives, and store 
honey on the top, therefore he gets sections filled with 
comb at the sides and when they are raised to the top 
they are at once filled with honey. He uses wide frames 
which are interchangeable, so that the process causes but 
little labour, and after years of trial of all kinds of sys- 
tems he says he knows no other system which will give 
as good results. 

In the American. Bee Journal, H. B. Hill, referring to 
a visit he paid to Mr. J. B. Hall's apiary in Canada, says, 
one of the things he saw there that interested him was the 
Caucasian bee. These are smaller than the common bee, 
and very dark, with a distinct silvery band bordering the 
back segment of the abdomen, and in mass present a bluish 
appearance. lie says they do not seem to know how to 
gather honey. One of the assistants thought ' The} 7 went 
to the field to get what they wanted to eat in the honey 
season, and came home without any.' Although they 
are accused of being unprolific, lie thinks they can raise 
more queens and drones to the square inch than any 
other race of bees in America. The Caucasian bees are 
very gentle in their disposition, and Mr. Hall says ' they 
were the quietest bees he had ever handled.' It is im- 
possible to handle them so roughly as to make them 
sting the operator, although if squeezed they will 
sting. They appear to he very hardy winterers. When 
crossed with Mr. Hall's ' comb honey ' bee, they are very 
prolific as comb-honey producers, and are beautiful as 
well as gentle. 

In the Jiee-l-cepers Magazine we find TI, E. Shannon 



giving the Carniolan bees a very good character. He 
says they are very hardy, and the best comb-builders he 
ever had, and that they make the nicest section honey. 
They protect their hives as well as Italians, as far as he 
is able to judge. He has some Carniolan swarms that 
built more comb in August and September than the 
best Italian stands did in the honey season. They also 
work on red clover as well, if not better than Italians ; 
hut the}' swarm more, and some queens raise very poorly- 
marked bees. 

In the American Bee Journal we find that at the 
Marshall County Convention the Mayor of Marshalls- 
town stated lie successfully prevented swarms from 
settling in high trees by using what is called a ' Yankee 
Queen-stick.' It is made by taking a stick two inches 
square, the top end dressed down to ^ square for about 
a foot. On this are nailed laths, six or eight inches long, 
to form a network. When a swarm is about to settle, 
this queen-stick is held among them, and he found that 
they would settle on it. 

In the Official Report of the United States Entomo- 
logist, N. W. McLain, on ' The Production of Wax,' says 
he observed that if pieces of new comb were exposed on 
a warm day the bees would tear off pieces of the wax 
and carry them to their hives for use in comb-building. 
He therefore put pieces of new comb in a shallow, square 
tin pan having a close fitting cover, and having holes in 
the bottom. This pan was placed on the cloth covering 
the frames, and holes made through this to correspond 
with holes in tin pan, so as to admit the bees. The heat 
arising from the bees produced a high temperature, which 
kept the wax plastic and easily worked. When this 
assistance was given comb-foundation was worked out 
with great rapidity, principally by the young bees, 
aided by the field bees at night, as the comb-building 
progressed more rapidly at night thau by day. There 
being no necessity for wax producing, the working force 
laboured without hindrance during the day in the fields, 
and with equal energy by night in the hive. 

In the Canadian Bee Journal, S. Corneil says he finds 
it most desirable to raise queens during swarming time. 
Cells nearly ripe are placed in cages on the frames over 
a cluster. When a hive swarms, one of the unfertilised 
queens is at once run in at the entrance of the old hive, 
and in twenty-nine out of thirty cases last season they 
were accepted. This is a sure plan to prevent second 
swarms, and at the same time gain ten or twelve days. 

In the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society we 
find that Herr K. Mullenhoff, continuing his studies of 
bees, has investigated the behaviour of the insect in 
gathering and storing the honey. He discusses the 
damping and the compression of the pollen, the mar- 
vellous adroitness of the bee in forcing its way into 
flowers, the careful avoidance of mixing the kind of 
pollen during one gathering, the renewed salivating and 
compression which the pollen receives from the younger 
indoor workers before it is stored in the cells, which are 
always the cells of workers and not of drones. The 
pollen is frequently deposited in layers, and frequently 
hermetically sealed with honey, over which a thin 
pellicle, like a layer of cream on milk, is formed, 
and this can be pushed aside for the deposition of 
more honey or walked over without causing overflow. 
The bees which are going up and down over the full 
cells often exhibit protruded stings, and that in normal 
circumstances. Drops of poison from the end of the 
sting are seen to be deposited on the hone} - , and the 
presence of formic acid, absent in pure nectar, is thus 
explained. The acid doubtless exerts an antiseptic in- 
fluence on the honey ; and the author has beautifully 
shown that in uncovered honey-cells none is present, and 
that fermentation soon sets in, which could however be 
prevented by the addition of iV per cent formic acid. 
Herr Mullenhoff suggests the possible expediency of re- 
moving the honey from the uncovered cells, and thus 



January 27, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



41 



economising the time and energy of the hees, while the 
honey could be readily and cheaply preserved by the 
addition of ^ per cent formic acid from a pipette. 

In the Canadian Bee Journal, in an editorial it is 
stated that those who have not used full sheets of section 
foundation in their sections should try and observe the 
difference in quantity of honey secured. Our experiments 
have fully convinced us that sections should contain full 
sheets, and with the beautiful light section foundation 
we are now making there is no danger of any backbone 
in the comb honey. In a letter from Mr. Cornell lately 
he says : — ' Dr. Tinker wrote me to try a quarter-inch 
starter in the bottom of the section as well as the visual 
starter at the top. I did so, and as my section cases 
reverse just as readily as not, I reversed the cases, when 
the two starters were joined, or nearly so, and the result 
is that the sections are filled, without so much as a hole 
for the passage of a single bee.' 

Bees, and their Management. — On Tuesday evening, 
January 18th, the attention of the Uttoxeter Mutual Im- 
provement Society was directed to the above subject, Mr. 
Thomas Harper reading a paper upon Bees, and this was 
followed by a descriptive lecture by Mr. F. Harper. Mr. J. 
Spencer presided, and in his opening remarks said he had 
known Messrs. Harper as practical bee-keepers for some 
time, and as they were well acquainted with the subject 
they were to speak upon he had no doubt but that their re- 
marks would be interesting and profitable. The paper was 
then read, in which the writer briefly traced the history of 
the honey-bee, mentioning several varieties now kept in this 
country. The physiology of the bee was described, showing 
how these insects are fitted by nature for the objects of their 
existence — to gather honey, and to assist in the fertilisation 
of flowers which afterwards produce fruits or seeds. The 
value of honey as a heat and force - producing food was 
spoken of, and some of the uses to which it may be put were 
mentioned. Mr. F. Harper followed with some remarks 
upon the best methods of managing bees, he also exhibited 
hives and various appliances, and explained their use and 
advantages. The methods of supering and doubling were 
shown, also driving condemned bees, and making artificial 
swarms from either straw or bar-frame hives. At the close, 
pieces of corab and comb-foundation, dead bees (including 
queens, drones, and workers) were passed round, as well as 
sections of comb-honey. The meeting was well attended, 
and included a good number of young men, who were very 
much interested in the subject. At the close a vote of 
thanks was given to Messrs. Harper for the trouble they 
had taken. 

&tym from % gilies. 

Mayfietd, Sussex. — One of my stocks of bees got blown 
over by the severe storm at Christmas time, and as I was 
away and the men rather afraid of bees it was put back on 
its stand almost anyhow. On my going down to the 
country about a fortnight after I found that the hive was 
raised from the floor-board on two sides about two inches, 
allowing the cold wind and ah' to pass through. I took the 
hive indoors, rearranged the frames, which had got rather 
mixed up, and found the bees none the worse. This seems 
to show that cold does not necessarily injure bees, the 
weather having been of the coldest and most wintry descrip- 
tion.— J. B. S. 



kCplbs 10 $mm%> 



*** In their answers, Correspondents o>re respect/idly requested to 
mention in each instance the number and the title of the query asked,. 

[773.] Managing Stock on Allotment Garden. (J. Walton.) 
— If for comb-honey, use ten frames in brood-nest, and 
' tier up ' your racks by placing empty one under partially 
filled one. If for extracted, use empty combs in supers, 
and extract freely or ' tier up ' with another set of combs 
as with racks. Clip the queen's wings, have the hive 
almost on the ground with alighting-board touching the 



same, all grass and weeds clear around the hive ; the bees 
will swarm even tben sometimes. — W. B. Webster. 

[771.] Separating Wax from Pollen.— Tie your combs up 
tight in a piece of strainer cloth along with a stone or 
stones of sufficient weight to sink this bundle to the bottom 
o£ your boiler, light the fire and let it boil a short time, 
then allow it to get cold. Your wax will be in a sheet at 
top; press the bundle a little with a stick while boiling. 
You must remelt this sheet of wax by water heat, and 
allow it to cool gradually in tall vessels. — W. B. Webster. 

[785.] Clover in Front of Hive. — Why not sow Limnan- 
thes ? This does not grow very high, and looks nice ; it 
sows itself after the first year, and provides plenty o£ 
honey. If you particularly desire clover and grass, pur- 
chase some lawn grass seed already mixed of a good firm. — 
W. B. Webster. 

[786.] Specimens of Honey. (Aros.)— Mr. Carr, of Higher 
Bebington, Cheshire, can give you the addresses of the 
parties mentioned. — W. B. Webster. 

[787.] (Castle Douglas.)— An Unicomb observatory hive 
is an oblong case having the two longest sides fitted, prefer- 
ably, with double glass § inch apart, of sufficient inside 
capacity to take your frame with J inch bee space all round, 
a removable cover fitting on top with a ventilating hole 
covered with perforated zinc, a chamber called a flight- 
chamber at bottom and underneath, communicating with 
oblong case, having perforated zinc on one side for the 
purpose of ventilation. An observatory (full) hive is dif- 
ferently constructed, and would require illustrations.— 
W. B. Webster. 

[788.] Dysentery. (Far North.)— If hive is damp, remove 
frames — indoors— en bloc into a fresh dry hive. Provide 
clean dry quilts, place some nice warm cakes of candy 
under quilt, enamel cloth on top of frames, then felt and 
chaff cushions on top make good coverings for hives during 
winter and spring; for summer remove chaff cushions. 
Enamel cloth is American cloth of a description that has 
little or no smell. — W. B. Webster. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

.411 queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of personnl 
nterest will be answered in this column. 

H. T. — Uniting queenless stock to another indifferent-shaped 
hive. — There is no doubt that your stock is queenless. 
You can now only prepare for uniting by approaching the 
hives to one another a yard a-day, reckoning only those 
days on which the bees are flying freely. When the 
weather is suitable for uniting (which will not be until 
April) get some standard frames, cut out the combs from 
the odd-sized frames, and splice them into the standards ; 
you can then easily unite the two lots by opening out the 
frames of the receiving stock with as little disturbance as 
possible, and gently placing the others between them 
alternately. 

W. G. — Queen found on alighting-board. — It is not likely 
that there were two queens present, and therefore your 
stock is queenless. You can do nothing at present, but 
when the weather is warmer you must unite with another 
stock. In the meantime, approach the hives to one 
another by a yard a-day, reckoning only the days when 
the bees are flying freely. 

A Cottager. — Making Foundation, &c. — We do not think 
the apparatus you describe well adapted for making 
foundation, and do not advise you to persevere with it. 
In dipping, so much depends on the temperature of the 
wax that it is doubtful if you ever succeed in making the 
plain wax-sheets. It is much better to continue the 
small strips of well-made foundation, which many skilled 
bee-keepers give to swarms in preference to whole sheets. 
Queen-raising by nuclei is described in most of our bee- 
books, and articles have appeared in the Journal. The 
queen in a swarm may be found by shaking out the 
bees, and as they run back into the skep guided by 
feather she may be easily picked up. Evening is the 
best time to do this. 

J. B. S. — 1. Bees on Hoof of House. — Bees twenty feet from 
the ground should do as well as if nearer to the ground, 
considering that in a natural state they live in hollow 
trees. 2. Ligurianizing Six Stocks from Two. — Stimulate 



42 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[January 27, 1887. 



your two stocks, and devote them to providing drones 
and queens as you propose. It does nut follow that your 
neighbours will not have black drones flying as soon as 
you have Ligurians, still if your queens should be mated 
with blacks your hybrids will do you good service. 

E. F. S. — 1. Bees in Hoof of House. — As you say you do 
not understand bees, you had better let some more 
experienced bee-keeper undertake the job of removal ; 
which is one which often taxes the skill and patience of 
good bee-men. 2. Hive Making. — Refer to pp. 59 and 
69, Vol. XIV., by following the directions there given you 
cannot fail to make a good serviceable hive. 3. Becoming 
a Bee-keeper. — Get Modern Bee-keeping and Cowan's 
Guide, read them, and also get acquainted with an 
experienced bee-keeper — your county swarms with them 
— discuss what you read with him, and with a little 
practice you will soon get on. 

Surrey. — Transferring Carniolans. — The operation must 
not be performed before April, and then only in fine, 
warm weather. A Carniolan queen may be introduced 
at any time during the summer, but if done during the 
honey harvest the income will be checked. We advise 
you to leave the introduction till near the close of the 
season, unless you intend to increase by swarming, when 
the queen might be given advantageously to the old stock 
after the departure of the swarm. From experience we 
say that Ligurians are better honey-gatherers than 
Carniolans, and about as gentle when properly handled. 
We should doubt whether the cross between Carniolans 
and blacks are superior to either race pure. 

T. M. G. — Foundation. — You will find it difficult to get 
foundation drawn out in time to use on the doubling 
system during the present year, and if successful the new 
combs, being tender, would not be well adapted for 
extracting. Having twenty colonies, and not wishing 
for increase, we advise you to take away, say, the two 
outside frames from each colony, and supply their places 
with whole sheets of foundation, the bees being confined 
by division-boards. Cover up warmly and feed with 
syrup at the feed-hole. As the colonies increase in 
population give more foundation, and spread brood judi- 
ciously until your hives are well filled with bees and 
brood, which they ought to be by the time the honey-flow 
arrives, when you may proceed to doubling, using the 
forty frames of old comb previously abstracted in the 
upper hives. To these latter any combs which can be 
spared from the lower hives may be added and founda- 
tion again given below. Do not remove combs in the first 
instance until the bees are crowded — about the end of 
April or early in May. Much depends upon the season. 

T. Hill. — Canon Tristram's Natural History of the Bible 
is published by the S.P.C.K., Northumberland Avenue, 
price Is. Gd. 

Trade Catalogues. — We have received from Messrs. 
Abbott, Brothers, Southall, London and Paris, their cata- 
logue of bee-hives and appliances. This valuable catalogue 
has been considerably enlarged, and contains many im- 
provements in appliances and reductions in prices. Also 
from Mr. Eedshaw, The Apiary, South Wigton, near Lyster, 
his catalogue of hives and bee-keeping appliances. On the 
outside page of the wrapper will be found four very complete 
collections of bee-keeping appliances suitable to a beginner, 
with the prices attached. 

In answer to several inquiries we beg to say that the 
'British Bee-keepers' Stores,' 23 Cornhill, E.C., are in no 
way connected with the British Bee-keepers' Association or 
with the British Honey Company. 

Wax Smelting. — F. H. Lemare of 4 Sydney Terrace, 
Guildford, writes: — If the lady, said by 'Amateur Expert" to 
be in trouble as to "Wax Smelting" would think it worth 
while to send her combs, there is a man here who would 
melt them for her and return the wax. His calculation is, 
that -1 lbs. of comb produce 1 lb. of wax, and his charge is 
at the rate of Grf. for the 1 lb. of wax. Of course only 1 lb. 
of wax would not pay. The melted wax is free from 
' pollen and other debris.' In looking over the catalogue of 



Mr. Bedshaw, South Wigton, near Leicester, we note his 
wax extractor, which he styles 'The Poor Man's Friend,' 
which would be found of great servioe for small lots of wax 
and for slender purses. 



Dead Queen — Dead Bees have been forwarded to Mr. 
Cheshire, and we await his report. 

.©how ^Announcements. 

Giving Name and Address of Secretary, Date and Place of 
Show, Date of Closing Entries. Terms : Three Insertions 
and wider, Two Shillings and Sixpence ; additional inser- 
tions, Sixpence each. No charge made to those Associations 
whose Shows are announced in our general Advertising 
Columns. 

July 11-15. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. Sec. J. Huckle, Kings 
Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Biekards, Poole, near Leeds. 



business ^Directory. 



For the use of Manufacturers and Purchasers of Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Appleton, H. M., Dowry Works, 256a Hotwell Koad, 

Bristol. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Burtt, E. J., Stroud Boad, Gloucester. 
Edey & Son, St. Neots. 
Hole, J. R. W., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Meadham, M., Huntington, Hereford. 
Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 
The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 
Walton, E. G, Muskham, Newark. 
Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King WilliamSt., Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H. T Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn 

Walton, E. G , Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. G, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B„ Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. G, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J. , Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howabd, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

Walton, E. G, Muskham, Newark. 






±, 





Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Stbangeways' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c.' 



[No. 241. Vol. XV.] 



FEBRUARY 3, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



OUTLINES OF BEE-KEEPING FOR 

BEGINNERS. 

I, — Where bees may be kept, and who is suited 

TO KEEPING THEM. 

1. Bees can be kept in any place where there is 
a small piece of garden, and fields, meadows, or 
heath, within easy reach, more especially near 
orchards and fruit gardens, or where clover, sain- 
foin, mustard, rape, and buckwheat, are cultivated. 

2. The best spot to select for placing the hives 
is in a garden not far from the house, where they 
will be sheltered from wind and be free from dis- 
turbance by strangers, and out of the way of 
domestic animals. It is very important if such a 
sheltered place cannot be found to plant a hedge 
or other wind guard on the northern side of the 
hives ; and if there are a few fruit trees about so 
as to shelter the bees from the fierce rays of a 
summer sun it would be an advantage. 

3. Most persons can keep bees if they have suffi- 
cient time to spare during summer, when most 
of the work has to be done. Even the cottager 
who is at work from morning till night will be able 
to devote a little of his leisure time to this pursuit, 
which will add to his income in an agreeable 
manner. Any one who is sufficiently vigorous and 
strong, and can still lift from fifty to sixty pounds 
in weight, can walk without assistance, and has 
good eyes sharp enough to distinguish a bee's 
egg at the bottom of a cell, is able to keep bees. 

4. The object of keeping bees is generally 
either pleasure or profit. If they are kept for 
pleasure it is better to have only two or three 
hives ; but if profit be the object the bee-keeper 
should possess at least ten or a dozen hives. In 
either case not more hives should be kept than can 
be properly attended to, for one hive well looked 
after will make a better return than a dozen that 
are neglected. 

5. There are some districts where bee-pasturage 
is so scarce that the bees even in the best seasons 
cannot procure the necessary stores to keep them 
through the winter. These are not suitable districts 
for keeping bees. 

6. Places exposed to the wind, or on the borders of 
wide rivers and lakes, where there are many manu- 



factories, such as breweries and sugar refineries, 
which allure the bees, who there meet with certain 
death, are also not suitable. 

7. Those who suffer so severely from a sting as 
to be obliged to call in a doctor, or take to their 
beds, or who have not sufficient courage to bear 
calmly an occasional sting, or who will not attend 
to their bees themselves, and are not able to make 
their hives, or have not got the means to procure 
them, or will not when needed feed their bees if 
they are in want, had better not undertake bee- 
keeping. (y be continued.) 



TEACHERS AND BEE-KEEPING. 

Three or four months ago we drew attention to 
a suggestion thrown out at the Annual Meeting of 
the British Bee-Keepers' Association held at South 
Kensington. It was to the effect that a great 
impetus would be given to bee-keeping if the 
attention of masters and mistresses of schools of 
various grades throughout the country were called 
to the subject. From altogether another quarter 
the idea is again brought to our notice, as will be 
seen from a letter in this week's issue of the Journal. 
(P. 49). A further proposal of a practical kind in 
connexion with the point is that ' The Teachers' 
Union ' could be turned to good account for the 
purpose advocated. We entirely approve . of the 
suggestion. Such an existing organization, if in- 
terested in the matter, would not only save much 
trouble and expense to those anxious to make a 
move in the direction indicated, but would furnish 
excellent opportunities for securing intelligent 
audiences to lecturers on apiculture. 

Now in order to give new energy to the sugges- 
tion of our correspondent we would point out two 
or three simple matters which should at once engage 
the attention of the Committee of the B.B.K.A. 
In the first place, means should be taken to ascer- 
tain the names of schoolmasters and schoolmistresses 
who already possess stocked hives or are interested 
in the pursuit of bee-keeping. To all such an 
appeal might be made to do what is in their power 
to promote the spread of information about api- 
culture. Next, from among these names a selec- 
tion should be made of those known to belong to 
' The Teachers' Union.' These friends should be 
requested to try and secure the interest of the 
officials of the Union in their own neighbourhood. 



44 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 3, 1887- 



When once the sympathies of such leading members 
■were aroused there would be no difficulty in making 
arrangements for lectures, and possibly for the dis- 
play of hives and honey. This last point would be 
certain to exert a powerful attractive influence. A 
third matter would be the securing of efficient 
lecturers or exponents of the elements of bee- 
keeping. This might be accomplished either by the 
Committee of the B.B.K.A. taking the subject in 
hand, or by individual and qualified members of 
the Association offering their services to the branch 
of ' The Teachers' Union ' nearest their own abodes. 

We have before pointed out the immediate ad- 
vantages which would be gained by teachers who 
might be induced to interest themselves in api- 
culture. The importance of this point will justify 
a repeated reference to it. In the first place, then, 
bee-keeping supplies a hobby admirably adapted to 
those whose profession makes a severe call on 
physical energy, and especially on brain power. A 
certain amount of bodily exercise is required in 
attending to hives, while no exhausting toil is 
needed. The mental faculties are quietly and 
healthfully called out in devising various little 
expedients for making improvements, meeting 
difficulties, or securing the best results in honey 
and strength of stocks. These considerations tell 
with great force in the case of female teachers, and 
we are thoroughly convinced that an immense 
development of bee-keeping is yet to take place 
through our gentler sex. A second benefit would 
be the certainty that pupils of these teachers would 
be aroused to take interest primarily in our pet 
insects, and later on in natural history generally. 
We need not point out to our readers the humanising 
and elevating consequences of such results. Thirdly, 
a fresh link would be forged in the happy bonds 
existing between many teachers and their pupils ; 
and so an indirect stimulus would be applied to 
those feelings of mutual regard, which go so far in 
lending a zest to efforts to impart knowledge on the 
one hand, and to imbibe it on the other. Fourthly, 
the giving away of sections or other small quantities 
of honey would often afford pleasure to the givers 
and receivers, and would certainly . call further 
attention to the industrious producers of the 
delicious article of food. We say nothing of the 
profits to be derived from a few well-managed 
hives, though this money-consideration would be, 
in many instances, by no means an unworthy or 
futile motive for keeping bees. We repeat our 
conviction that the enlistment of schoolmasters 
and schoolmistresses in the army of apiculturists 
would prove an immense addition to our power. 
No such recruiting officers could be elsewhere 
secured. Each one is the centre of a company of 
possible additions to our rank and file. Each one 
possesses more than average ability and intelligence, 
which, if brought to bear on bee-keeping, would 
assuredly aid in its development. We invite them 
to help in an endeavour to gain our school-teachers 
to the interests of the good cause. 

In a future number we will comment on the 
second suggestion contained in our correspondent's 
letter — the subdivision of County Associations. 




NOVELTIES. 
Walton's Honey Bottle. 

On page 542 of our last volume 
we described a wicker-work cover- 
ing for honey jars which was 
introduced by Mr. E. C. Walton, 
Muskham, Newark, at the Nor-. 
wich Show ; and we are now able 
to give an illustration of it which 
the inventor has been good enough 
to send us. The cover is made to 
suit any sized jar, and it will be 
seen that by slipping up the ring 
the jar can be easily removed for 
cleaning purposes. 



USEFUL HINTS. 

The departure of frost, with a return of mild weather, 
and an occasional bright day, have afforded our bees 
an opportunity of flight after a long confinement, and 
at present all colonies appear healthy and strong. 

Pollen and Syrup. — Soon will the crocuses and 
snowdrops tempt the bees to pollen-gathering, and 
stimulate the queens to breeding in earnest. Then the 
time will have arrived for supplying artificial pollen, and 
for gentle feeding to stimulate to further efforts. Pea, 
rye, or wheat meal may be sprinkled upon the crocus 
blooms, and will be duty appreciated by the bees. It 
may also be placed in skeps or boxes, amongst shavings, 
and placed in a warm, sunny spot near the hives ; a piece 
of honey-comb laid upon the shavings will soon guide 
the bees to the spot. A graduated feeder, in which one, 
two, or three holes can be used at pleasure, is best for 
this early season by those who follow up this practice of 
stimulating. For ourselves we prefer to uncap a few 
cells near the brood-nest, which arouses the bees suffi- 
ciently. 

Taking a Peep. — To ascertain the condition of the 
bees, and the amount of food, gently turn aside the 
quilt — on a fine day only — and notice the number of bees 
crowding to the top of the hive, on the admission of 
light ; also the quantity of sealed honey at the top of 
the frames. 

If there are no winter passages in the combs, al- 
though the outside frames contain honey, bees will 
often starve from inability to reach it. In such a case 
feed with soft, warm candy over the cluster. A flat 
cake of two or three pounds, rolled in thin muslin, and 
pressed down upon the frames, the quilts and chaff- 
cushion laid upon it, and over all a board, or flat straw 
cover, will enable the bees to feed in comfort, until 
warmer weather encourages them to extend their circle 
to the outside combs. At. present this is the oidy ex- 
amination admissible, except in extreme cases, when 
indoor manipulation must be resorted to. 

Small Colonies. — Small or weak colonies should be 
closely confined by division-boards, and fed as recom- 
mended above, with a view to union with stronger ones 
later on, or the preservation of their queens, which will 
often be found of great use when the general overhauling 
takes place. 

Food. — For various kinds of food refer back to former 
' Hints ' under ' Ifeddon's Syrup,' ' Good's Food,' ' Frames 
of Honey,' &c, of which, we consider the latter, as 
general food, the best. It should never, however, be 
given when granulated, a cold slab of granulated honey- 
comb being about as useful as a slab of ice at this time 
of year. All such combs should be removed from the 
hives, the division-boards moved up to the cluster, an4 



February 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



45 



Good's (soft) candy placed on the frames above the 
bees. 

Cleaning Floob-boabds. — As spring advances, and 
the bees begin to work, a change of floor-boards is ad- 
vantageous. Let the hive be gently raised from the 
board by pushing wedges beneath, allowing it to remain 
in the raised position for a few minutes until the bees 
are quiet, when it may be placed on a clean, dry board 
on its former stand. "When board and stand are in- 
separable, the hive should be removed while the board 
is scraped and thoroughly cleaned. If boards are 
separate from the hive — as we much prefer them — it is 
a very easy matter to slip under the hive a dry, clean 
board in place of the fold one. 

Defunct Colonies. — When bees are flying freely it 
is well to watch the hives carefully and to note any 
showing no signs of energy or life ; or when clearing 
entrances, if dead bees are found in numbers ; in either 
case an examination should be made at once to fully 
ascertain the state of such colonies, which often will be 
found to have perished. These hives should be removed 
since they afford incentives to robbing. 

"Wateb. — Strong colonies when breeding largely 
during the spring months require a constant supply of 
water, which is best given in shallow troughs near the 
apiary, stones being placed in the water to prevent 
drowning. These should be filled up, as required, with 
clean water, in which a handful of salt has been mixed. 
Some advise a comb filled with water to be placed inside 
the hive, but in a large apiary the plan involves too 
much labour and disturbance of hives. The bees prefer 
to carry in water, and if it be found near home much 
bee-life will be saved, since many bees perish while 
searching for water in ditches and ponds during the pre- 
valence of cold winds. Let the water troughs be placed 
in a sheltered spot with the sun full upon them. Italian 
bees are far more eager in the pursuit of water than are 
the black races, which may, probably, be accounted for 
by the extraordinary fecundity of their queens. 

Spbing Dwindling. — This searching for water is 
often a prolific source of spring dwindling ; also too 
early and too frequent manipulation, and stimulation by 
driblets of syrup, may be placed in the same category. 
However prolific a queen may be, when in the early part 
of the spring — the breeding season — her subjects are 
reduced in numbers until they cover two or three frames 
only, it is best to unite such small colonies, for, although 
with care and constant attention they may be built up 
to strong ones by the time the autumn arrives, yet no 
surplus must be expected from them. The union, how- 
ever, should not be made sooner than the month of 
April, or early May, when, by judicious feeding and 
the addittion of a frame or two of brood from the 
strongest hives, populous colonies may be created by 
the arrival of the principal honey-harvest. There is no 
better rule in apiculture than that which demands that 
' All colonies must be 7cej>t strong? Weak colonies never 
give satisfaction, but bring endless disappointments, 
causing many beginners to give up bee-keeping in dis- 
gust. Let it be remembered that in our changeable 
climate, even in the finest summers, and in districts 
where nectar-yielding plants abound, the harvest is 
short, and only strong colonies can yield a satisfactory 
return. This, of course, is taking a honey-view, but 
where the sale of bees, or queens, or general increase of 
colonies, is the object, a different method must be pur- 
sued — a subject which concerns the expert more than 
the general apiarist, and into which we shall not, there- 
fore, enter. Strong colonies, young and prolific queens, 
plentiful store, a southern aspect with shelter from the 
north, and as little disturbance as possible, are golden 
rules. 

Foundation. — For some years we have used in our 
own apiary the light, flat-bottomed wire foundation 
for brood combs with the best results, and on our recom- 



mendation large quantities have been sold, affording to 
the purchasers general satisfaction. The article is of 
American manufacture, and, being desirous of encourag- 
ing our own trade, we intend in future to wire the 
frames, and to use English foundation of a light descrip- 
tion, since, with the heavier foundations, we have found 
the bees, especially in the ' honey-flow,' to leave a solid 
septum, indeed, scarcely to draw out the foundation at 
all. The small instrument introduced by Mr. Cowan 
at the Conversazione held at the C'olinderies we find 
very useful in imbedding the wire in the foundation, 
but we are not aware who the manufacturer is, or where 
the article can be obtained. Perhaps the inventor will 
kindly say. 

Hives. — "Whether invert ible hives will ever come 
into general use remains to be proved. Catering for 
those who believe in, or feel inclined to try, the plan, 
Mr. Neighbour has introduced an extremely well-made 
substantial hive, of four invertible and interchangeable 
boxes, which may be used for obtaining either extracted 
or comb honey, and which appears to us to avoid the 
objectionable points in the American Ileddon hive, the 
walls being much thicker, and the close-ended frames 
being dispensed with. Perfect simplicity and a moderate 
price are also great recommendations. 

Pbepabations. — Again let us advise all apiarists to 
have an eye to preparation for the fast approaching 
season. 

' All things decent and in order ' is the best of 
mottoes. 



3) n QpemoriauL 

It is with feelings of the deepest regret that we are 
called upon to chronicle the early and sudden death of 
our friend and fellow-worker, Mr. Charles James Fox 
Kenworthy, Hon. Sec. of the Middlesex Bee-keepers' 
Association. He died of diphtheria, after a few days' 
illness, on the 26th ult., at Kerrison Lodge, The Park, 
Ealing, in the thirty-fourth year of his age. Mr. Ken- 
worthy was the eldest son of Mr. James Lees Kenworthy, 
F.B.A.S., an old and respected resident in Ealing, and 
was related to Mr. C.N. Abbott, of SouthaH, and to Mr. 
Charles Atlee, a gentleman who took a deep interest in 
the formation of the British Bee-keepers' Association. 
Mr. Kenworthy's father kept several hives of bees, and 
from his earliest years his son imbibed a love for bees 
and bee-keeping. As he grew in years this love strength- 
ened with Ids strength, and he became in time a very 
expert manipulator; and it was ever his delight to assist 
young bee-keepers and to impart whatever knowledge 
he possessed to others. 

Mr. Kenworthy was intimately connected with the 
history of the British Bee-keepers' Association. "When 
Mr. Hunter, who was the first Secretary of this Asso- 
ciation, resigned his office in September 1875, he was 
succeeded by Mr. Cleaver, who officiated from September 
187o to June 1870, w r hen, in consequence of his 
numerous other engagements, he was compelled to resign. 
The position of the "Association was at this time very 
uncertain, and its finances at a low ebb. The committee 
of that day were highly pleased to accept the willing 
services of Mr. Kemvorthy as Secretary, as he was known 
to many of them as an enthusiast in bee-keeping and 
well versed in keeping accounts. Mr. Kenworthy began 
his duties on the loth of June, 1876, being then in his 
twenty-second year. During his Secretaryship the 
B.B.K.A. (in September 1876) held a three-days show 
in Alexandra Palace, in which Mr. Kenworthy had a 
favourable opportunity of exercising his special powers 
of organisation. In a great measure the success of 
that exhibition was due to him, and it was said 
on the occasion that ' his exertions on behalf of the 
Association were beyond all praise.' In the early 
part of 1878 Mr. Kenworthy, in consequence of the 



46 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 3, 1887. 



pressure of other duties, family afflictions, and the 
unhappy divisions then existing in the Association, 
resigned the office of Secretary. On the 25th March, 
187S, the Secretaryship was accepted by the Rev. H. R. 
Peel, who, by his experience, energy, and decision, placed 
the Association on that firm and solid basis which from 
that time it has occupied. 

In April 1884, it was intimated to Mr. Kenworthy 
that the Middlesex Bee-keepers' Association, which had 
been recentlj- established, required the services of a 
Secretary. He at once expressed his readiness to act in 
that capacity. The work connected with a county like 
Middlesex is most arduous and difficult, but Mr. Ken- 
worthy has been unwearying in his endeavours to bring 
it abreast with the other successful Associations in 
the land. For some time he has been associated in his 
office with the Hon. and Eev. H. Bligh. Within the 
last few weeks he has introduced some new ideas into the 
management of the Association, and he has been working 
out the details of this scheme in a most masterly manner. 
Mr. Bligh, in a letter now before us, says, ' that ever since 
we struck out the idea of my being associated with him 
he has seemed to work energetically and to have 
developed great power of administration. He will be 
much missed in the Association, and it will be difficult 
to find any equal to him at the level to which he had 
raised himself.' 

At the establishment of the Bee and Fruit Farming 
Company he was appointed Secretary ; and at the last 
annual meeting of the British Honey Company he was 
elected its auditor. 

Mr. Kenworthy's work, however, was principally 
among the j'oung. He was always a boy amidst boys, 
participating in their joys and pleasures, and sympathising 
with all their cares and sorrows. He was a staunch 
advocate of total abstinence during his whole life, and 
he was never weary of inculcating temperance principles 
among the youth by whom he was surrounded, and in 
promoting their moral and social welfare. He took a 
prominent part in all schemes which would beneficially 
employ the leisure time of his young friends ; and so we 
find him the Secretary of Bands of Hope, the Beaver 
Swimming Club, the Crusaders' Cricket Club, and so 
forth. By his soft, winning, and attractive manners, he 
won all hearts, both young and old. His character was 
most estimable ; he was amiable, genial, kind-hearted, and 
generous, and ever willing to assist in any work which 
had for its object the advancement of his fellow-creatures. 

He was buried in Ealing Cemetery on Saturday, the 
20th ult., a large concourse of friends and neighbours 
testifying, by their attendance, their high esteem for him 
and his life-work, and their sympathy with his bereaved 
relatives. We were pleased to see, among others, as 
representing bee-keepers, the Hon. and Bev. 11. Bligh, 
Mr. J. Garratt, and Mr. G. Henderson. 

[The writer of the above is reminded that it has been 
his melancholy duty, within the space of a very few 
years, to pen obituary notices of three Secretaries of 
the British Bee-keepers' Association.] 

JOTTINGS BY AMATEUR EXPERT. 

' Mel sapit Omnia.' 

Mr. Grimshaw is at ' York' again; he means to succeed 
if it is to be done by wearying all parties interested by his 
importunity. I have a suggestion to make to him, which 
I hope lie will be able to accept and act upon. What 
Swanmore is to Hants, and Hertford is to Herts, Leeds 
may become, in his able hands, to York, if he can only 
be induced to go to work. Let him ask all the clergy, &c, 
if they will allow him to lecture on bees in their village 
schools and talk to the people in simple language, taking 
a few simple appliances with him; and having shown 
them some inducements for keeping bees, give them five 
minutes of the wonders of the busy insects themselves, 
and ask them all to join a 'bee-club,' and show them 



what he can give them for their one shilling per annum. 
Mr. Huckle will give him some leaflets and back numbers 
of the B. B. J. for distribution. I am quite sure Mr. 
Grimshaw will gain more profit from this than he ever 
can hy throwing stones into a pond that does not even 
contain a frog to croak. 

Talking about croaking reminds me. I hope all those 
who own ' croaking ' bees are satisfied with Mr. Grim- 
shaw's excellent paper on the ' Vocal Organs of the Bee,' 
and that they will endeavour to notice the different 
' croaks ' in future, and moreover that none of them will 
ever 'croak' themselves. 

There is one line in 'Devonshire Dumpling's' letter 
that will make the ' f ancy dealers ' close their teeth tight, 
I guess. It is about ' cheap appliances and low prices.' 
The worst thing they will wish him is that he were a 
manufacturer, and had to live on some of the 'fancy' 
profits gained from some of their wares. 

The Rev. C. C. James is going to shut his stable-door 
now he has lost his horse. He says, ' Snow has been laying 
in front of m} r apiary for twenty-four days.' I did not 
allow the snow to lay in front of mine for forty-eight 
hours, as I went and shovelled it away, consequently I 
enjoyed the sight of a flight of my pets, and I don't think 
I lost a dozen through the snow. They brought out 
their dead, and I judge the flight did them no end of 
good altogether. Keep the ground in front of 3'our 
hives rolled hard so that you can shovel the snow away 
when it comes, and as they say across the Atlantic, Don't 
you forget it ! 

Mr. F. C. Hodgson should have removed all traces of 
his old stand as far as possible and not have placed an 
empty wooded hive there, as he confesses he did ; the 
board in front did not do so much harm as the ' decoy ' 
hive, as the board probably helped them to mark their 
new site, but seeing a hive on their old site they at- 
tempted to enter that, and so perished. 

My voting list for the Committee of the B.B.K.A. 
reveals the fact that we have lost the future services of 
Mr. D. Stewart. In losing him we lose an old and use- 
ful member whose place it will be difficult to fill. Living 
in town as he does lie was always at hand when impor- 
tant work wanted doing. He worked hard at the 
Healtheries, and much of the success of the reception 
we were able to give to the Canadians, I believe, was due 
to his efforts. Last year he advocated reform, but now 
we lose him altogether. I for one am deeply sorry. 

The Ontario B. K. A, had a ' rousing ' meeting on 
January 6th to welcome home their delegates. Mr. 
Jones had not arrived in time ; the other three, viz., 
Messrs. Pettit, Corneil, and McKnight, were all present, 
they were highly flattered by our treatment of them. 
They were gracious enough not to insist that their 
honey was better-flavoured than British, and they have 
great hopes, which I have no doubt they will realise, of 
finding a good market in England for the future. Mr. 
Corneil said British bee-keepei's were a class of men that 
knew their business, and there was nothing equal to a 
trip to London to take the conceit out of a man —even a 
bee-keeper. They managed to hand over O.'SW. for their 
16'91 tons of honey, that they sent, after all their ex- 
penses were paid. The expenses were heavy of course, 
although they had a heavy subsidy from the Govern- 
ment, and the price realised is a fair one considering the 
price of honey in Canada. 

Here is a wrinkle that may be of use to some one. 
A Michigan man found a bees' nest in the arm of a tree 
six inches in diameter and sixty feet from the ground; 
he wanted the honey, so he shot the bough off with his 
rifle, taking sixty-four bullets to complete the job. I 
confess it would have cost me a night's sleep scheming 
how to do it before I should have hit on that plan, — 1 
Amateur Expert, 



February 3, 188?.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



47 



CANADA. 

Seventh annual meeting; of the Ontario Bee-keepers' 
Association, 1.30 p.m., January 5th, 1887, in the City 
Chambers, Toronto. 

The President, Mr. S. T. Pettit, of Belmont, occupied 
the chair, and in his opening remarks stated that no 
doubt the production of honey would require to be very 
much increased to permit Canadian honey to remain 
constantly upon the British market, for should this 
constant supply fail they must expect to lose very much 
of the vantage-ground they would previously have secured. 
He would emphasise the necessity of sending only the 
very best honey as to colour, texture, and flavour. 
For extracted honey only such as had been capped by 
the bees previous to extracting should be produced, and 
for this purpose recommended the tiering-up system as 
allowing ample room for storing and at the same time 
ripening of hone)'. No one contended that artificially 
ripened honey was better than naturally ripened honey, 
whilst many claimed that the artificially ripened was 
very much inferior. The question of legislation re foul 
brood was before the Association, a committee to see 
railway directors about reducing freight on honey, and 
also to see about arranging to send honey to the British 
market. 

Mr. J. A. Abbott, of London, England, was introduced. 
He was warmly greeted, and expressed his acknowledg- 
ment of his warm reception. Mr. Abbott was elected an 
honorary member of the Association. 

Mr. J. B. Hall then stated he was one of a committee 
from the Oxford Bee-keepers' Association to ask the 
O.B.A. to seek for legislation for foul brood. At a 
later stage of the Convention a committee was ap- 
pointed to ask the Legislature to pass an Act to that 
effect. 

Mr. S. Cornell, of Lindsay, then brought up the pro- 
position of asking the Government to grant a sum of 
money to pay the expenses of a scientific lecturer to 
deliver a course of lectures in Canada. 

The impression was that after the late grant bee- 
keepers should not ask for such an outlay, and for the 
present the matter was dropped. 

The evening session now opened. This session had 
been set apart in honour of the returned delegates. 

Mr. S. T. Pettit addressed the meeting. He mentioned 
how Doctor Thorn, of Streetsville, had, in his retiring 
address as President of the Association, pointed out the 
advisability of the display at Kensington, and, step by 
step, the work had been executed until, at the close of 
the Exhibition, they felt their most sanguine expecta- 
tions had been realised, and Ontario bee-keepers had 
every reason to congratulate themselves on their success. 
The different characteristics of honey from other colonies 
•were given, and in his opinion none could compete in any 
quantity with Ontario honey. He emphasised the neces- 
sity of sending only the clearest and best honey, and by 
so doing they woidd have a trade-mark which could not 
be imitated to any extent. 

Mr. S. Corneil then spoke. He mentioned the mistake 
made by sending too large packages of extracted honey, 
also crates of comb honey, both for selling and exhibition 
purposes. They had used a very small package of tin, 
also in glass, besides distributing free to visitors a large 
quantity in ' tastes ' of honey. He was satisfied with 
proper management Britain could consume more honey 
than Ontario could produce. The honey must, how- 
ever, not go through too many hands. 

Mr. E,. McKnight then related, in his well-known 
pleasing strain, many amusing incidents of their journey 
and work. He thought much credit was due to those 
who had brought out their honey, not knowing what 
their returns would be ; also to the Ontario Government 
for their grant, and the Dominion Government for their 
ever-ready and courteous assistance, also the transport 



lines. Mr. McKnight had a large number of letters 
speaking in the highest terms of Ontario honey. 

A unanimous vote of thanks was then passed to the 
British tee-keepers for their very kind reception of the 
Ontario delegates, and all the attention which had been 
shown them. 

Mr. Abbott thanked the Association on behalf of the 
British bee-keepers. 

9 a.m., January 0. 

President in the chair. A discussion upon the hive 
question then took place. There was a very great 
diversity of opinion as to the best hive. Mr. Pettit 
thought a frame not less than 8 inches, or more than 
inches, would be the best, and he recommended the 
tiering-up system. There were some who thought a hive 
with comb less than 8 inches advisable, and one or two 
did not object to a frame a little deeper than 9 inches. 
The tiering-up system was recommended to enable hor.ey 
to be ripened, and at the same time allow lees ample 
storage room. 

Mr. J. B. Hall then spoke of what had been done 
during the presidency of Mr. Pettit, and largely through 
his instrumentality they had secured incorporation, a 
grant of $1000 to defray expenses at the Colonial, an 
annual grant of $o00, the grand display of honey in 
England, and he would, therefore, ask the Association 
to re-elect Mr. Pettit. 

Rev. W. F. Clarke objected to presidencies for more 
than one year. 

The Rev. W. F. Clarke and Mr. J. B. Hall were also 
nominated, the latter, however, asked to withdraw, and 
when his request was not granted he asked all who 
wished hi in well to support Mr. Pettit. 

Mr. Pettit was elected President, and Mr. J. B. Hall 
Vice-President. 

The Directors were then elected, who, during a meeting 
after the close of the Convention, elected Mr. W. Couse 
of Meadowvale, Ontario, Secretary. 

The utility of perforated metal was next discussed. 
All wdio had used it and knew what it was to be with 
and without it testified that it was a great acquisition 
to the apiary. 

Mr. Abbott related the first experiments with it, how 
it had been in favour, but was now but little used ; the 
variation in the honey flow might, however, make the 
difference. 

The afternoon session consisted chiefly of business, 
and at 3.00 p.m. the Convention adjourned to mest in 
Woodstock the second week in January, 1838. — R. F. 
IIoltehmann, Brantford, Canada. 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

CORNWALL BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of the Cornwall Bee-keepers' 
Association was held on Wednesday, January 26, at the 
Town Hall, Truro, under the presidency of the Rev. 0. 
R. Sowell. There were also present the Rev. A. R. 
Tomlinson, Mrs. Tomlinson, Mrs. Polwhele, Mrs. Hockin, 
Messrs. T. R. Polwhele, T. Cragoe, T. Treleaven, G. E. 
George, G. Gradidge, and C. Kent (lion, secretary). 

On the motion of Mr. Cragoe, seconded by Mr. 
Gradidge, the following report of the committee was 
adopted : — 

The committee have to congratulale the Association 
upon an increase in the number of members and upon 
having passed a fairly successful year. Our members 
now number 179 as compared with 160 last year, but the 
total subscriptions promised and received are slightly less, 
being 42A 18s. Gd. as compared with 461. 3*. last year. 
The amount not paid is 11/. 10s. Gd., but the committee 
have every reason to believe that the greater part of this 
will be collected during the coming year. The visits to 
the apiaries of members in 183o were so sreatly appre-i 



48 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 3, 1887 



dated that the committee decided to adopt a similar 
course in the past year. This useful work was carried 
out by the Rev. C. JR. Sowell, Rev. J. A. Kempe, Mr. T. 
Treleaven, and the Secretary. It would be a great 
advantage if a few of our members could gain experts' 
certificates to enable the committee to divide the county 
into districts, and so carry out a systematic visitation to 
all members, at least once a-year, at slight cost. The 
annual show of appliances was again held in connexion 
with the Royal Cornwall Agricultural Association's 
exhibition, and the St. Austell local committee made a 
grant of 167. towards the expenses. Mr. S. J. Baldwin 
was engaged as expert, and the show was a most attrac- 
tive and successful one, though owiug to its being held 
so early in the season the competition in the honey classes 
was limited. Shows were also held at St. Germans, 
Wadebridge, and Fowey, but in neither case did the 
takings meet the expenses. At these shows the mani- 
pulation tent was under the charge of the Rev. J. A. 
Kempe, Rev. C. R. Sowell, Mr. T. Treleaven, and Mr. E. 
Gradidge, to whom the thanks of the committee are due 
for their kind exertions to promote the interests of the 
Association. 

The statement of accounts showed that the assets 
exceeded the liabilities by '21. 8s. Id. 

The Earl of Mouut Edgcumbe was re-elected president. 
The vice-presidents were re-appointed as follows: — Hon. 
and Rev. J. Townshend Boscawen, Mrs. Digby Collins, 
Mr. T. Martin (Plymouth), Lord Robartes, Sir John St. 
Aubyn, Bart., M.P., and the Earl of St. Germans. Mr. 
A. P. Nix was re-elected treasurer, and Mr. C. Kent 
secretary. The following were elected as the com- 
mittee : — Mr. A. Bailey, Liskeard ; Mr. W. K. Baker, 
Towednack; Mr. J. Branwell, jun., Penzance; Mr. G. H. 
Chilcott, Truro; Mr. T. Cragoe, Sunset, Truro ; Mr. G. 
Dixon, Truro; Mr. G. Gradidge, Truro; Mr. G. E. 
George, Probus; Mr. J. W. Harrison, Tregony ; Mrs. 
Hockin, Flushing; Mr. J. Lander, Laveddon, Bodmin; 
Mr. II. B. Neame, Portreath; Mr. W. Nickell, Helland ; 
Mr. W. Prockter, Launceston; Mr. T. R. Polwhele, 
Polwhele, Truro ; Mrs. Polwhele, Polwhele, Truro ; Mr. 
E. Rashleigh, Par ; Rev. W. Rogers, Mawnan ; Rev. C. R. 
Sowell, St. Goran; Mrs. Tom, Rosedale, Truro ; Rev. A. 
R. Tomlinson, St. Michael Penkivel ; Mrs. Tomlinson, 
St. Michael Penkivel; Mr. T. Treleaven, Creed; Mr. J. 
"Williams, Scorrier House, Scorrier. 

Votes of thanks to the Chairman for presiding and the 
Mayor for the use of the room terminated the pro- 
ceedings. 



BERKS BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

AVe give below an abstract of the Annual .Report of 
the above Association, which was held at Reading on 
Saturday last. In our issue of January Oth, we bad the 
pleasure to notice a pleasant social gathering of the 
members and friends in tho Windsor district. We under- 
stand_ that arrangements have been made to hold one of 
a similar nature at Reading, on February 24th ; and it is 
hoped to extend these gatherings to all the eleven 
districts into which the county has been divided, thereby 
enabling its members to talk over bee matters, and take 
counsel with each other for the coming season. Arrange- 
ments have been made by the Berks B.K. A., in con- 
nexion with the Hants and Isle of Wight B. K. A., to 
take charge of the bee department of the Royal Counties 
Agricultural Societies' Show to be held at Reading in 
June next. A show will also be held at Windsor in 
connexion with Prince Consort's Association, in which 
Her Majesty takes so great an interest, besides shows 
in other parts of the county. 

The Committee beg to present their Seventh Annual 
Report to the Members, and to congratulate them on the 
strength of the Association — there being now 26G 
members on the list, conclusively proving that its ad- 



vantages and privileges are being appreciated, and that 
the Association has been enabled to spread and encourage 
modern bee-keeping among a larger circle and over a 
wider area. This increase has been largely due to the 
adoption of the District or Branch system, which has 
been very successfully at work during the past year. 
The thanks of the members are due to those gentlemen 
who have so kindly undertaken the duties of District 
Honorary Secretaries, for their earnest efforts on behalf 
of the Association. There are still wanting Hon. Secre- 
taries for the Abingdon, Bradfield, and Maidenhead Dis- 
tricts. 

Among the chief features of a very active year's work 
was the Great Exhibition of Honey, &c, held by the 
British Bee-keepers' Association at South Kensington, 
from July 30th to August 5th, and it may safely be said 
that on no previous occasion has there been brought to- 
gether such a magnificent display, notwithstanding the 
fact that the honey season had been but an indifferent 
one. On the invitation of the British Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation, your Committee decided to take part in the 
County Competition, and sent out a circular asking 
members to contribute to the display, which was 
responded to by the following : — Messrs. Bowly, Bunce, 
Champion, Clegg, Coombes, E. Cooper, G. M. Ma} r , 
Miller, Rayer, Reeley, Whittle, Wright, W. Woodley, 
and Woodley Bros. The Committee were enabled to 
stage upwards of half a ton of hone}"- and wax on the 
Berkshire stand, proving that the County can hold her 
own in the bee-keeping world. 

The Annual Show was held at Reading, on August 
26th, when the Corporation kindly granted your Com- 
mittee the free use of the Abbey Ruins, and the Reading 
Horticultural Society allowed their large tent to be used 
on the occasion. This was one of the most successful 
shows ever held by a County Association, and almost the 
first that has been held independently. The classes for 
honey, wax, hives, &c, were well filled. Class 14, for 
recent inventions of service to bee-keeping, and Classes 
15 to 20, for honey in its applied form, were particularly 
noteworthy. The prizes were kindly distributed by Mrs. 
Murdoch. The Silver Medal of the British Bee-keepers' 
Association was won by the Rev. R. Errington ; the 
Bronze by W. Woodley ; and the Certificate by 
Woodley Bros. The judging, which was a very arduous 
task, was ably carried out by the Hon. and Rev. II. 
Bligh, Rev. J. L. Seager, and Otto Hehner, Esq., F.C.S., 
F.I.C. The bee tent was a source of much interest, and 
the driving competition by amateurs was well contested. 
The show was visited during the day by upwards of 
3000 people. 

Very successful shows have been held under the 
auspices of the Windsor Branch, at Ciewer, on August 
2nd, in conjunction with the Ciewer Horticultural 
Society ; and by the Faringdon District, in conjunction 
with the Faringdon Horticultural Society. 

The See Journal has been circulated among most of 
the members, and under the now system adopted this 
year, considerable improvement has been apparent, but 
with the more rapid issue difficulties continue to arise 
by members detaining it more than the allotted time. 

Most of the members' apiaries were visited by the 
expert at the commencement of the season. He reports 
that, owing to the late spring, bees were in a very back- 
ward condition, and, in consequence, the honey yield must 
be considered below the average. 

The bee tent has been of much use at the various local 
shows, viz., Henley-on-Thames (in conjunction with the 
Oxfordshire Bee-keepers' Association), Beading (twice), 
Whitchurch, Steventou, Shiplake, Windsor, Easthamp- 
stead, Bradfield, Winkfield, Abingdon, Faringdon, 
Maidenhead, Remenham, AVokingham, and Walthara- 
St.-Lawrance, when lectures have been given on 
practical bee-keeping, by Messrs. A. D. Woodley, 
Fewtrell, Webster, and Cobb. 



February '6, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



49 



In June of this year the Royal Counties' Agricultural 
Society will hold their Annual Show at Reading-, when 
your Committee propose to unite with the Hants and 
Isle of Wight Bee-keepers' Association in a joint Show. 
To make the Bee Department a success, members are 
asked to kindly he prepared to exhibit and otherwise 
support the Committee. 

With great regret the Committee have to announce 
the resignation of the Hon. Secretary, Mr. Bowty, who 
has ceased to reside iu the county, and is at too great a 
distance to give the necessary personal attention to 
the duties. The thanks of the members are due to 
him for the vast amount of time and labour he has 
devoted to the interest and welfare of the Associa- 
tion ; his duties have been ably carried on by Mr. 
A. D. AYoodley. The Association have also lost the 
services of Mrs. Curry, and Mr. W B. Kingswood 
from the Committee. 

The Committee regret to have to present you 
with a Balance-sheet showing a deficit, but this is 
more than met by arrears of subscriptions and out- 
standing accounts. 



HUNTS BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of the Huntingdonshire Bee- 
keepers' Association was held in the ' Fountain ' hotel at 
Huntingdon, on Saturday, January 15th. The President, 
the Earl of Sandwich, was in the chair, and the members 
present included Col. Marshall, Rev. H. S. Budge, Rev. 
C. C. James, Mr. T. Coote, jun., and Messrs. C. N. 
White, J. H. Howard, A. Cbilds, E. Allen, Z. Hobbs, 
&c, &c. 

The first business was to present the balance-sheet for 
the past year. This showed a deficit of 51. 8s. iid., 
the receipts being 18?. 16s. Qd. and the expenditure 
231. 19s. lOid. The Secretary (Mr. C. N. White) then 
read the annual report. Lectures had been given at 
Hemiugford Abbots and at Offord Cluney, and from 
both of these places new members had been promised 
for the ensuing year. The bee-tent was erected at the 
annual show, and addresses were then given to large 
audiences by Mr. J. II. Howard and the Secretary (Mr. 
C. N. White). At the annual show held at St. Ives on 
August 5th. the B.B.K.A. silver medal was awarded 
to Mr. T. Cook of Yaxley, the bronze medal to Mr. 
J. II. Howard, jun., of Holme, and the certificate 
of the Association to Mr. J. H. King of Holme. The 
report and balance-sheet were adopted upon the motion 
of Col. Marshall and the Rev. H. S. Budge. 

Lord Sandwich accepted again the office of presideut. 
Captain Fellows, M.P., Mr. F. R. Beart, Captain Dun- 
combe, Lord Esme Gordon, Lord Douglas Gordon, and 
Messrs. H. Goodman, A. W. Marshall, A. Sperling, 
C. P. Tebbutt, A. J. Thornhill, W. Wells, T. Coote, jun., 
and Mrs. Puckle, were elected vice-presidents ; Rev. 
C. G. Hill, Mr. J. H. Howard, Rev. J. Jickling, Mr. J. 
Linton, Rev. N. Royds, Mr. G. J. Rust, Rev. C. C. James, 
and Messrs. F. B. Thackray, A. Sharp, B. Bull, Z. Hobbs, 
A. Childs, and E. Allen, were elected Committee ; Col. 
A. W. Marshall treasurer ; and C. N. White secre- 
tary. Mr. J. Linton and Mr. J. II. Howard were 
appointed to represent the Society at the quarterly 
meetings of the British Bee-keepers' Association. 

The Earl of Sandwich moved that in future the 
members of the Society should be divided into two 
classes — cottagers and amateurs ; and that, in order to 
prevent the bulk of the prizes falling into the hands of 
two or three individuals, no member should be permitted 
to take more than one first and one second prize at any 
competition. This was seconded by the Rev. IT. S. 
Budge, and unanimously adopted. 

The meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to the 
Earl of Sandwich for his services as chairman. 



HANTS & ISLE OF WIGHT BEE-KEEPERS' 

ASSOCIATION. 
Swanmore Branch. 

A committee meeting of the above Society was held 
on Tuesday evening, January 25th, 1887, at Swanmore 
Vicarage; when there were present the Rev. AV. E. 
Medlicott (in the chair), Miss Medlicott, Miss Myers, 
and Messrs. C. Martin, E. Ainsley, G. Horner, and H. 
AV. West (Hon. Secretary). 

The lion, secretary said that he had called the meet- 
ing to consider the advisability of holding a series of 
lectures in the villages comprising the district ; he stated 
that he was himself most strongly in favour of the 
scheme, as from his experience of last year, not only 
were the lectures then given well attended, but that 
many people who then knew nothing whatever of bee- 
keeping, were now, through hearing those lectures, 
bee-keepers. The hon. sec. also said that the number 
of new members gained at those lectures more than paid 
the expense of them. 

A discussion then ensued, the Rev. AV. E. Medlicott, 
Miss Myers, Mr. C. Martin, &c, taking part in it. The 
Rev. AV. E. Medlicott expressed himself most strongly 
in favour of the lectures being held, and also kindly 
offered to give two of the series. Mr. C. Martin fol- 
lowed, to the effect that he was sure the lectures were a 
means of doing good work amongst the poorer class, and 
rightly mentioned that that was the class which they 
wanted to reach ; in concluding, he also said that he 
would be happy to help the hon. sec. by taking one or 
two of the lectures. The hon. sec. thanked both these 
gentlemen for their kind offers, and the meeting closed 
with a vote of thanks to the chairman. 



€mm$o\xtotmz. 



The Editor does not liold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write on one side of 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to *The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," cjo Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

%* In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on vihich it appears. 

TWO SUGGESTIONS. 

[798.] AVith your permission I should like to offer 
two suggestions for the consideration of your readers 
in general, and of the Committee of the B.B.K.A. 
in particular. I have been examining the Rev. F. G. 
Jenyns' Book about Bees — a most interesting book — and 
I have been thinking two things which I hope every 
teacher in the country will do. I can conceive no hobby 
which a teacher can follow which is at once so pleasur- 
able and profitable as bee-keeping. Even our lady 
teachers might take it up. All would find in it wholesome 
relaxation for both mind and body, and any one fond of 
using tools could, perhaps, make a hive or two. 

Many teachers keep bees, but many do not. .How 
shall we induce them to do so ? AVell, the Teachers' 
Union includes more than 300 local associations, whose 
meetings are held in some school, monthly, bi-monthly, 
or quarterly. Could not some of our experts be sent to 
address each of the County Associations upon the sub- 
ject of bee-keeping once during the coining season? The 
dates of meetings could be obtained from the local 
secretaries, whose addresses would be found in the 
Annual Report of the Union. I think many would be 
glad to hear about the subject. Last year I addressed 



50 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL 



[February 3,?1887. 



the members of one Association upon bee-keeping, and 
by the time tins appears in print shall, I hope, have 
brought the Booh about Bees under the notice of the 
members. I made, at least, one convert. I forgot to 
mention that meetings are held generally on Saturday 
afternoons, and that the Union numbers about 10,000 
members. 

My second suggestion is this. Our County Associations 
are not able to do so much as I think they might, 
because they embrace too large an area. Why not 
follow the example of the Teachers' Union, and have 
district associations, each -with its honorary officers ? 
The meetings might be held in some school, the use of 
which most school managers would readily grant for 
so useful an object. The teachers would, if bee-keepers, 
be pleased to act as local secretaries, at any rate, for 
their own parish, and the Association would be more 
in touch with its members. The cottagers would, 
perhaps, be more easily reached by this means. 

If you, Mr. Editor, will kindly allow these suggestions 
to be discussed — if they are deemed of sufficient general 
interest to be discussed — in the columns of the B.B.J., 
perhaps some practical result may follow? Such, at any 
rate, is the hope of — A Worker. 



JUDGING APPLIANCES AT SHOWS. 

[790.] Most of us will remember that when the great 
annual bee-shows were being held in various parts of the 
kingdom during the past summer, the decisions of the 
judges called forth rather severe comments from several, 
both exhibitors and non-exhibitors. It is not my desire 
to rekindle a phase of the subject which is happily now 
laying dormant, but to suggest what I hope will prevent 
a repetition of some of the anomalies then complained of. 
Undoubtedly the judges have far too much to do in a 
given time. The amount of work involved in doing- 
justice to our large classes of appliances is equal to the 
work expected of the agricultural-implement judges at 
the Royal Agricultural Society, and similar shows; and 
yet we expect two, or three men at most, to do the work 
of ten or a dozen. Consequently many of the newest 
appliances do not get sufficient attention, exhibitors 
especially stay away, at least until they have forgotten 
the disgust with which they left the last show at which 
they exhibited, and bee-keepers generally do not attach 
as much value to the awards as they would if those 
awards gave more satisfaction when made. To increase 
the number of judges is not practical on the score of 
costs ; moreover, outsiders would be rather amused at 
the sight, so that all thoughts of reform in that quarter 
had better be abandoned at the outset. Possibly it 
■would be wise to select the judges from a wider area ; 
but this by the wa} r . 

The next best remedy I have to suggest is on the lines 
of "what was commenced at the spring quarterly con- 
versazione of the British Bee-keepers' Association last 
year. Appliances were brought to that meeting and 
discussed, and a vote taken as to their utility. At the 
last Conversazione, held on January 10th, of this year, 
the vote was dispensed with, and I think wisely, because 
that vote was not binding on the Committee of the 
B. B. K. A. to grant a certificate of utility, conse- 
quently it might lead to disappointment and unpleasant- 
ness. But I think those who bring out new appliances 
from time to time might well be encouraged to bring or 
send them to the Conversaziones and get the members 
there assembled to discuss them, and the new points in 
the various appliances should be recorded to the credit of 
those who first exhibited them, subject of course to the 
protest, of any who may be able to prove priority. This 
will probably prove the most fruitful source of any 
trouble there may bo in my scheme, but something of 
this kind may -well be recognised amongst us, as we do 
not as a rule go to the Patent Office; and I much doubt 



if anything appertaining to bee-hives could ever be 
granted a patent ' that would hold water,' but the fact 
of our avoiding the Patent Office need not prevent us 
from doing justice to any one who had applied a new 
idea to bee-appliances, by withholding the credit of the 
same from any exhibitor who may have pirated another's 
ideas. 

The next requirement is a Standing Committee of 
members of the B. B. K. A. for appliances only. Its 
members need not be chosen exclusively from those 
fifteen overworked gentlemen that compose the General 
Committee of the B. B. K. A., although those who usually 
act as judges at our great shows should of necessity be 
on it. The duties of this, which we will name ' Appliance 
Committee,' should be to thoroughly overhaul the new 
appliances that may be submitted from time to time, and 
award certificates to those of sufficient merit. Then 
when these various articles already certified as containing 
merit are brought together at the great shows, the duty 
of the judges would be to define the degrees of merit in 
each case and make their awards accordingly. A silver 
medal, awarded after such an ordeal, would be far more 
valuable in the eyes of manufacturers and bee-keepers 
generally, and we should get the award of one set of 
judges at one show reversed b} r another set at another 
show less seldom than at present ; competition in ideas 
and workmanship would be more spirited, and judging 
would be done with greater care. 

What I should wish for, above all things, is to see this 
well discussed by those most interested ; as a rule we are far 
too apathetic in everything except grumbling. Some of 
my remarks may seem like reflecting on those gentlemen 
who undertake the duties of judges from time to time, I 
need scarcely assure them I give them every credit for 
doing their best ; what I desire is, that their best efforts 
may for the future give satisfaction. — Amateur 
Expert. 

YORKSHIRE ASSOCIATION. 

[800.] I see by your show announcements that the 
Yorkshire show is announced to be held at York in 
August. Now, I hope that the show, and especially the 
bee-department, may be a success, and I trust that the 
bee-keepers of Yorkshire will do all they can to make it 
so. I also notice that the Hon. Secretary resides at 
Poole, which is only a few miles from Horsforth, so that 
I was rather surprised that Mr. Grimshaw was not 
acquainted with him. Now, I think that if Mr. Grim- 
shaw and the Secretary would co-operate, and use their 
best endeavours, they would greatl}' improve the exhibi- 
tion, and also the Yorkshire B.K.A., which, there can be 
no doubt, requires improvement. AVe should be pleased 
to see Yorkshire enter the county competition at the 
B.B.K.A.'s annual show, as I feel confident that there 
are many practical bee-keepers in Yorkshire, and I think 
Yorkshiremen would prove bad to beat. 

Mr. Editor, I must not trespass too much upon your 
space, but I cannot close this without another word to 
the Yorkshire Association, which has been somewhat 
like the fat boy in Pickwick, doing its work and going 
about half asleep ; but let it wake up with the present year, 
as there is a great deal of work to be done, and let it be 
done in a manner worthy of our grand old county, and 
then it will be a pleasure to belong to the Yorkshire 
B.K.A. — A. Woodhead, Ooole. 



THE HEP/DON HIVE. 

[801.] I havo just seen your issue for January 0th, 
and am very pleased to find our old friend James Lee 
coming to the fore again. I am also glad to be able to 
confirm all his statements with reference to one-piece 
sections, &o. As I was one of the few bee-keepers who 
took special notice of i,he machine referred to, I can 



February 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



51 



perhaps throw some light on the reversable hive and its 
application to practical bee-keeping. In nearly all my 
conversations with bee-keepers on this side the question 
of the Heddon hive has turned up, and, excepting in the 
case of those most interested in its sale, the verdict has 
been invariably against it. At the Ontario Convention 
the opinion of the meeting as to the best hive was asked ; 
and though many practical honey-raisers spoke on the 
subject, no one mentioned the Heddon, or owned to 
using a reversing hive of any kind ; and on the matter 
being put tothe vote, the meeting was almost unanimously 
in favour of the Langstroth. I am further able, through 
the courtesy of Mr. Aspinal, editor of the Bee-keepers' 
Magazine, to give an extract from a letter which will 
appear in the February number of that journal, from 
the pen of the Kev. W. F. Clarke, the. chief, if not the 
only disinterested advocate of the Heddon hive in this 
country. He says, in reply to another correspondent, 
and referring to the half bee-space, ' I visited Mr. Heddon 
on my way to the North American Bee-keepers' annual 
meeting in October, and he distinctly told. me that he 
never claimed to have that feature patented. Moreover, 
he. thought so little of it that he meant to cease using it.' 
And further, ' It is a mistake to suppose that ease of 
inverting is the main feature of this hive ; it is not. I 
see no need of inverting the brood frames more than 
once, the object being to get the comb built out evenly 
and fully. With such shallow frames even once in- 
verting is not always necessary. I judge from my own 
experience, and from conversations with Mr. Heddon 
and his assistants, that the inversion of the section rack 
is unnecessary, and often inadvisable.' 

Mr. Clarke mentions the many advantages possessed by 
this hive, but he does not give one which was not also 
common to the old Carr-Stewarton, and almost equally 
so to the Woodbury, or any other frame-hive. I have it 
also on good authority that Mr. Heddon gave it as his 
opinion that the mere making of hives 6 inches deep 
would not be any infringement of his patent. Where 
then is the valuable part of his 'invention?' He dis- 
claims and abandons the half bee-space, does not think 
much of the reversing, and claims nothing for the 
.shallow boxes. I hope some one will enlighten us upon 
this. I shall look with interest at the future numbers of 
the Bee-keeper's Magazine. 

By the way, many of ns might take that little monthly 
with advantage. It is ' well gotten up,' and costs only 
twenty-live cents per annum— Is. Id. — which low price 
is making it popular. Its circulation is about 9000. — J. A. 
Abbott, Ifew York, January Vith, 1887. 



SIMPLICITY IN FEEDING. 

[802.] In addition to the method lately explained, 
there are others which suggest themselves in cases of 
emergency for early spring feeding. Where a colony 
has been found short soon after mid-winter, I have given 
lumps of granulated honey placed upon the bare frames, 
and so kept them along until syrup could be fed with 
safety. 

At other times, rather than break open the cluster, 
a frame of sealed stores has been laid on the top-bars 
and all covered up warm. Certainly the comb is cut 
about more than when inserted below, but then in cases 
of this kind we are fortunate in being able to save the 
stock, and there is a great advantage in thus placing the 
comb of honey, as it is within easy reach of every seam 
of bees. 

A note of warning here may not be out of place. If 
colonies have died from any cause, and stores are care- 
lessly left in the hive, the other bees will find it out as 
soon as a few warm days come; and in carrying that 
little honey home to their own hive much needless loss 
of life will occur, just at the time when every bee should 
be restrained from flying as far as possible. 



In like manner out-door feeding is very injurious, 
unless in skilful hands, and even after the hives are well 
populated with young bees, the practice is liable to lead 
to serious loss of strength. 

Several correspondents wish to know if the Porto 
Rico sugar may be placed over the feed-hole in first 
thicknesss of material laid on the frames. Using it in 
that manner has proved quite satisfactory to myself; 
but the hole must be immediately above the cluster, 
and to prevent the closing of so small a space by 
pressure from above, a piece of wood inches long by 
li inches deep should be placed close to the opening 
before arranging the sugar. — S. Simmins. 



INVERTIBLE HIVES (79:1). 

[803.] In my remarks (778) I ventured to state it as 
my opinion that 'a friendly discussion on the advantages 
or disadvantages of this hive and system in the Journal' 
would be the means of obtaining information useful to 
those who wish to be careful how they discard their 
present hives and appliances before rushing into the 
trouble and expense of purchasing others, however much 
they may have been cracked up by those who, them- 
selves, have had to admit that they are, at present, for 
all practical purposes untried, either for wintering or 
honey-getting. I had hoped that this suggestion would 
have elicited the attention of some of our many practical 
and experienced bee-keepers, whose names alone would 
have been a guarantee for the soundness of their opinions 
and advice, whether for or against this or any other 
particular system or theory in connexion with bee- 
keeping. 

' Devonshire Dumpling,' who may for aught I know be 
one of these, prefers to give his ideas under an assumed 
name, which many will think somewhat detracts from 
their value, writes : ' I beg to saj r I have tried them with 
several hives this season, and all gave me nearly double 
the amount of sections,' — I presume lie means double the 
amount of sections that other hives gave that were not 
inverted. 

It is no uncommon thing in some seasons for different 
colonies in an apiary, in similar hives, and under pre- 
cisely the same conditions, so far as we know, to give us 
double the amount of honey that others do, whether we 
are working for comb or for extracted honey ; therefore, 
as 'Devonshire Dumpling' says, 'I having tried several' 
(hives) 'claim a right to say it is a good plan.' I think 
we may fairty ask him to give in the Journal more 
detailed particulars of his experience, the conditions 
under which the comparison as to the yield of honey 
was made, the total number of colonies in the apiary, 
the number of those inverted, the ages (approximate) of 
the queens, description of the hives that each was in, 
the number of swarms from each inverted or other hive, 
and the number of sections or pounds of extracted honey, 
and other information he may be able to give, will, I am 
sure, be most interesting to your readers. 

It would almost appear unnecessary for ' D. D.' to try 
the Jones- Heddon hive, as the invertible hive he has 
used gives ' nearly double the amount of sections' of 
his ordinary hives. Surely he cannot hope to do more 
than nearly double his crop by the use of a particular 
'cheap' hive. 

However cheap invertible hives can be obtained, you, 
Mr. Editor, will, I think, agree with me the time is not 
yet come for ' the cottager bee-keeper to try it.' What 
is required for the cottager, and what can now be 
obtained from most or all British manufacturers of hives, 
is simply a hive with standard frames and walls at least 
§ inches (not § inches) thick, enough to stand exposure 
in our damp and variable climate, having a proper pro- 
jecting roof or cover. 

Competition has brought the price of hives down, and. 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 3, 1887. 



it is only by the use of machinery aud the quantity sold 
that there can be any profit; and I am convinced that 
the British hive-maker can hold his own against all the 
world if sound workmanship and finish are taken into 
consideration. 

To be cheap a thing must be what it professes, well 
made, suitable to the conditions and purposes for which 
it is intended, otherwise it is 'dear at any price] however 
small. — John M. Hookek. 



INVERTIBLE HIVES (793.) 
[804.] The 'Devonshire Dumpling' has entirely misap- 
prehended my views as to invertible hives. I simply 
advised that caution should be used, and I still think it 
will be wise for bee-keepers to pause before going largely 
into inversion of hives. Nothing I have written justifies 
the assertion that ' I seem very strongly to object to 
invertible hives.' So far from my condemning invertible 
hives, I have designed a hive and frames complete, which 
I think will favourably compare with the cheap hives of 
which ' Devonshire Dumpling ' speaks. These hives can 
be used as invertible hives, or not, at the pleasure of their 
owners. The improvements in construction embrace 
every requisite of a modern hive, and I am bold enough 
to say that the method adopted is a step forward in 
several details that have hitherto been done in a crude 
and makeshift manner at the best. I am patenting this 
hive, and I hope shortly to have the unbiassed opinions 
of reliable apiarists on its merits. 

I read with astonishment ' Devonshire Dumpling's ' 
advice to cottagers, to try the Jones-Heddon hive. 
Surely it requires no argument to prove its utter unsuit- 
ability to the cottage bee-keeper, seeing more skill and 
judgment is required to manipulate this hive successfully 
than any other in use at the present day. 

With regard to ' Devonshire Dumpling's ' experience in 
inverting, 1 would remark that facts stated under a nom 
de plume lose half their value. I, for one, am anxious 
for information, aud ask ' Devonshire Dumpling ' to give 
us further particulars of his management. The expres- 
sion used of having ' tried the inversion of several hives 
this season ' is a loose way of putting it, and what would 
be preferred, I apprehend, is something more than such 
an unknown quantity. — James Lee, January 2 M 2nd. 



INVERTIBLE HIVES. 

[80S.] Whilst all our inventors are busying themselves 
over new designs for invertible hives I take this oppor- 
tunity to warn them off my latest invention— the 
grandest and most decided advance in bee-culture of 
modern times. Even if scouted by an unsympathetic 
public I look to a grateful posterity to erect a statue 
(wax) in my honour. It is such a great and well-known 
advantage to be able to reverse the hive at any and 
every time and renders the bees so comfortable and con- 
tented that I propose at once making a hive to have 
every facility in that direction. It will be constructed 
with circular frames fixed to an axle passing through the 
centres, the body of hive to be cylindrical and to be half 
inch wider in inside diameter than the outside of frames, 
a portion of the top staves being removed to allow of a 
section crate above, the said section crate to be either 
fixed or revolve separately. The brood combs when 
finished will resemble cart-wheels revolving in a barrel 
with a hole up top for the bees to get into the sections, 
the centres of frames being connected to a handle out- 
side. It will be among other advantages : 1 st, A great 
novelty (this is enough alone to command an enormous 
sale). 2nd, The immense saving of labour to the bees 
in having the honey just collected and stored at bottom 
of frames carried upstairs by revolving t lie handle, and a 
fresh set of cells brought down handy for the field bees ; 
I do not think it necessary to be constantly inverting it — 



perhaps for a man with but little spare time once every 
ten minutes would be often enough. 3rd, A great in- 
ducement for the queen to la}' eggs when she comes 
unexpectedly upon empty cells which she distinctly 
remembers filling a few minutes before and thus be 
stimulated to renewed efforts. To enumerate all the 
advantages would, I fear, cause our courteous Editor to 
hint about advertisement colnmns, so I must conclude 
with an appeal to the honour of brother bee-keepers not 
to appropriate my idea, as the doctors — I mean circum- 
stances over which I have no control — prevent me from 
taking out a patent in — Colney Hatch. 



FOUL BROOD. 

[806.] Just a few lines in reply to Mr. Ward. He says 
he lias no agents recognised or otherwise. I don't know 
where I said that he had, in fact, I don't know what 
he sells. 

Mr. Cheshire's cure did not fail with me because I 
gave it to them four times stronger than recommended, as 
it was quite the reverse of that. That sentence should 
have been ' reduced four times below the strength recom- 
mended,' but by some means the word'below ' wasomitted. 
I don't know whether the mistake was mine or the 
printer's, but even then 1 don't see how he manages to 
make it stronger by reduction; but I suppose in these 
days of inverted hives, he thought he would invert me. 
Perhaps I went too far in saying that all agree that the 
Cheshire formula is too strong, but even Mr. Ward 
recommends giving it to the bees in small doses. 

Inverted again, killed the bees, and then coidd not 
cure foul brood, but now we have it ammonia's the 
thing; take out a patent, Mr. Ward, as there is plenty 
of that about, but not where that lot of bees went to. 
I am sorry that I cannot tell him how to distinguish 
a diseased queen from a healthy one, but if he wants to 
requeen any of his hives I should advise him to get his 
queens from an apiary that he knows to be clear of 
foul brood. 

Thanks, Mr. Editor, for your footnote to your last 
letter, I am in hopes that the correspondence will do 
some of us afflicted ones good. — Man op Kent. 



HIVES PATENTED IN THE UNITED STATES. 

[807.] Your readers may not be aware that the 
specifications of patents taken out in all countries 
where there is a patent law are filed and can be iuspected 
in the library at the Patent Office, Chancer}' Lane, with- 
out payment of any fee, simply by signing your name 
and address in a book as you enter. There is also a 
library of the scientific books of all countries. 

After the little business I had at the Patent Office this 
week was done I amused myself looking at the places and 
specifications of some of the American bee-hives. Seeing 
from the general indexes the great number of hives that 
had been patented in the United States I thought it 
might be of interest to your readers to know the number 
of patents taken out under the heading ' lee-hives] not 
including extractors, feeders and smoke.rs, &c, and I 
counted up the numbers, which are as follows : — From 
the commencement up to the end of the year 187.'!, 591 ; 
1874, 22 ; 1875, 17 ; 1876, 22 ; 1877, 33 ; 1878, 33 ; 1879, 
18; 1880, 12; 1881, 10; 1882, 8; 1883, 10 ; 1884,8; 
1885, 20; part of 1886, 6: total, 816. 

You will see that the year 1886 is not yet completed, 
but up to the latest returns the enormous number of 816 
patents have been taken out for ' bee-hives.' I examined 
about thirty of the most recent ones, and I should much 
like those gentlemen who consider that we get all our 
best ideas from America to spend a day there in search 
of ideas worthy of imitation, and I feel convinced that 
whatever their opinion of the superiority of American 



February 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



5S 



appliances had previously been lie will go away surprised 
to find that any one would ever patent the rubbish he 
sees illustrated and described there. Upon inquiry of a 
patent agent, I find a patent costs more there than here, 
since the alteration of our patent law. — -John M. 
Hooker. 

<£.c{j0.es ixam % lite. 

Honey Cott, Weston, Leamington, January 19th. — After 
such a long spell of cold weather we have had a grand 
change, and such a time for the bees to fly ; there was no 
mistake about their enjoying it, after being cooped up so 
long. As there was such a lot of snow lying about among 
my hives, I had to put straw down to save the bees from 
settling on it to their destruction. January 20th. — On 
looking over some hives to-day, at dinner-time, with the 
sun shining bright and warm, the pleasant hum of the bees 
was very enjoyable after such severe weather ; bees on the 
whole look bright and healthy. January 25th. — Another 
nice mild day, bees flying in great numbers. January 2(ith. 
— Such a lovely day ! I took advantage of it, and had the 
afternoon to look over my stocks, and found four lots that 
had lost a good number of bees (bad management) ; but I 
excuse myself on the plea that I had not time or a chance 
to see to them ; a couple of stocks bad dysentery very bad ; 
found all other stocks in fair order ; had quite a job in 
drying quilts, &c. January '21th. — Sun shining very warm 
again, birds and bees singing away, hope we shall not have 
a pinch for it. January 31st. — A very nice day again, bees 
fetching water, showing they are making a move for breed- 
ing, etc. — John Walton. 

TrefEglwys. — Bees here had first flight on 20th January. 
They were unable to fly from 12th November to[29th January. 
To-day, 29th January, first pollen gathered. Leg of one 
pollen-gatherer sent to editor with this note. — T. Bonner 
Chambers, F.L.S. 

South Cornwall, January 25th. — It is long since I sent 
forth a sound from these parts (in this column at least). 
Like many others, I suppose, there has been little or 
nothing to report. The weather has not been so severe as 
in some parts of England, but we have had an unsettled 
and uncomfortable winter. Yet bees have flown at intervals. 
Many are out to-day, and I have had the opportunity of 
taking a peep at some of them. I perceive that five stocks 
are well supplied with sealed stores till breeding sets in at 
any rate, and I expect that nine others are equally well off. 
I am sorry to say that I know of two small stocks starved 
to death for want of judgment. But ' live and learn,' only 
in the process the bees do not do the former. In your last 
number you mentioned the use of crown-boards. I have 
used them (in five slips) for years a-top of some of Lee's 
hives, which stand well. They have then- uses. They 
make a snug cover for winter, and enable you to close a 
portion of the top of the hive when repairing, say, towards 
the close of the season, with a single Benthall crate. But 
the disadvantage for winter work is this, that if they lie 
next the hive you cannot well inspect at this season without 
a jar, therefore put down a cloth first, and, if you like, your 
slips on top of this. So I see the top-ventilation theory is 
being given up. I don't wonder at it. I remember years 
ago mentioning to Mr. Abbott how inconsistent it seemed 
to me with the determined practice of the bees to propolise 
every crevice. — C. B. S. 

Loughbrickland, Co. Down. — This parish lies high, from 
400 to 500 feet above the sea. The few bee-keepers in it 
find it well suited for producing honey. All stocks that 
were properly prepared have wintered so far well, and are 
fairly strong. Since the snow melted the bees have had 
several cleansing flights. — H. W. Lett, M.A. 



Up&es ta ($wm$ t 



*** In their answers. Correspondents are respectfully requested to 
mention in each instance the number and the title of the query aslced. 

[774. ] Separation of Wax from Pollen, &c. — Like your 
correspondent ' A. S.', I have been perplexed in the sepa- 
ration of wax from all refuse, but now I find it is easily 



separated by a wax-extractor that is within the reach of 
every cottager, invented and made by myself, and the price 
would be complete, 3s. M., or a cheaper one still without a 
receptacle for the wax for 2s. ; hut a basin will answer this 
purpose. I have lent mine to several bee - keepers in my 
district, and they say it is a great boon, as there is no mess 
and no time wasted and extracts every particle of wax from 
any old combs, cannot get out of repair, and will last a life- 
time. — Wm. Killick, Sandhurst. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

All queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

W. G. — Uniting Queenless Stock when Frames are not inter- 
chaugeable. — See reply to H. T., page 41 current volume. 

Inquirer. — The American Bee-keepers' Magazine may be 
procured through Mr. Huckle, Kings Langley, Herts. 

John Bichardson. — Non-swarming. — Consult Simmins's 
Non-swarming System as applied to Hives in Present use. 

Beeswing Distance of Combs. — The distance, by actual 

measurement, from centre to centre of naturally-built 
combs is 1^ inch, and that is the distance preserved by 
properly constructed metal ends. If you wish to reduce 
the space it can be done by putting ends on alternate 
frames only. 

J. P. — The comb forwarded is not affected with foul brood. 
The brood has been chilled and dried up. It is difficult 
to say what has been the cause of the decay of the hive. 
Probably the queen has died, the bees have been unable 
to raise another in her stead, and they have gradually 
dwindled away. 

Gen. B. — 1. Utilising Sections for Feeding. — If you have 
a stock in a frame - hive short of food 3'ou can hang 
the sections in a frame, tying a string round them if they 
do not fit well. Uncap them, warm them, aud place them 
within the divider, crowding the bees by removing outside 
combs. You can give sections to bees in skeps by placing 
them over the feed-hole and covering up, but at this 
season candy or dry sugar is better ; in either ease remove 
the sections when the honey is cleared out and give others. 
2. Sugar for Dry Feeding. — Porto-Rico. 

Constant Reader. — 1. Uniting. — Wait for a few weeks 
until the weather is warmer and the bees more active. 
Meanwhile, get the two stocks together by moving one, 
or both, not more than a-yard a-day, only counting such 
days as the bees are flying freely. If they are short of 
food you can give some combs from the stocks you found 
dead with plenty of food — provided, of course, they did 
not die of disease. To unite, if in frame-hives, open out 
the frames of one and place the others between them 
alternately ; if in skeps drive both, mix, and return to 
the combs. 2. Robbing. — You had better remove the 
honey from the dead stocks — robbing, when once set up, 
is difficult to stop. 

S. G. F., Hornsey. — 1. Size of Floor-board. — The position 
of the floor-board is quite correctly shown. It is the size 
of the outer casing, and answers as a support both to it 
and the hive which is placed inside. 2. Spring Feeding. 
— It is impossible to say how long you must feed the 
bees when you first have them, but you must occasionally 
examine the hives, and if the bees are not bringing in 
sufficient to supply their requirements they must be fed 
until they do. 3. Number of Frames. — Twelve frames 
would not be too many in an Abbott hive, but they must 
only be given to the bees gradually as they need them ; 
there should never be more frames in the stock hive than 
can be covered by the bees. 4. Distance of Baskets from 
Spindle in Extractor. — We think four inches too close, 
and have found five inches the nearest that the cages can 
be brought to the central spindle without considerably 
diminishing the extractive power. 



Putting Swarms Together. — Will Mr. A. J. H. Wood 
tell me how to put two swarms together if they don't swarm 
on the same day ? When I attempt this they fight dread- 
fully with great loss of bees. — Beeswing, 



54 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 3, 1887. 



Size of Extractor. — Will any reader of the Journal in- 
form me what extractor will suit best for a small apiary? 
I have five hives, and some of the frames are larger than 
others. The largest size is 13J inches long by 101 inches 
deep, the top bar being 17 inches long. — W. M. 

We much regret tliat, through want of space, we have been 
obliged to postpone the appearance of the Discussion on Mr. 
Grimsliaw's paper. 



g'how Announcements. 

Giving Name and Address of Secretary, Date and Place of 
Show, Date of Closing Entries. Terms : Three Insertions 
and under. Two Shillings and Sixpence ; additional inser- 
tions, Sixpence each. No charge made to those Associations 
whose Shows are announced in our general Advertising 
Columns. 

July 11-15. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle. on. 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huckle, Kings Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Eickards, Poole, near Leeds. 

pQusiness ^Directory. 



The Name and Address and Business of any Manufacturer 
will be inserted in this List, under one heading, for One 
Pound per annum. Additional lieadings, Five Shilling's 
extra. Advertisers in ' The Bee Journal,' whose orders 
amount to Five Pounds per annum, will be inserted Free. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Eoad, Bristol. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Burtt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 

Edey & Son, St. Neots. 

Hole, J. R. W., Tarrington, Ledbury. 

Howard, J. H, Holme, Peterborough. 

Meadham, M., Huntington, Hereford. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour* Sons, H9 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King William St., Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howabd, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn 

Walton, E. C. , Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 1-49 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simminb, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, I'\, 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts 



om 
ht 



SKEPS, FOUNDATION, &c. 
lib. Ql- or 1/10. 
Dealers and others apply for List (110 Illustrations), 
G. STOTHARD, WELWYN, HERTS, a 2324 

QJir A l> Having had many enquiries fro 

OP \Jr\ t\t those who cannot obtain the rig 
kind, we now offer Genuine PORTO RICO, on rail at 
Brighton, 21s. per cwt„ lis. 56-lbs., 5s. 9d. 28-lbs. DUTCH 
CRUSHED, best for Syrup, 22s. 6d. per ewt., lis. 6rf. 56-lbs., 
6s. 28-lbs. Quantities of not less than 2 cwt. of Dutch 
Crushed, direct from London, at 19s. 6rf, per cwt, ; not less 
than 10 cwt. Porto Rico, at 18s. 

Address: Simmins' Factory, Brighton. (161) 

WHY BUY A HIVE? 7 

WHEN you can get one by looking in the Dictionan/, 
Greatest number of words from OBSERVATORY. 
Entrance Fee, Is. Prize:— An OBSERVATORY HIVE, 
If entries insufficient, half money returned. Enclose a 
Post-card for successful one. Entries close February 21. 
Results week after. Address — 

Mr. CHITTY, Apiarist, PEWSEY. 

TO BE GIVEN AWAY! 

ONE AND A HALF DOZEN 

Clark's Patent Climax Hives. 



IN order that these Hives may be more generally known, 
the Licensee has determined to give away among Pur- 
chasers of undermentioned Goods during this February, 
One Dozen No. 2, and Half-dozen No. 1 HIVES (full par- 
ticulars given in last year's Advertisement), at the rate of 
one among every thirty Purchasers, to be distributed by a 
lottery, to conduct which he will endeavour to obtain the 
assistance of persons of known integrity. Purchasers of 
any two articles above Is. to have one chance, and each 
2s. Gd. one chauce ; every further 2s. Gd. an additional 
chance. 

N.B. — In order to have a chance of securing one of these 
Hives gratis, Orders must be sent in during February, as the 
lottery will take place early in March and Hives at once 
forwarded to respective AVinners. 

PRICES. 

Finest quality White Basswood A SECTIONS, 4£ x 4J x 
2, per 100, 3s. ; 500, lis.; 1000, 21s. 5Jx6J, per 100, 
3s. 6d. ; 500, 13s. ; 1000, 25s. PURE FOUNDATION, 
BROOD, per lb. 2s. ; 5 lbs., Is. Wd. ; 5 lbs. to 25 lbs., Is. QUI ; 
SUPER ditto, per lb. 2s. 9rf. SMOKER (Bingham), 2s. 9d. 
REGULATING FEEDERS, Is. Gd. ' LITTLE WONDER ' 
EXTRACTOR, 10s. VEILS, Is. 3d. PINE'S METAL 
ENDS, per gross, 7s. 

TOOLS FOR HIVE MAKING. 

Set of 36 best Cast Steel Black Bits and Iron Brace, 15s. Gd 
Beech Brace, Lignum head, 26 Bits ditto, 18s. Gd. Set of 
12 Cast Steel Chisels, from 1 in. down, 5s. Gd. Handles, 
2d. each. Tenon Saw File, 3.!d.; Hand Saw, id. Marking 
Guages, 9<7. Mortice ditto, from 2s. Gd. to 3s. Gd. Best 
Twist Gimlets, assorted, three, 10i<(. Small Hammer, Is.; 
larger, Is. Gd. Name Stamps, Steel, id. per letter. Oil 
Stones from Is. to 3s. Best Smoothing Planes, 2 in. 3s. Gd,, 
2i 4s., 2} 4s. 3</. Best Jack Plane, 4s. 9d. Best Try Plane, 
6s. 6<7. Best Cast Steel Hand Saw, 22 ins., 4s. ; 24 ins., 
4s. Gd. Tenon Saw, 14 ins., Iron Back, 3s. 9d, ; Brass ditto, 
5s. Gd. Dove-tail Saw, 3s. 2 ft. Rules, 2 fold, Is. and Is. Gd.} 
4 fold, Is. 3d. to 2s. 3d. Spokeshave, Is. Id. Squares, 6 in., 
Is. 8<7.; 9 in., 2s. 3d.; 12 in., 3s. 

Kindly oblige by adding sufficient postage for small 
packages of goods. 

All Orders to be addressed to W. J. GREEN, 

Hive Works, Friar Street, Sudbury, Suffolk. 

a 2325 



^iAA±- 



the: 






="V 



^fcli^ 




Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Steangeways' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c' 



[No. 242. Vol. XV.] 



FEBRUARY 10, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



€bxtaxml, gottas, $** 



DISTRICT ASSOCIATIONS. 

In our last issue ive noticed one or two sugges- 
tions made in a letter from a correspondent ( ) ; and 
we promised to say something this week about the 
second of his proposals. This related to the forma- 
tion of branches or district Associations of the 
County Associations. It is somewhat remarkable 
that a practical emphasis to this idea was given 
by the report of one of our most flourishing Associ- 
ations, which appeared in our columns last week. 

Now, we who are bee-keepers, and who wish to 
make our own views widely prevail, may learn 
a lesson from political workers. Their watch- 
word is, ' Organize, organize, organize.' The loss 
of most elections on one side or the other is put 
down to the want of organization ; and most 
victories are hailtd as evidence of what can be done 
by organization. So far as truth lies in these 
assertions, all that it amounts to is that to push a 
cause you must have plenty of people interested in 
the cause — interested so as to work for it — working 
for it systematically. Let us, then, see how far 
these requisites will be secured by the formation of 
a number of District Associations of bee-keepers. 

Our first point is to secure numbers to show an 
interest in the subject of apiculture. There are, 
happily, now thousands throughout the country 
who keep bees, and who manage them in an intelli- 
gent manner. Many of these also, we are glad to 
know, are members of our various County Associa- 
tions. Still there are very large numbers who do 
not think it worth while to join these bodies, 
because they feel it doubtful how far they will 
derive advantage from membership. Distance from 
headquarters, inconveniences of getting to the 
meetings, the uninteresting nature of much of the 
necessaiy routine business, all combine to prevent 
people from joining the larger Associations. But if 
only four or five neighbouring bee-keepers will but 
combine to talk with each other about their methods, 
their difficulties, and their successes, a great stimulus 
will be given both to the pursuit of bee-keeping 
and to united efforts to improve the art. Then, 
if such a small Society be affiliated to the central 
County Association, new strength will be added to 
the parent body, while each of the remoter and dis- 




trict members will feel possessed of a share in the 
larger Society and its doings. One very important 
matter in each case will be the securing of an 
energetic man as the honorary secretary for each 
small branch. Still further stimulus may be given 
by holding shows — on however diminutive a scale — 
once a-year. Then, the best exhibits in each of these 
should, as a rule, be reserved for the county show. 
Prizes and commendations thus gained will promote 
a healthy emulation, and the successful competitors 
will learn to believe in their own powers, and will 
be led on to renewed effort for improved methods 
and more careful attention to details. 

A last essential — but by no means the least — will 
be encouragement from the more influential bodies. 
We, therefore, would very earnestly commend this 
matter, in the first place, to the notice of the Com- 
mittee of the B.B.K.A. We venture to suggest 
the collection of information from those Associations 
where the plan of branches is in full operation. 
From the knowledge thus gained, it would be no 
difficult matter to select such salient points as 
might be embodied in a leaflet for circulation 
wherever the possibility of establishing District 
Associations seemed advisable or possible. 

There are many counties which have cultivated 
District Associations with success, for example, the 
Herts, the Hants, the Bucks, the Staffordshire, &c. 

At the beginning of this article we referred to the 
report of the Berks County Association. On turning 
to it, in our last week's issue, it will be seen that 
there are affiliated branches to the number of eleven. 
The vigour these have imparted to the central 
body is manifest from the shows held in various 
neighbourhoods. We had the pleasure of acting as 
judge at one of these, and were distinctly impressed 
with the excellence of the exhibits, the best of 
which subsequently took the first prize at the 
County Show at Reading. We know also the 
excellent spirit prevailing among the members of 
this District Association, and we have reason to 
believe a similar good feeling exists in all the 
affiliated branches. In advocating the adoption of 
our correspondent's suggestions, we are, therefore, 
speaking from known facts of the advantages that 
would certainly come from its adoption. But, while 
earnestly directing the attention of the Committee 
of the B. B. K. A. to this matter, we would, with equal 
fervour, urge all central Committees to promote in 
every possible way the establishment of branches 






56 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL 



[February 10, 1887. 



in all towns and villages in which the existence of 
even three or four bee-keepers is known. As the 
rain-drops make the runnels, and the runnels the 
streamlets ; the streamlets, again, form the rivers ; 
and the rivers replenish the ocean itself ; so we 
may expect wonderful results from the union of 
individuals into small societies ; of these into 
County Associations, and of the County Associa- 
tions with the great central body — the B. B. K. A. 



SCIENTIFIC SUBJECTS AT CONVERSAZIONES. 
There is an idea that scientific subjects should not 
be brought forward at meetings of bee-keepers, but 
that only those of a practical character should be 
discussed. "We have always considered this a mistake, 
and we are glad to find gentlemen willing to bring for- 
ward scientific papers for discussion, anticipating that 
something, however little, may be added to our previous 
stock of knowledge. There are plenty of persons who 
do not know what has been discovered in any particular 
branch of study, or where to refer to for the information, 
that it must always be of some use to have papers similar 
to the one read by Mr. Grimshaw at the last Conversazione 
of the B. B. K. A., and more especially when the subject 
is handled in so pleasant and able a style. That bee- 
keepers do take an interest in such subjects was evinced 
by the discussion which followed. 

It is difficult for bee-keepers generally, to get informa- 
tion on scientific subjects, as our knowledge in these is 
constantly increasing, and the discoveries are published 
in pamphlets and proceedings of scientific societies not 
accessible to every one. There is no book to guide the 
scientific student and to point out what has been done in 
any particular direction, and by whom, or where the in- 
formation is to be found. For instance, how many bee- 
keepers are there who know that Leuckart discovered 
and propounded that the larvse of worker bees were 
weaned, whilst those of queens were not, but were fed 
with the same food during the whole of their darval 
existence; or that this discovery was published in 1855 
at p. 209 of the Bienenzeitung, and that it is referred 
to in several books ? Or how many know what has 
been done with regard to arriving at some knowledge 
of the difference of the food of larva; and that of the 
queen and drone, or of the discoveries of Schonfeld, 
Holz, Schiemenz, and others, in connexion with this? 
Or that Schiemenz, after elaborate researches and a 
minute description of the five gland systems in the 
bee, arrived at the conclusion that the food given to 
the queen 'consists of secretion from system 1, although 
the others cannot be excluded from its composition ? ' 
There is, as we have said, absolutely no work in the 
English language that gives us this and similar inform- 
ation, or a correct history of the more recent discoveries 
in connexion with the life -history of bees, which are 
found scattered in different publications. The French 
bee-keepers are more fortunate, as they have their 
Maurice Girard, who, in 1878, published an excellent 
compilation, a new edition of which was not long since 
published, with references, of all that was known up to 
that time. We have no similar book of recent date, 
and until this want is supplied the student will have to 
wade through volumes of Bee Journals and other books 
to find what he wants. These Conversaziones assist 
greatly in spreading such a knowledge, and frequently 
add something now to that previously known. 

The subject chosen by Mr. Grimshaw was not a new 

one, and, as ho observed, had been studied by Swain- 

merdam and others in the last century. Many doubtful 

lointsjwere cleared up later by Dr. II. Landois, who, in 

867, published Die Ton- und Stimmapparate der In- 

secten, which treats the subject in a most exhaustive 



I 



manner. M. Girard, in the book above alluded to, 
entitled Les Abeilles, in describing the various sounds 
produced by the bee, makes constant reference to 
Landois. Mr. Grimshaw refers to Mr. Cheshire; but 
in justice to those who have written before him, we 
must point out that he has added nothing to what 
was already known, and appears to have taken his 
information from Girard, even to the 'plaited and fringed 
curtains lying behind the edges of the spiracle' (see pp. 
■55-00 of the work above mentioned). He does not 
appear to have paid much attention to Landois's work, or 
he would not have made the ludicrous mistake he has in 
the title, wdiich he gives. To call a ' Stimmapparate ' 
(voice apparatus) a ' Stummaparate ' (dull apparatus), 
to say the least is droll. In 1868 Marey registered, by the 
' graphic method,' the number of vibrations of the wings, 
and the tone produced in consequence; but Girard points 
out that these experiments are very uncertain, owing to 
the difficulty of performing them. The chairman pointed 
out this difficulty ; and it is also shown by the fact that 
Landois gives the notes formed by the wing-beats of the 
bee as representing 440 vibrations, wdiereas the graphic 
method only gives 100, but he also observes that when 
the bee is tirid the vibrations decrease to 330. Girard 
says the humming sound is not produced by the wings 
only ; and an example he gives is that of a humble bee 
(Bombus terrestris, hwtorum, or lapidarius), which, if 
shut up in a box, and the wings are only producing a 
slight tremulous motion, a loud humming noise will be 
heard— a sign of anger or fear. If the spiracles, he says, 
be stopped with wax, the humming will cease. Cha- 
brier and Burmeister, as well as Landois, have recog- 
nised three different tones : 1st, produced by the wing- 
beats ; 2nd, by the vibration of the abdominal^ rings ; 
and, 3rd, the most acute and intense, from the action of a 
true vocal apparatus placed in the stigmatic orifices. 
We were pleased to find a reference made by Mr. Meggy 
to an article which appeared a couple of years ago in a 
German magazine on the subject. 

That bees possess a voice nas been long admitted; 
and Baron von Berlepsch, Oettl, Dr. Pollmann, and 
many others, have described the various sounds. Sta- 
hala has given to the sounds different meanings, 
whether correct or not we cannot say ; at any rate 
it is generally supposed that they are understood by 
the bees. For instance, he says, if in winter one taps 
the hive and a loud ' Iluumm' is heard, it is a sign that 
the bees have their queen and sufficient food. The loud 
' Dzi-dzi' is heard when both stores and bees are dwin- 
dling. The loud ' Dziiiiii' will be heard when they are 
too cold. ' Iluuuuuu' is produced by queenless stocks 
both in summer and winter. A loud ' Wuh-wuh-wuh ' 
is only heard when breeding is going on, but never when 
the hive is queenless or has an unfertilised queen. Be- 
sides these there are some dozen other sounds given, 
such as those produced by the young queens and bees in 
anger or otherwise. 

When, however, we come to the question of hearing, 
we encounter a very much greater difficulty. The 
depressions on the antemife have long been observed, and 
in 1838 A. Lefebvre published his Note sur le sentiment 
olfactif des Insectes, in which he describes these as 
organs of smell ; and. in 1847 Erichson held the same 
views in his De fahriea et usu Antennarum in Insectis. 
In 1850 Ed. Perils continued Erichson's observations, 
and published (arriving at the same results) his Memoire 
sur le siege de I'Odorat dans les Artieules ; and more 
recently, in 1881, G. Hauser published an elaborate 
treatise, in which he went most exhaustively into the 
question, entitled Physiologische und histologische TJnter- 
suchungen i'tber das Oeruchsoi-gan der Insecten, winch is 
by far the most important work we have on the subject, 
and he also arrives at the same conclusion, and is fol- 
lowed by Schiemenz in 1883, who holds the same opinions. 
On the other hand, we find Dr. Braxton Hicks, in 



February' 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



57 



1860, in Lis paper, On certain Sensor;/ Organs in Insects 
hitherto undescribed, states ' that there is every reason 
to think that the antennal organs are those of hearing. 7 
This view he also expresses in The Honey See, published 
by him in conjunction with J. Samuelson. Again, in 
1878, we find V. Graber writing and holding a similar 
view in Vber neue, otocystenartige Sinnesorgane der In- 
secten ; and also Paolo Mayer, Sopra certi organi di senso 
nelle Antenne dei Ditferi in 1878. 

That they are organs of hearing is by no means proved, 
and Mr. Cheshire's is only an opinion which adds nothing 
to what is already known. It would be interesting if 
Mr. Grimshaw would try his experiments with a micro- 
phone on bees, for Sir John Lubbock, who had an ex- 
tremely sensitive microphone sent him by Professor Bell 
and attached it to the under side of one of his ants' nests, 
could distinguish nothing but the ants walking about. 
But he says, ' It is, however, far from improbable that 
ants may produce sounds entirely beyond our range of 
hearing. Indeed, it is not impossible that insects may 
possess senses or sensations of which we can no more 
form an idea than we should have been able to conceive 
red or green if the human race had been blind. The 
human ear is sensitive to vibrations reaching at the out- 
side to 38,000 in a second. The sensation of red is pro- 
duced when 470 millions of millions of vibrations enter 
the eye in a similar time ; but between these two 
numbers vibrations produce on us only the sensation of 
heat; we have no special organs of sense adapted to 
them. There is, however, no reason in the nature of 
things why this should be the case with animals, and the 
problematical organs possessed by many of the lower 
forms may have relation to sensations which we do not 
perceive.' He further describes structures which ho 
only says ' may very probably be auditory organs.' That 
bees should hear seems reasonable ; but it has not yet 
been satisfactorily proved where the auditory organs are 
situated, and certainly the weight of evidence so far is in 
favour of these depressions on the antenna; being con- 
sidered olfactory. 

Another question of interest and importance brought 
before the meeting by Mr. Grimshaw, was that of using 
an essential oil to prevent bee-stings. The idea of using 
something as a preservative is also not a new one, and 
carbolic acid, oil of tar, a solution of clay, and other 
things have, from time to time, been recommended ; 
but none of these would be very pleasant on the face. 
Some years ago we came across a receipt which 
was said to be a sure preservative against stings of 
every sort, including those of the bee and mosquito: — 
i oz. oil of peppermint, § oz. oil of winter-green, i oz. 
spirits of camphor, and J oz. of glycerine: the mixture to 
he well shaken before use, and to be rubbed on sparingly 
over the exposed parts of the body. We have never 
tried ir, as we do not fear a sting or two, and can 
manage very well with smoke or carbolic acid ; but 
there may be those who would like to do so, and report 
their experience. In a list we have before us of Messrs. 
Burgoyne, Burbidges, Cyriax & Parries, the price 
quoted for oil of winter-green is 1*. 9d. an ounce, and as 
there is no difficulty in cultivating Gaultheria pro- 
cumbens, we do not see why, if there were a demand for 
it, the plant could not be grown. It is very common 
in America, grows freely in this country in a peat 
border, and is easily increased by division. If, however, 
it can be made artificially, and is equally as good, there 
would be no necessity at all for cultivating the plant. 
Bee-keepers will owe Mr. Grimshaw a debt of gratitude 
for bringing this matter before the meeting, and also in 
his able article on bee - subjugators, on p. 7 of this 
year's Journal, in which he goes into the question very 
thoroughly. We hope his endeavours to get essence 
of spircca manufactured cheaply will succeed, and that 
he will be rewarded by finding it as efficacious as he 
anticipates, 



A NEW METAL END. 
We have received from Mr. W. Boughton Carr a 
specimen of his new ' metal end ' for frames, and by his 
kindness, are enabled to give our readers illustrations of 




A, Top view of frames, with ' metal ends,' showing frames spaced 
at usual distance of 1 ^ from centre to centre. 

the manner in which it is used. This metal end is dif- 
ferent to any of those in common use, and, in our 
opinion, removes many of the objections raised against 




B The same, with frames spaced to allow a quarter inch between 
the face of combs. 

them. Since Mr. Abbott first introduced broad shoulders 
in England, in 1873, this manner of keeping the frames 
at the proper distance apart has been extensively 




C, View of under side of frames, showing the ' metal end ' of centre 
frame drawn back for closing up to the quarter inch distance without 
altering the level of either upper or lower side of frames. D, Sec- 
tional view of ' metal end ' from the outside. E, Perspective view of 
ditto from the inside. (D and E are full sisc.) 

adopted. Lately, however, metal ends in one form or 
another have come into use, but their shape is such that 
a frame furnished with them could not be conveniently 
used in a hive where there are no such ends used. The 
ordinary cast-metal end 
is so thick on the under 
side of the top bar, that 
the rabbet on which it 
slides has to be cut 
deeper to accommodate 
it ; and if a frame with- 
out these ends be used, 
it necessarily stands be- 
low the level of the top 
of the hive at least an 
•Jth of an inch, and is 
brought so much closer to the bottom board. Another ob- 
jection to them is that the distance between the frames is 
fixed, and they could not be brought closer together. The 
new metal end which we have before us gets over these 





D 






68 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 10, 1887. 



difficulties and can be used in any hive where they have 
not been previously used, and in other hives a very 
trifling alteration would make them equally serviceable. 
Mr. Carr's end (figs 1) and E) is made of tin, stamped 
out of one piece and being made by machinery, the 
greatest accuracy is secured. It fits on the frame end 
like a collar, and can be slipped on and off very easily, 
the mouth of the collar having the sides (//, fig. E) un- 
soldered, there is sufficient spring in them to grip hold of 
the wood and to retain the end at any part it may be 
placed. Fig. A shows the ends pushed up against the 
side bar of the frame, and in this way provides the usual 
distance of 1 ■& from centre to centre. If, however, Ave 
wish to bring the frames closer together so as to allow 
only I of an inch between the face of the combs, we have 
merely to slip back the ends on every alternate frame as 
in Fig. B, and our object will be accomplished. 

It will be noticed that if such ends are used when they 
are pushed back, the wood of the frame comes in contact 
with the top of the runner, but as the tin of the metal 
end is so thin, the level of the frames is not perceptibly 
altered. The possibility of moving the frame laterally 
we consider an important improvement, and one that 
will be appreciated by those who, like ourselves, have ob- 
jected to any projection on the frame-ends. 

For many years we have advocated bringing the frames 
to \\ inches from centre to centre for the purpose of pre- 
venting the production of useless drone brood. This 
was impossible with the ordinary ends ; but with these 
even those who have not acquired the skill or patience 
to adjust their frames, are enabled within certain limits, 
to do so mechanically, without the danger of bringing 
them too close together and thus injuring the brood. 
Those who have used ends of the old pattern and wish 
to adopt these, would have to raise the metal runners an 
eighth of an inch, and if these are not used, an eighth 
inch strip of wood must be nailed on to the rabbet. 

The following are some of the advantages claimed by 
the inventor for this new metal end over the ordinary 
one now in use : — 

1. The triangular J-inch projection for gauging the dis- 
tance between the frame and side of the hive is done away 
with as of no real use whatever, the distance being ac- 
curately kept by the end of top bar working against the 
outer wall of the hive. 

2. Being made of tin, instead of cast metal, the Jr-inch 
bearing on which the top bar rests in the old style of ' end ' 
is replaced by a collar of tin passing all round the bar, and 
this collar being no thicker than paper, neither stands up 
above tops of frames, nor raises the frame up perceptibly 
on the under side, from the bevelled runner on which it 
works. 

3. They give the long-desired lateral movement which 
enables the bee-keeper to alter the spacing of frames at 
certain times, for certain purposes. This alteration can be 
effected very rapidly without removing a frame, and almost 
without disturbing the bees. 

4. No alteration is made in the distance between bottom 
bar and floor-board, nor does it interfere with the level of 
tops of frames if the ' ends ' are removed altogether. 

5. They are put on and taken off more easily, and when 
on are far more secure. 

6. They cannot drop off through shrinkage of top bar, 
and may be tightened up in a moment if they should be- 
come loose. 

7. They combine extreme lightness with strength, and, 
while as cheap, are less liable to breakage than ' ends ' 
made of type metal. 

8. The ' end ' makes a perfect gauge for enabling manu- 
facturers to produce top bars of uniform width and thick- 
ness. (The want of uniformity in this respect has long 
been felt.) 

9. There is no need to remove the ' end ' when extracting 
honey. The reduced size of projecting shoulder allowing it 
to pass through the ordinary mesh of wire used for cages. 



ASSOCIATIONS. 

BRITISH. BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Grimshaw's Paper, on the Vocal Organs of 

Bees. 

Discussion. 

Mr. Meggy thanked Mr. Grimshaw for the interesting 
facts he had laid before them, and would be glad to 
know whether he had seen an article which appeared 
about a couple of years ago in a German magazine in 
reference to the sounds made by bees. The writer 
stated that he had observed forty different sounds made 
by bees, from which he inferred that the latter must 
have means of communication by sound. These par- 
ticulars were made known before Mr. Cheshire brought 
out his work, and before special attention had been called 
to the question. 

Mr. Grimshaw was sorry that he had not read the 
article referred to. He had had various theories on the 
subject, and had been obliged to dismiss them almost as 
soon as formed. He was in hopes about twelve months 
ago that some interesting discoveries would be made by 
a gentleman, whose research was, however, unfortunately 
stopped by death. He had proposed at swarming time 
time to introduce the receiver of a microphone in the 
hive, and at the following season turn the microphone on 
to the bees at the mouth of the hive, so as to see whether 
he could produce the same state, of contentment. He had 
heard of cases where one lot of bees in quite a distant 
part of the manipulating tent have ascended up their 
wall or post upon hearing the agreeable noise made by 
the driving in a skep going on in another part of the 
tent. 

The Chairman thought that Mr. Cheshire drew a dis- 
tinction between buzzing and humming, the buzzing 
being connected with the wings, and the humming with 
the spiracles. He (the Chairman) had gathered from Mr. 
Grimshaw's paper that it was through the spiracles the 
varying sounds were emitted, whilst the noise made by 
the wings did not vai'y at all. It would be interesting 
to know whether the peculiar sound they were all 
acquainted with was affected in pitch according to the 
speed of the wings' vibrations or the way in which the 
air escaped through the spiracles. One would imagine 
that it was far more difficult to make a distinction of 
sounds. by wings than by spiracles. 

Mr. Webster said the difference of sound iu the wing- 
vibrations was easily explained. In the case of a tuning- 
fork with extra long prongs the vibrations would be less 
frequent than with shorter prongs, and the sound pro- 
duced consequently deeper than that which resulted from 
quicker vibrations; and there was no doubt, that the 
high or low notes were governed by the pace of the wing- 
vibrations. 

Mr. Grimshaw indorsed Mr. Webster's opinion. The 
notes varied in the musical scale pro rata with the 
number of wing-beats. The drone sounds were low 
tones compared to the sharp, shrill sounds of the busy 
workers, whose wings were quickly beating. If one 
placed his ear immediately outside a frame-hive, tones of 
all kinds could be heard. 

The Chairman remarked that when hanging in a 
cluster they could not vibrate their wings. 

Mr. Grimshaw had no doubt in his own mind that, 
independently of the wing-sounds, the noises heard in 
the hive were produced by the bees conversing together 
— perhaps arranging to kill the queen or drones. 
(Laughter.) He fully believed that they did converse 
as intelligently as other members of the animal kingdom. 
Their brain weight in comparison with the weight of 
their body ranked very high indeed, much higher than 
the ant, so much praised by Sir John Lubbock. 

In reply to tho Chairman, who asked whether Mr. 
Grimshaw believed that the chief means of communica- 



February 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



59 



tion possessed by bees was through the voice, and not 
by touch, the latter gentleman said that he was not 
prepared to speculate so much as that. It was well 
known that the olfactory organs of bees were sin- 
gularly acute, and in a high state of development. 
They could trace flowers at great distances by smell. 
He could not hazard a conjecture as to the principal 
means of their intercommunication, but he thought that 
the vocal organs could claim their due share. They 
were not given without an object. It was necessary for 
bees to intercommunicate, and it was fair to assume that 
the vocal organs took part in such intercourse. 

The Chairman said that some of Huber's experiments 
went to show that if the queen were separated from the 
rest of the hive the bees could not be assured of the 
safety of the queen unless they could touch her. They 
were quite near enough to tali, but could not tell one 
another that the queen was safe. 

Mr. Grimshaw thought that if the organs of touch 
were the only means of communication the news passed 
with extraordinary rapidity. 

Mr. Meggy thought Huber's experiments threw some 
doubt on the question of intercommunication by hear- 
ing, and he suggested that Mr. Grimshaw should, during 
the following summer, undertake to repeat Huber's ex- 
periments. 

Mr. Baldwin said that he had tried to make the bees 
raise queens while the queen was present. He had 
divided a hive and placed two pieces of perforated 
zinc with a space of more than half an inch between the 
halves. The bees, however, did not attempt to raise 
queens ; but after he removed the queen they started 
doing so on both sides of the division. In the first 
instance they could not touch the queen, but evidently 
knew that she was there. 

Mr. Grimshaw said he founded his views on the law 
of nature. Every organ had its use, and he contended 
that as the bees were provided with vocal and auditory 
organs they must use them. These organs were not 
rudimentary, but perfect. 

Mr. Meggy said he was satisfied that Huber was 
wrong, and he hoped that Mr. Grimshaw would not 
hesitate to repeat the experiments of that naturalist 
because he was a man of great fame. 

Captain Campbell explained some experiments he and 
his son had adopted in reference to the vocal and 
auditory organs of bees. 

Mr. Haviland would like to know, in reference to Mr. 
Baldwin's experiments, whether the entrances of the 
divided hive were close together, and whether the bees 
had access to each part by running in and out ; because 
if the entrances were so close together that the bees of 
one division could return to the other, they would be 
able, of course, to communicate with one another. 
Huber particularly requested that other people woidd 
test his observations. There was no doubt that several 
of the conclusions he came to were not perfectly 
accurate, and it would be a good thing if they could be 
tested again. He had often wondered why Mr. Cheshire 
or others had not done so. If Mr. Cheshire would say 
what sort of experiments would be the most advan- 
tageous to try, a great deal of evidence would soon be 
accumulated. He (the speaker) would like to know 
which sound Mr. Cheshire attributed to the air coming 
out of the spiracles against the wings. The ordinary 
sounds made by the bees when flying were caused by 
the beating of the wings against the air. The wings 
did not come near the spiracles in the act of flight. The 
only other noise made by the wings he thought was 
similar to the piping of queens, that was the rubbing 
of the wings together the same as grasshoppers did. 
He put three young queens recently hatched in an ob- 
servatory hive, after having cut off their wings. The 
bees killed two of those queens, and were very angry 
with the other queen for twenty-four hours. She ran 



about to escape them ; wherever she stopped she piped, 
although there was no other queen in the hive. 

Mr. Grimshaw said he drew a distinction between 
buzzing or humming, and the vocal sounds. In his 
opinion the noises heard when the bees were compara- 
tively at rest were the vocal sounds, and were caused 
by the blowing of air in and out on the plaiting or 
curtain which was within the spiracle, and also on the 
edges of the wings. He contended that if they could 
hear (and they were furnished with auditory hollows) 
they could speak. 

Mr. Baldwin said the hive he referred to was known 
as a twin hive with entrances at opposite ends. It 
had one entrance at the south and the other at the 
north. He divided it and put in the division a piece of 
perforated zinc, and turned the hive round to east and 
west. He left the bees with the perforated zinc division 
about five days, and there was no attempt to raise 
queens. He then divided the brood, giving eggs to both 
parts of the hive, and put in the double division with 
about f inch between, and then the bees did not attempt to 
raise queens. The queen in the one part was continually 
egg-raising. As they refused to raise queens with 
the double division, he took away the queen, when they 
started raising queens. 

The Chairman considered Mr. Baldwin's experiment 
went far towards disproving the accuracy of Huber's 
observations, but the result of Mr. Baldwin's research 
seemed to him unanswerable, except on the theory that 
bees could speak and hear. Still, whatever might be the 
purpose for which their auditory and vocal powers were 
given them, he thought it was going too far with the 
present knowledge at command to suppose that these 
powers were capable of being employed in the same way 
by the bees amongst themselves as those of human beings. 
On behalf of the company present, he heartily thanked 
Mr. Grimshaw for his interesting paper. 

Mr. Samhels then exhibited a new and improved 
section crate. 

Fig. 1. 




Kg. 2. 

Mr. Sambels explained that his super crate was the same 
as he bad shown at the last quarterly Conference of the 
Hertford branch of the Herts B.K.A. But a description 
of it was not given at the time in the B. B. Journal for 
want of space, consequently he had brought it to this 
meeting that those present might have an opportunity of 
criticising it. He was not a manufacturer of bee-keepers' 



00 



THE BK1TISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 10, 1887. 



appliances, but had designed it for his own use, because 
he thought it combined all the good points that he had 
seen in others, as well as a few that he had seen no- 
where else. Proceeding to take it to pieces, he said the 
crate was made of four pieces of board 4j inches deep, 
which was exactly the depth of the sections he intended 
to use. The bee-space was a separate frame of four pieces 
of wood, as seen at B, Fig. 1, and in section at B, Fig. 2, 
it was rabbeted out to give greater strength for removing, 
when stuck down with propolis. On the insides of the 
two sides of the crate were tacked two fillets -iV of an inch 
square to form a bee-space round the end of each row of 
sections. In the front end of the crate were fitted two 
iron thumb-screws, T, Fig. 1, with brass thumb-pieces 
and nuts, which, when screwed tightly against a sliding 
board, pressed the latter tightly against the sections and 
dividers, and so held all in position by pressure. The bee- 
space was made separate from the crate to allow of the 
crate being inverted without removing the bee-space. He 
did not believe any amount of inverting would increase the 
amount of honey stored in any one hive if the bees were 
kept from idleness by other methods, but he believed in- 
verting supers at the proper time would decrease the number 
of ' pop-holes ' in the sections. The dividers (D, Fig. 2) 
were perforated with slots, to allow the bees free access 
from one row of sections to another ; they were also cut 
sufficiently short at the ends for a similar purpose. He 
had two sections fitted with foundation on Mr. Cornell's 
plan, which was done for the especial benefit of his 
Hertford friends, but he would like to point out a plan 
of fixing foundation they had been using in Herts for the 
past two years : it was recently 
explained by some contributor, 
whose name he did not re- 
member, in the Journal. It 
consisted of simply running a 
saw-kerf the length of the end 
quarter of each section, and 
having folded the section as 
seen in fig. S, the foundation 
was then placed in position, 
and the second flap of the sec- 
tion closed on it, holding it 
secure. He need scarce point out that was not practical 
for the narrow strip at the bottom, unless you used four- 
piece sections, but was a great saving of time and trouble. 
He would also call attention to the fact that his sections 
had ' ways ' on all four sides. 

(Mr. Sambels requests us to state that having had 
several inquiries already since the Hertford Conference, 
to save the time of his friends and himself, he has 
placed the original super- crate in the hands of Mr. 
Blow, who will be happy to supply purchasers in the 
usual way.) 

The Chairman expressed the indebtedness of the 
meeting to Mr. Sambels for his kindness in laying 
before them his new contrivance. 

Mr. Webster then exhibited his frame swivel (see p. 
33, January 27), which was invented for the purpose 
of doing away with the necessity of using both hands to 
lift a frame out of the hive. By means of the swivel one 
hand only was employed for lifting the frame, whilst the 
other was free for manipulations. The swivel was also 
contrived to permit of the frame being turned round while 
held up. He also exhibited another invention of a similar 
character which needed a pin to be put through every 
frame. 

The Chairman considered it a very ingenious idea, 
and complimented Mr. Webster, at the same time 
suggesting that the grippers should be made wider and 
stronger, so that a frame, when filled, might be held 
securely, lie thought it would most probably come into 
general use. 

Mr. Webster then exhibited his fumigator, which was 
intended to be used with carbolic acid, and was con- 




Fig. 3. 



structed to prevent any of the acid being blown on to 
the hands of the manipulator. He had not used smoke 
for two 3 r ears, and had found that carbolic answered 
every purpose of smoke. 

Captain Campbell said when the bees were really 
savage a few drops of ammonia must be put in. 

Mr. Webster said when the bees were very savage he 
preferred covering them up and leaving them alone for 
an hour or two, until a more favourable opportunity. 

Mr. Baldwin wished to know whether there was any 
special objection to smoke. He found it answer very well. 

The Chairman thought carbolic of more effect than 
smoke. Having failed with smoke on one occasion, ho 
saturated his pocket-handkerchief with a very weak 
solution of carbolic, and after wringing it out he stripped 
off the quilt and laid it on, when the bees became 
perfectly quiet in a minute or two, and he took out 
the frames without any further difficulty. 

Mr. Baldwin related his experiences at Lichfield, where 
he attempted to handle a hive of Cyprian bees after 
using smoke, and had cause to regret his mistake. He 
knew nothing about these particular bees when asked to 
handle them, and never expected to find C3'prians at 
Lichfield. As soon as he saw their breed, of course he 
altered his tactics, and proceeded with more care and 
ultimate success. The whole affair was a source of amuse- 
ment to the owner, who told his friend of the joke he 
had played. There was no doubt that the remedy to be 
used must vary according to the breed of the bees. 

Mr. Blow said he had almost abandoned Cyprians 
altogether, and he thought all wise bee-keepers would do 
the same. Their advantages were counterbalanced by 
disadvantages. Smoke must not be used in handling. 
He kept one stock just for experiments. If great care 
and gentleness were employed, and a long time allowed 
for manipulations, the operator could avoid being stung, 
but otherwise they were uncontrollable. Carbolic acid 
was no better than smoke for Cyprians. That breed of 
bees was not suited to the English climate, but if they 
were kept they must be handled upon Mr. Raynors 
system, that was, with the utmost care and gentleness. 

Mr. Baldwin said it would be difficult to follow Mr. 
Webster's advice in the bee tent by putting off manipu- 
lations when the bees were angry, which would cause 
great dissatisfaction to an audience. 

Mr. "Webster admitted this, and said he had no ob- 
jection to smoke, but the fumigator was far more con- 
venient, involving much less trouble. 

Mr. Grimshaw laid before the meeting a sample of his 
' apif uge,' which he believed to be a genuine sting-pre- 
venter. 

At this juncture Mr. Garratt took the chair on the 
retirement of the Rev. F. G. Jenyns, who was compelled 
to leave the meeting. 

Mr. Stanford said, in reference to the oil of winter- 
green, that Mr. R. Sproule, of the Irish Association, ob- 
tained some early in the season, and certainly its effects 
were magical. 

Mr. Webster remembered that Mr. Hart brought a 
bottle of the oil to the Reading Show, which was 
described as containing a preventive of bee-stings. Mr. 
Cheshire took the bottle home with him. 

Mr. Sambels asked whether the plant referred to was 
not similar to meadow-sweet, of which there was plenty 
to be obtained. 

Mr. Grimshaw replied that an immense quantity of 
that plant would be required to obtain a few drops of 
essential oil by distillation. 

Mr. Haviland said that the danger during manipula- 
tions was not confined to the operator. He always had 
fears for the safety of persons looking on, or moving 
about near at hand. 

The Chairman commented on the interesting dis- 
cussion which had taken place, and said he was sure 
all bee-keepers would be pleased to know that some- 



February 10, 188?.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



61 



thing- had been discovered which would assist them 
greatly in controlling their bees. He thought the meet- 
ing would desire to express its best thanks to those 
gentlemen who had so kindly introduced subjects for 
consideration. By their aid the Conversazione had been 
most pleasing and profitable. The company were 
specially indebted to Mr. Grimshaw for his very able 
contribution. 

Mr. Grimshaw thanked the Chairman for his kind 
remarks. "Without presuming to claim credit for any- 
thing original in discovery, invention, or research, it 
always afforded him immense gratification if he could 
be the means of starting an interesting discussion. He 
concluded b} r expressing his acknowledgments for the 
patience with which they had listened to him. 

The proceedings then terminated. 



YORKSHIRE BEE-KEEPER'S ASSOCIATION. 

A meeting of this Society was held on the 29th ult. at 
the Church Institute, Leeds, Thomas Clark, Esq., Burley- 
in-Wharfedale, in the chair. 

After the conclusion of official business, the hon. sec. 
(G. II. L. Richards, Esq.) made a proposal, seconded by 
Mr. Daniel, of Horsforth, and carried unanimously, That 
a paragraph report of the meeting be drawn up and dis- 
seminated amongst the newspapers in suitable parts of 
the count}', embodying Mr. Grimshaw's suggestion that 
off-shoots, or district societies, are the best means by 
which County Association work can be efficiently carried 
on in a county so vast in extent as our own ; that a single 
body of workers, however diligent, cannot do justice to 
subscribing members so far away from the central body ; 
and that subscribers cannot be expected to go to the 
expense and trouble of attending meetings, &c, so far 
away from their own district as the official body neces- 
sarily is; and that bee-keepers in various parts of 
Yorkshire are hereby earnestly desired to assist in sys- 
tematising the work of the county by uniting together 
iu forming district associations, appointing their own 
district secretary, having perfect self-government, fixing 
their own terms of subscription, &c. Also, that by a 
subscription to the parent society of 5s. per annum per 
branch society, the district secretary and another member 
of such district society thus become members of committee 
of the Yorkshire County Association. They would be- 
sides have the advantage of the bee-tent for shows, of 
purchasing requirements in large co-operative quantities 
at reduced rates, and of participating in competition for 
prizes, and exhibiting honey for sale, &c, at honey fairs, &c. 

It was also decided that the hon. sec. be instructed to 
subscribe for a copy of the British Bee Journal. 

A proposal by Mr. Richards, seconded by Mr. Dodgson, 
of Skipton, to the effect that Mr. R. A. H. Grimshaw, of 
Horsforth, be appointed joint hon. sec. with himself, was 
carried unanimously. 

The question of the Saltaire Exhibition was then 
brought forward by Mr. Richards, who said he had 
offered (to the Exhibition Committee) to have exhi- 
bitions of bee-manipulations every Wednesday afternoon 
provided the expenses were paid, but he could not lay 
before the meeting any definite decision as yet. 

Respecting the recent strictures on the Association in 
the B. B. J. the hon. sec. gave a satisfactory explanation 
as to why they had not been replied to by him. 

The annual meeting of the members of the Worcester- 
shire B. K. A. will be held at the Guild Hall, Worcester, 
on Saturday, February 10, at Sp.m. In the unavoidable 
absence of the President, Earl Beauchamp, the chair will 
be taken by Walter Holland, Esq., Mayor of Worcester, 
one of the Vice-Presidents of the Association. 

The members of the Middlesex B. K. A. are reminded 
that their Annual Meeting will be held on Thursday, the 
10th inst., at 105 Jermyn Street, at 5.30 p.m. 



Cams pontic lite. 



The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be token of anonymous com- 
muni cat i'o lis, and correspondents arc requested to write on one side of 
the paper only, and give their veal names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Boohs for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," c/o Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C All business com munications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Hucele, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

*** In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it appears. 



YORKSHIRE COUNTY ASSOCIATION. 

[808.] Those of your readers who have followed this 
subject through your columns during the last few months 
will be considerably diverted to know that I might have 
' saved my wind to blow my porridge with ' until the last 
letter from me appeared. The hon. sec. does not take 
nor read the British Bee Journal, so that all our appeals 
and complaints did not reach him. Now, however, he is 
posted up somewhat, through the kindness of a friend in 
sending him a few copies of the B. B. J. This resulted 
in a courteous invitation being sent me by Mr. Richards 
to attend a meeting of the Y. C. A., with results which 
will be found in another column of the Journal. 

To prevent a recurrence of our worthy hon. sec. not 
being kept au courant with ' what is going on,' my first 
proposal (carried unanimously) as a member of the Y.C. A. 
was that the Association do henceforth subscribe for one 
copy of the B. B. J., to be filed by the hon. sec. 

A satirical friend litis suggested that I have been 
dexterously translated into the ' upper house.' Eh 
Men! nous verrons. I don't care what house it maybe 
called if it only give birth to measures beneficial to the 
bee-keeping fraternity, viz., active district associations. 
— R. A.H. G. 



VILLAGE CLUBS. 



[809.] With reference to your article and ' A Worker's 
letter in your issue of the B. B. J. for this week I should 
like, with your permission, to make one or two remarks 
on the subdivision of County Associations. I feel the 
more prompted to do this from having read Mr. Grim- 
shaw's different letters in relation to the York Association, 
and also 'Amateur Expert's ' most (in my opinion) valuable 
suggestion, in the current number of the B. B. J., in reply 
to that gentleman. 

With regard to the subdivisions of County Asso- 
ciations it may, 'perhaps, be of some slight service if 
you would kindly make known the terms, &c, upon 
which the Hants and Isle of Wight Bee-keepers' As- 
sociation proceeded to carry out this very idea, — ■' the 
subdivision of the county,' — now more than twelve 
months ago. Some two years ago a Village Bee Club 
was started here in Swanmore, and in the course of a 
year its numbers had so increased that it was deemed 
advisable to hold a meeting of its members and to elect 
regular officers and committee. This was done, and the 
neighbouriug villages hearing of our doings came in to 
join us, until our Village Club had swollen to the extent 
of fifteen villages and some eighty members. . I was a 
member of the Hants County Association ^and also was 
chosen Secretary of the Village Club, and as such began 
to feel that if we went on as we were going, we must 
eventually come into antagonism with the County As- 
sociation itself. In this difficulty I wrote to our Hon. 
County Secretary, explaining the whole thing to him ; 
he, I must say, met me in the most handsome and 
gentlemanly manner, and the result of our correspon- 
dence was that a special general meeting of our Village 



G2 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 10, 1887. 



Club was cnlled, and I moved a resolution that we 
should he affiliated to the Hants County Association. 
This, to my pleasant surprise, after some argument was 
carried unanimously. We thus became part and parcel 
of the Hants Association, no longer in antagonism to, but 
working in all good fellowship and harmony with it. 

The terms of our amalgamation were as follows : — 
First of all we were to have our own officers, and to 
govern ourselves by our own Committee, &c. ; also to 
have our own rules. On our subscriptions, as an affilia- 
tion fee, we pay to the County Association the amount 
of 25 per cent, we retaining the 75 per cent for our 
own purposes, such as prizes at shows, expenses of 
lectures, printing, &c. For the said affiliation fee of 
25 per cent the County Association agree to consider all 
our members full members of their body and entitled to 
all their benefits. 

I do not know, Mr. Editor, if I have already trespassed 
too much on your space, but I should like to be allowed 
to say that the above scheme has now worked thoroughly 
well with us here for more than twelve months, and 
I think that after that amount of trial I may fairly 
recommend it. 

A word also, if I may, as to holding simple lectures on 
bee-keeping. Last year we held a series in different 
villages, and the amount of astonishment expressed at 
the different views, by people who had hardly any idea 
what bee-keeping is, was very great. New members 
at once flocked in, and already this year I have 
several members joining who were convinced by the last 
year's lectures ; so much good did I consider they did, 
that another series begins on Monday next, February 
7th. 

I shall be most happy more fully to explain anything 
should any reader of the B. B. J., or member of a County 
Association, wishing to help his over-worked (and at 
the best of times they have a lot to do) County Secretary, 
care for any further details. 

In conclusion, I enclose you a copy of our rules and 
officers, and also our last year's report. — H. W. West, 
Hon, Sec, Hants and Isle of Wight Bee-keepers' Associa- 
tion, Swanmore Branch., Feb, 5. 



PREVENTING SWARMS SETTLING ON 
HIGH TREES. 

[810.] In the Journal for January 27th, under the 
heading ' Gleanings,' there is a paragraph relating how 
an American gentleman succeeded in preventing swarms 
settling in high trees by using what is called a ' Yankee 
queen-stick.' I have attained the same end by placing 
a round felt hat on end of a long pole, and holding it up 
among the bees. It does not seem to be of much use 
raising the hat among the swarming bees till once they 
are on the point of settling, then place the hat as close 
as possible to the spot where they are preparing to 
cluster. This seems, in my experience, to be a condition 
of success. It is simply a modification of Langstrotli's 
bee-bob. 

Early last summer I told a neighbouring bee-keeper 
of the plan, and when his bees swarmed, and were 
beginning to cluster in a low bush, he stuck an empty 
hive in centre, and the bees at once took possession. 

I would recommend bee-keepers whose hives may 
stand near trees, or high thorn hedges, to try the method, 
being careful to attend to what appears to me to be the 
condition of success — placing the hat as near as possible 
to the spot where the swarm is preparing to cluster. 
This seems to be the experience of our American friends 
as well.: — John Petebs, Gourock, Scotland, 5th February. 



of a bee,' I would say, last August I was on a vist to a 
friend near London, and being in his green-house I noticed 
a small bee, about half the size of our common hive bee, 
busy at a reel on a shelf. I found he visited this reel 
and had nearly filled the hollow with small pieces of the 
vine leaf, cut beautifully round, and wedged into the 
hole. After replacing the reel I watched the little 
fellow over and over again go to the vine, cut a leaf and 
then fix it into the hole with some glutinous matter. I 
do not know what became of it. I have also often 
noticed the same kind of bee visit holes in posts in our 
garden here, and deposit an extraordinary quantity of 
leaf-cuttings. 

I do not think there was any mistake on the part of 
the bee. — Be. W., Cowley, St. John. 



LEAF-CUTTING BEES. 
[811.] In reference to your correspondent wishing to 
know if others have noticed similar behaviour in a bee, 
which ho mentions under the title of ' Curious mistake 



CURIOUS MISTAKE OF A BEE. (782.) 
[812.] I am reluctant to believe that one of our 
beloved and dear little friends made the mistake men- 
tioned in the above paragraph. The reel of cotton is so 
very unlike the cell of a bee. It is much more probable 
that it was the work of the rose-leaf cutter. This ' little 
busy bee ' builds its nest in the crevice of a wall or in 
chinks in timber-work, and in using the reel of cotton it 
was carrying out its usual instinctive propensities. The 
only mistake made was in taking the reel for a permanent 
abode. The rose-leaf cutter is smaller than our black 
bee, but might easily have been mistaken for one by a 
casual observer. It is a great pest to florists, as it 
disfigures the roses by cutting hundreds of small circular 
pieces out of the leaves. It commences its nest by putting 
at the far end a plug of these pieces ; then comes a 
supply of pollen, next an egg, then more pollen, then 
another layer of leaves, and so on until it has filled up its 
apartment. Probably in another hour it would have 
filled up the hole in the reel. It is a pity that this was 
not preserved. 

I wonder if^it would interest the readers of the Journal 
if I now go on to tell of a great puzzle I got into last 
summer in respect to the proceedings of a rose-leaf 
cutter P If I do I fear I shall be too diffuse and weari- 
some, but that I can't help. I must begin by writing 
about a garden-seat I made. Its manufacture may give 
a useful hint to some of our amateurs. The basis or 
stand was the frame of an old sofa. On this I nailed 
two boards of inch stuff, each a foot wide ; next a 
reclining back of the same stuff, then end-boards for 
arms, cut in curves as tastefully as lack of artistic skill 
and bad chisels would permit. Oh, but j'ou can't think 
how grand it looked when finished and painted ! I 
placed it on a small lawn on the southern side of a high 
grassy bank, which the inhabitants of this country — 
certainly ' a peculiar people,' but possibly not very 
' zealous of good works ' — perversely call a ditch. Thus 
sheltered it made a very pleasant lounge on a summer's 
day. Yes, don't be impatient, I am coming to my 
subject now. I was sitting on this §eat one day in June 
or July, when I saw a bee come out of a crack between 
the two boards forming the seat, close to the end-board 
or arm. I was wondering for a minute or two where it 
came from, when it came back, bearing in its mandible 
a circular bit of leaf. Another minute of wondering, 
and out it came once more. I suppose it made a dozen 
or more journeys while I waited and watched. Well 
enough I might be puzzled, for the crack seemed to lead 
to nowhere.' In my extremity I called in a friend who 
is well known hereabouts for his scientific attainments, 
and who is indeed of world-wide fame by his publica- 
tions and work in connexion with ocean telegraphy. He 
came, and after a minute examination of the premises 
taken possession of by the bee, he was quite as much 
bewildered as 1 had been. There seemed to be no place 
beyond the crack to which the bee could get access. 
This crack we could readily explore. The arm was 



February 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



63 



nailed flush on to the seat, and over the end was placed 
a piece of wood covering the joint. My friend measured 
and tapped and stood, watch in hand, timing the hee, 
which made an entrance and exit once in about three 
minutes. Nowhere to go ! Then what became of the 
multitudinous loads it carried into the crack ? The 
learned and the unlearned might have been seen on their 
knees — nay, prone upon the grass — looking earnestly, 
prying in all directions, but they failed to solve the 
mystery. The next day 1 took off the strip of wood 
nailed between the arm and seat, to see if, by any 
chance, a hollow place had inadvertently been left. But 
no, all was solid. There was no visible interstice but 
the open crack. 

In my despair, I then most reluctantly resolved to take 
off the end, or arm, which, as I have said, was made of 
inch stuff. With some difficulty I accomplished this, 
for, with the usual result of amateur carpentry, I had 
succeeded in nailing it on so very tight that for a long 
time it refused to come asunder. At length the mystery 
was revealed. The arm had formed part of a large 
American box, the boards of which were joined by what, 
I believe, is called the ' groove-and-tongue ' method. I 
had quite forgotten that the edge of the arm I had nailed 
to the seat contained the groove. So here was a narrow 
channel running the whole length of the arm, about 
twenty inches long, and crossing the crack. Into this 
channel, right and left of the crack, the bee had been 
working, and had nearly filled it up with rose-leaves, 
pollen, and eggs. In due time, but for m} r interference, 
the progeny would have come forth to add to the troubles 
of rose cultivators. 

This is my diffuse and prolix story. I could scarcely 
expect the Editor to find it of sufficient interest for 
publication but for the fact that at this season there iu 
less than usual to be said about bees. — C. C. P., Valentia, 
County Kerry, January 22, 1887. 



INSECTS AT FAULT. 

[813.] The incident related by Harold Adcock in your 
issue of the 20th instant, reminded me of a similar occur- 
rence I witnessed last autumn. When a wasp flew in at 
the open dining-room window, and after careering rapidly 
round the room above the heads of the family, who were 
seated at the table, suddenly darted into one of a series 
of deep circular holes, each about the size of a honey- 
comb cell, which embellished the edge of the oak mantel- 
shelf. After remaining a few seconds he emerged, and 
flying straight to the open window disappeared. 

On searching the hole we found he had deposited a 
small line green caterpillar, many insect remains were 
entombed also in the same repository, so doubtless he had 
been in the habit of utilising the ornamental aperture 
as a store-room. 

Subsequent cold winds necessitated the closing of the 
windows, no further opportunity was therefore afforded 
of watching the interesting movements of this erratic 
specimen of ' Vespa vulgaris.' — Emily Cexveiihouse, 
The Hundred Acres, Sutton, Surrey, Jan. 30. 



THE HEDDON HIVE. 

[814.] "We need scarcely wait for the appearance of the 
February number of the Bee -keeper's Magazine, as 
advised by Mr. Jas. A. Abbott in the Journal last week 
(801), to see Mr. Heddon's own disclaimer of the ad- 
vantages (?) of the half bee-space, or the good points 
that he now claims for his new hive, as he has given 
them to the world on page 789 of the Canadian Bee 
Journal for Dec. 29th, 1886, and also in his circular 
for 1887 to his customers and friends. His own words 
are : — 

' The combined experience of my foreman, students, and 
myself, during the past season, brings us unanimously to a 



conclusion somewhat at variance with those with which we 
entered the season of 188G. 

' After the first inversion of the brood-combs which secures 
the complete filling of the frames, we never care to invert 
them again. When the brood-chamber is large and deep, 
by virtue of its being composed of two brood-sections, the 
interchanging of them accomplishes all, and better, than 
can be accomplished by inverting. When the brood - 
chamber is contracted to one case, it is then so small and 
shallow that all the favourable conditions that could result 
from inverting are always present. In regard to reversing 
surplus sections, we find the following serious objections to 
inverting them by whole cases. 

' If the combs are not sufficiently developed to be properly 
attached to the sides of the sections, they will fall over, 
making a bad mess. On the other hand, if they are pretty 
nearly all capped over and then reversed, they will either 
be finished without being attached at the top at all, or else, 
what is oftener the case, be ridged and made to look bungled 
as they are attached to the bottom-piece, now at the top of 
the case. They are also not so white and beautiful as those 
not so reversed. There is, however, a short period in the 
development of these little surplus combs in which inverting 
results in all the advantages ever claimed for it ; but as it 
is a fact that the combs of a whole case are rarely all at this 
stage of development at one time, we are unanimously in 
favour of inverting them by wide frames .... 

' In the light of the foregoing we unanimously advise 
making the new hive with full, rather than half bee-spaces, 
as was adopted when considering both systems three years 
ago. This will also save much complication when using 
the new hive in the same apiary with other style of hives 
with fidl bee-spaces. The grand functions of the hive 
consist first, in the arrangement by which the combs can 
be divested of queens or workers, and their conditions 
instantly determined without the labour of removing or ex- 
posing them to robber bees. Second, a brood chamber 
divided in horizontal sections. Third, the break-joint 
honey-board as used with the new hive. Fourth, the set 
screws for tightly compressing the frames to avoid propolis, 
and to support them when we may desire to invert them.' 

My quotation is rather long-winded, but from it I 
conclude : (a) ' Spreading brood,' as we practise it, is 
equally as good as Mr. Heddon's ' inverting,' or, as he 
now recommends, ' interchanging.' (b) If the season is 
bad no amount of inverting section cases will get the 
sections finished off, quickly, white and clean, and with 
few ' pop-holes,' while in a good honey flow most of ns 
have not much to complain of on that score, if our stocks 
are strong. The removal of the centre rows of sections 
and placing the half-finished outside ones in their places, 
we scarcely need Mr. Heddon to tell us, is advisable some- 
times, (c) How Mr. Heddon can clear his frames from 
queen and workers more quickly and easily than we can 
from our ordinary standard frame hives I shall be happy 
to learn, at present I don't see it. (d) The ' break-joint 
honey-board ' is with us an ' improvement ' that we have 
relegated to the limbo of antiquity, (e) The set screws 
for sections may be useful, but for brood frames we shall 
at present decline their use with thanks, (f) The dis- 
tance the Americans are ahead of us, and the amount 
they can learn us, if this is their ' latest and best,' is very 
infinitesimal indeed. — Amateue. Expert. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

All queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

Castle Douglas.— 1. Ends of Sheet Metal.— Yowc end is 
ingeniously fonned, bur we do not consider it as good as 
the cast metal ends at present in use, and the important 
space of J inch between frame and hive side is not kept. 
There would be also a vast amount of propolization. 
2. Fixing Foundation.— -Your plan of only partly dividing 
the top bar by a saw-cut on the under side, so that it 
might be sprung open to receive the sheet, would not be 
so convenient as having the cut through it. The small 
grip upon the sheet would not in all cases be sufficient to 



64 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 10, 1887. 



prevent falling, and the nails would not bring the top bar 
down flat, but would allow it to remain concave on the 
upper surface. 

W. Wilson. — 1. Sleep Overthrown. — By the syrup running 
cut, the combs are certainly broken down. When righting 
it you should have removed the floor-board and replaced 
the combs, keeping them as nearly as possible in place by 
putting two or three sticks through them. They will now 
be fixed together in a mass, giving you more trouble to 
separate ; still, you had better do so the first warm day 
before brood is in progress. If you have some bar-frame 
hives and some stored combs, it would be as well to 
make up a set of four or five, drive the bees and hive 
them on them, giving them the broken combs to clear 
out when weather permits. 2. Bees in Skcp Dead. — Your 
neighbour must have made a mistake as to the age of the 
hive. A swarm of 1885 could not have existed until now 
without brood combs. From the combs being so small, 
and no brood having been raised in them, it must have 
been a late cast or virgin swarm of 1886 which lost the 
queen, and consequently died out. 3. Inversion. — Had you 
placed a sheet of excluder between the skeps when 
inverting, the combs would have been built down- 
wards in the top one instead of continued upwards, as 
was the case. Your plan of inverting frames by a piece 
of hoop-iron pivoted to the end bar is similar to Neigh- 
bour's plan. Your experience of the combs being less 
liable to damage in extracting after inversion, owing to 
their being built and fixed to all sides of the frames, is in 
accordance with others'. 

0. W. — If the honey in the outside frames is not granulated 
the bees will reach it through the winter passages, and 
use it when the temperature is sufficiently warm. Mean- 
while warm candy — made, as you propose, of fine sugar 
and syrup— placed over the cluster will be advisable, until 
you can examine the hive. 

M. Htjmtbet.— Observatory hive, Dysentery, Quilts, &c— 
The hive may be cleaned a second time, but the bees are 
not in sufficient numbers to draw out foundation. Con- 
tinue te feed with candy. Toward April you may give 
syrup. If the bees survive they will require to be re- 
inforced with young bees at spring. You may change the 
damp floor-boards ; you will then discover which hives 
are attacked by mice, and by reducing the size of entrance 
may keep them out in future. You are quite right in 
changing damp quilts for dry ones. 

F. W. C. — Honoring. — Spring FJmoers. — Separating Doubled 
Hives. — If the removal had been made a month earlier 
there would have been less chance of bees returning. 
During the winter months we constantly move colonies 
short distances, and never lose bees to any extent worth 
naming. If fine days occur soon after removal, a few 
bees will fly around the old spot, but eventually return to 
their hive. Possibly a sudden change of temperature 
chilled the bees. You will find the colonies none the 
worse in the end. Your spring flowers are much earlier 
than ours. We have no bloom at present, neither furze, 
crocus, nor snowdrop. Our experience, too, differs 
respecting condemned bees, of which we have about 
twenty lots, and have often had more during many past 
years, but have no robbing ; indeed, when possessed of 
plentiful stores, they are far less given to robbing than 
the Eastern races of bees. To separate your double 
hives, at any time during mild weather inject smoke into 
the lower hive, so driving the bees into the upper one, 
which remove at once from the lower, placing it on a 
fresh floor-board, and setting it on the old stand. Then 
examine the lower hive, and transfer any frames con- 
taining brood to the centre of the other, making room for 
them by abstracting sealed or empty combs. Any 
adhering bees may be shaken on a board in front of the 
populated hive, or on the top of the frames. A careful 
look-out must be kept for the queen when manipulating 
the lower hive. Another plan is to separate the two hives, 
placing each on separate floor-boards, and manipulating 
each hive singly, transferring queen, bees, brood, and 
sufficient store of sealed honey, to one, and reserving 
the remaining combs for future use. The operation is very 
simple and should be quickly performed. Separate the 
hives with a chisel, blow in a little smoke, and operate 



towards evening to avoid robbing. We advise you to 
break up the combs of heather honey ; it would be bad 
policy to give them to a swarm. Messrs. Turner, 
Badcliffe-on-Trent, Notts, advertise in our columns a 
very useful ' Squeezer ' for heather honey, which is of 
more value than other kinds of honey, and, from its 
greater density, of less value to the bees. It is very likely 
that you may find the bees domiciled in the upper hives, 
in which case you have simply to remove the lower. In 
that case the first plan suggested is the best. 

Amateuk. — Queenless Stock. — In all probability your bees 
became queenless and deserted, to join some other colony, 
on one of the fine mild days on which the bees were 
flying freely, since the departure of the late severe 
weather ; or they might have dwindled and been driven 
out by robbers. This might have occurred immediately 
after packing for winter from injury to or loss of queen. 

B. Chapman. — 1. Tar. — Yes. Stockholm and gas tar should 
be heated nearly to boiling point, and well mixed, being 
allowed to cool before the spirit of turpentine is added. 
The more turpentine used the quicker the mixture dries. 
A pint of turpentine to ten pints of tar will do, or two 
of turps to ten of tar, if you wish it to dry quickly. We 
do not paint over the tar, but if any other colour is 
desired it may be done. 2. Deep Frame. — There has 
been no authorised decision in regard to a deeper frame 
than the Standard. From 10 in. to 12 in. deep by 12 or 
11 in. long is a good size. Your experience with the 
deeper frame is the same as our own. Abbott's frame 
increased in depth to 14 in. would be rather too deep. 
We should prefer 12 in. depth. 3. Bee Farm. — Judging 
from your description of the four-acre piece of land, with 
its surroundings of woods, limes, hawthorn, &c, we 
should think it a good speculation at a moderate rent. 
4. Plteasants. — Pheasants do not devour bees, neither do 
fowls, but we have seen them occasionally pick tip a 
drone. 5. Becoming Experts. — We can hardly advise you 
as to your sons becoming experts. If handy, industrious, 
honest, and anxious to learn, young men of from seventeen 
to nineteen years of age would find no difficulty, we 
should think, in making arrangements with some of our 
larger apiarists on the terms you suggest. Mr. Simmins, 
we believe, trains young men ; probably others also who 
are possessed of large and well-managed apiaries. 

W. C. T. — There should be no difficulty in your obtaining 
information respecting the examination for a third-class 
certificate. Mr. Kent, hon. sec. of the Cornwall B. K. A., 
Truro, would be pleased to give you the desired in- 
formation. 

Far Nokth. — The samples of enamel cloth forwarded are 
suitable for placing on tops of frames. Nos. 1 and 2 are 
the best for the purpose. 

B. E. Lloyd. — Both samples of Porto Bico are good ; but 
No. 2 brown is the more suitable for feeding bees on Mr. 
Simmins' plan. 

C. C. M. — There is no occasion for suspecting foul brood 
in the hive from which the frame forwarded came. The 
comb is healthy and the honey in good condition. The 
comb was slightly mouldy, and the hive must have been 
damp. We consider the measures taken were the best 
that could have been adopted for the preservation of the 
remaining bees. 

H. L. — The foundation remaining from last year may be 
advantageously utilised this season. You can remove the 
brittleness, and render it fit for use by hot water. Let 
it be hot to the hand ; about one pint of boiling to two 
of cold will be right. Just hold the sheet in the water 
for half a minute. 

J. H. — Your letter respecting the Yorkshire Bee-keepers' 
Association has been received with thanks ; but we con- 
sider, now that Mr. Grimshaw has consented to be co- 
secretary with Mr. Bickards, and new hopes are enter- 
tained for the future success of the Association, that it 
Would be more discreet not to publish it. 



Beceived from Mr. John Smith, the Boyal Nursery, 
Clewer, Windsor, a packet of seeds, sought after by bees, 
containing twelve assorted varieties, with full directions for 
cultivation, 



February 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



65 



Beceived from Mr. Henry Dobbie, Cringlefold, Norwich, 
Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable and other Seeds, Herbs, Ac. 

Cohbection. — Useful Hints, p. 45, 7 lines from end, for 
and the close-ended frames being dispensed with, read but 
the close-ended frames have not been dispensed with. 



We liave reports of several County Associations in type, to 
which ice hope to give insertion in our next issue. 

.gfhow jgtnnouncements. 

Giving Name and Address of Secretary, Date and Place of 
Show, Date of Closing Entries. Terms : Three Insertions 
and under, Two Shillings and Sixpence ; additional inser- 
tions, Sixpence each. No charge made to those Associations 
whose Shows are announced in our general Advertising 
Columns. 

July 11-15. — Eoyal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huckle, Kings Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Eickards, Poole, near Leeds. 



business directory. 



The Name and Address and Business of any Manufacturer 
will be inserted in this List, under one heading, for One 
Pound per annum. Additional headings, Five Shillings 
extra. Advertisers in ' The Bee Jo.urnal,' whose orders 
amount to Five Pounds per annum, will be inserted Free. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Eoad, Bristol. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Buktt, E. J., Stroud Eoad, Gloucester. 

Edey & Son, St. Neota. 

Hole, J. E. W., Tarrington, Ledbury. 



Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Meadham, M., Huntington, Hereford. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothabd, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co. , Limited, 17 King William St. , Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Eottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Eoad, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts 




f&l 



MR. J. A. ABBOTT 

EGS to announce that he has returned from his 
American Tour, having made most favourable ar- 



^pf rangements for the supply of 

SECTIONS, HIVES, Ac., Ac. 

It is now arranged that he will continue to trade in 
conjunction with his Brothers, and he therefore requests 
that all business letters be addressed 



ABBOTT BROTHERS, Southall. 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[Feb. 10, 1887. 



I11B1 



2324 



THE WINDSOR BEE-KEEPER'S 
Choice Selected Collection of 

SOUGHT AFTER BY BEES. Free by post, 2/6. 

SOLD EY 

JOHN SMITH, The Royal Nursery, Clewer, Windsor, Berks. 

SKEPS, FOUNDATION, &c. 
1 lb. 3/- or i/io. 
Dealers and others apply for List (110 Illustrations), 
G. STOTHARD, WELWYN, HERTS, a 232 

J Y /** A O Having had many enquiries from 

OUxjrVfVi those who cannot obtain the right 
kind, we now oiler Genuine PORTO RICO, on rail at 
Brighton, 21s. percwt., lis. 56-lbs., 5s. 9d. 28-Ibs. DUTCH 
CRUSHED, best for Syrup, 22s. 6d. per cwt., lis. 6d. 56-lbs., 
6s. 2S-lbs. Quantities of not less than 2 cwt. of Dutch 
Crushed, direct from London, at 19s. Gd. per cwt. ; not less 
than 10 cwt. Porto Rico, at 18s. For Cash only with Order. 
No Samples sent, as we recommend only what we would 
use ourselves. Subject to fluctuations in Market. 

Address: Simmins' Factory, Brighton. (161) 

GENUINE PORTO RICO SUGAR. 

J-ewt. bag, 5/3 ; J-cwt. bag, 10s. 3d. ; 2-ewt. bags @ 19/0 cwt. 
W. B. WEBSTER, Wokingham, Berks. 21 

CHAPM AN HONEY PLANT. 

IWHjL send to any address 26 varieties of BEE- 
FLOWER SEEDS, including the Noted CHAPMAN 
HONEY PLANT, for 2s. post paid. GARDEN SEEDS.— 

1 will send 21 packets of Garden Seeds to any address for 
2s. Gd. post paid. BAR-FRAME HIVES with Straw 
bodies, the hive least affected by heat or cold. My Hives 
and Appliances are all forwarded carriage paid, and re- 
turnable if not approved on arrival. Please send your 
address on post-card, and I will send Descriptive and 
Priced Catalogue post free. Address John Mooke, Seed 
Merchant, Market Place, and Prospect Farm, Warwick. 

RARE BARGAINS.— Owing to change of Pat- 
tern, I have bought Mr. Blow's OLD PATTERN 
HIVES, ' Standard' size. 10/6 for 7/6, 15/0 for 12/0, 21/0 
for 18/0. Two Cork Hives, 35/0 for 25/0 ; Cowan, 27/6 for 
24/0, all new. DARK FOUNDATION, 1/5 per lb. MELI- 
LOTUS LEUCANTHA, 2/6 per 100. Address E. Jackson, 
Welwyn, Herts. 

QCREW CAP JARS.— Fifty 2-gross Cases of 
IO new Straight Shape 1-lb. JARS to be Sold at a great 
reduction, together or separately. Address Fredk. Pear- 
son, Stockton Heath, Warrington. 

EARLY BEE FLOWERS. — Plant now.— 
Strong Plants of ARABIS and LIMNANTHES, 1/9 
per 100, free. Address S. S. Goldsmith, Boxworth, St. 
Ives, Hunts. 

FOR SALE.— OBSERVATORY and FRAME 
HIVES, STOCK FOUNDATION and FOUNDATION 
MACHINE, with SECTION CRATES and FRAMES, to 
be sold cheap. Apply to C. Cust, 3 Temple Terrace, 
Dorchester. a 2347 

QTANDARD BROAD-SHOULDER FRAMES, 
I J Is. 8d. per doz. STANDARD FRAMES, with Metal 
Ends complete. Is. Gd. per doz. All made of best Pine, 
with saw-cut for Foundation. Sample, 3 Stamps, free. 
Terms for quantities. Address 

A. GREEN, Selston, Alfreton. a 2350 



TO BE GIVEN AWAY! 

ONE AND A HALF DOZEN 

Clark's Patent Climax Hives. 



IN order that these Hives may be more generally known, 
the Licensee has determined to give away among Pur- 
chasers of undermentioned Goods during this February, 
One Dozen No. 2, and Half-dozen No. 1 HIVES (full par- 
ticulars given in last year's Advertisement), at the rate of 
one among every thirty Purohasers, to be distributed by a 
lottery, to conduct which he will endeavour to obtain the 
assistance of persons of known integrity. Purchasers of 
any two articles above Is. to have one chance, and each 
2s. Gd. one chance ; every further 2s. Gd. an additional 
chance. 

N.B. — In order to have a chance of securing one of these 
Hives gratis, Orders must be sent in during February, as the 
lottery will take place early in March and Hives at once 
forwarded to respective Winners. 

PRICES. 

Finest quality White Basswood A SECTIONS, i\ x 4J x 
2, per 100, 3s.; 500, lis.; 1000, 21s. 5Jx6J, per 100, 
3s. Gd. ; 500, 13s. ; 1000, 25s. PURE FOUNDATION, 
BROOD, per lb. 2s. ; 5 lbs., Is. lOd. ; 5 lbs. to 25 lbs., Is. 9Jd. ; 
SUPER ditto, per lb. 2s. 9d. SMOKER (Bingham), 2s."9d. 
REGULATING FEEDERS, Is. Gd. ' LITTLE WONDER ' 
EXTRACTOR, 10s. * VEILS, Is. 3d. PINE'S METAL 
ENDS, per gross, 7s. 

TOOLS TOR HIVE MAKING. 

Set of 36 best Cast Steel Black Bits and Iron Brace, 15s. Gd. 
Beech Brace, Lignum head, 26 Bits ditto, 18s. Gd. Set of 
12 Cast Steel Chisels, from 1 in. down, 5s. Gd. Handles, 
2d. each. Tenon Saw File, 3id.; Hand Saw, id. Marking 
Guages, 9d. Mortice ditto, from 2s. Gd. to 3s. Gd. Best 
Twist Gimlets, assorted, three, 10Jd. Small Hammer, Is. ; 
larger, Is. Gd. Name Stamps, Steel, id. per letter. Oil 
Stones from Is. to 3s. Best Smoothing Planes, 2 in. 3s. Gd,, 
21 is., 2J 4s. 3d. Best Jack Plane, 4s. 9d. Best Try Plane, 
6s. 6d. Best Cast Steel Hand Saw, 22 ins., 4s. ; 24 ins., 
4s. 6d. Tenon Saw, 14 ins., Iron Back, 3s. 9d. ; Brass ditto, 
5s. 6d. Dove-tail Saw, 3s. 2 ft. Rules, 2 fold, Is. and Is. 6d.; 
4 fold, Is. 3d. to 2s. 3d. Spokeshave, Is. Id. Squares, 6 in., 
Is. 8d.; 9 in., 2s. 3d.; 12 in., 3s. 

Kindly oblige by adding sufficient postage for small 
packages of goods. 

All Orders to be addressed to W. J. GREEN, 

Hive Works, Eriar Street, Sudbury, Suffolk. 

a 232s 

SHORTLY WILL BE PUBLISHED, No. II. or 
GUIDE-BOOK PAMPHLETS. 



HOW TO MAKE AN EXTRACTOR, 

AND 

HOW TO MAKE A BELLOWS 
SMOKER. 

By T. W. COWAN, F.G.S., F.R.M.S. 



J. HTJCKLE, KINGS X, -A. 3ST G-Ij E 1T- 

THOMAS B. BLOW has for SALE, suitable 
for a BEE and POULTRY FARM, 18 Acres of 
Land in Northamptonshire, on borders of Bedfordshiie, 
with HOUSE and suitable OUTBUILDINGS. Contains a 
bed of Valuable BUILDING STONE, and has Frontage to 
Street of large Village. For Plan, Particulars, and Price, 
apply to T. B, Blow, Welwyn. 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Strangeways' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c' 



[No. 243. Vol. XV.] 



FEBRUARY 17, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



(Sfottorial, Unfixes, $r. 



OUTLINES OF BEE-KEEPING FOR 

BEGINNERS. 

{Continued from page 43.) 

II. HOW TO COMMENCE BeE-KEEPING. 

1. The beginner should never make a start on a 
large scale. He had better commence with one or 
two hives, and increase as he gets experience, not 
forgetting that there is a great deal to learn — 
although not more than any one of ordinary intelli- 
gence can manage — before he can expect to be a 
successful bee-keeper. 

2. The best time to commence is in the spring, 
and it can be either by the purchase of a swarm, or 
a stock of bees, in a skep or a wooden hive. If the 
bee-keeper decide on the purchase of a hive, he 
should secure this from the nearest bee-keeper of 
his neighbourhood in the beginning of April. If he 
is not able to afford the cost of such a hive, he will 
have to begin with a swarm, which he should secure 
in May or the beginning of June. 

3. If he has had no previous experience in keeping 
bees, it would be better for him to consult, and get 
the help of, the county expert ; or if he is not able 
to do this, to enlist the services of a practical bee- 
keeper in his district. 

4. Should he not be able to get any such help, 
he must try and get a swarm from a hive which 
was known to have swarmed the previous season, 
because the queen of such a swarm would be a 
young one and in her prime. The larger the 
swarm, the better. The bee-keeper can judge the 
strength of the swarm by its weight or measure. 
Three pounds of bees, or a little more than a gallon, 
would be a medium swarui ; and five pounds, or 
about seven quarts, would be a good swarm. 

5. Much greater care should be exercised in 
purchasing an old hive, and it should be well 
examined before it is taken. If in a skep, blow in 
a little smoke at the entrance, and after a few 
minutes turn it up. The hive should be full of 
bees, and these can be driven down with a few 
more puffs of smoke. (Instead of smoke carbolic 
acid can be used ; but this will be explained in 
another chapter.) Examine the combs, and see 
that they are free from mould, and if, on pushing 
them apart, brood is found, it shows that the queen 



is present. The combs should be straight and 
regular, coming down to the bottom of the hive. 
If the combs in such a hive are not too black or 
old, it can be purchased, especially if it had 
swarmed the previous season. This hive can be 
kept for supplying swarms, or the bees can be 
driven and the combs transferred to a frame-hive 
in the manner to be explained later. 

6. If the purchase of a frame-hive has been 
decided upon, the same observations should be 
made while the bee-keeper is taking out the combs 
and examining the hive. If the operator is a skil- 
ful oue, and his movements are carefully watched 
by the beginner, this will be as good as a lesson 
for him. 

7. Make up your mind to be guided by the 
instructions given for at least two years, with 
what help can be obtained from the expert or a 
friend, and only after that try experiments. 



BLOWS BRITISH IIEDDON INVERTIBLE 
HIVE. 

We noted in our account of the meeting of Herts 
bee-keepers at Hertford that Mr. T. B. Blow, of Welwyn, 
exhibited a hive on the reversing principle, and at the 
time we had not space to describe it, but we promised 
to do so in some future number. 

Mr. Blow has endeavoured to combine in this hive 
the use of the shallow bars suitable for extracting 
purposes or to hold sections, and the ordinary Standard 
bar-frames. 

Fig. 1 shows the floor-board, which is so constructed 
as to have a full entrance the whole width of the hive 




so that very efficient ventilation is secured in the hottest 
weather, and the risk of swarming through overheating, 
&c, is avoided. A half bee-space is fitted round three 
sides of the floor-board, and to the front is fixed the 
porch. This is a feature not at all noticed in the foreign 
reversible hives, but is of great importance, not only as 



68 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 17, 1887. 



a shelter from the sun's rays, but as a roof to prevent 
water getting on the alighting board and rendering the bees 
chilled when they are returning home during a sudden 
storm in the spring. 




P'rorn the illustrations, 2 and 8, it will be seen that 
each body will hold ten bar frames and one dummy. To 
the dummy springs are attached, and the frames are 
held firmly in place by this means and each box can be 




Fig. 3. 



readily inverted without any danger of the bars falling 
out. It is claimed that spring dummies have an advantage 
over screws, as the pressure from the springs is alwavs 
constant, whereas if any shrinkage takes place, the 




Fig. 4. 

pressure from screws will cease, and, again, if screws 
are wood they swell when exposed to wet, or if iron 
they rust. 



Each frame will contain three 1-lb. sections, thus a 
hive with two super boxes on will hold sixty pounds. 
Dividers can be very easily applied, and if used have 
four slots, enabling the bees to get, very free access to 
all parts of the combs. 

Two of the bodies form a hive that will take standard 
bar frames, see fig. 3, so that the introduction of these 
shallow invertible boxes does mean that the appliances at 
present in use are to be thrown aside as useless. To keep 
the boxes in exact position, one upon another, it was ori- 
ginally intended to use buttons, as in the Stewarton hive, 
and as shown in the engravings, but loose tongues of 
wood have been found to answer better, more especially 
when two boxes are used with standard bars for wintering 
purposes. A queen-excluding dummy with half bee- 
space in each side is used between the body boxes and 
super boxes. Fig. 4 shows the hive complete with two 
body boxes and two supers. 

At the meeting referred to, this hive was very favour- 
ably received as a step in the right direction. 



SIMMINS' SELF-ACTING SYRUP-CAN. 
On page 115, Vol. XIII,, was given a full description 
of several styles of feeders invented by Mr. Simmins — 
viz., the Commercial, the Frame, and the Amateur 
Feeders. The principal feature in these feeders is that 
they dispense with cooking, and reduce sugar to syrup 
without stirring by the addition of water in certain pro- 
portions. The loaf-sugar and cold water should be put 
in the feeder in the proportion of 1 lb. of sugar to half- 
pint of water. Warm water should be used in cold 
weather, or, if preferred, at all times ; though if cold be 
used the sugar will soon be reduced to syrup. The Self- 
acting Syrup-Can, recently brought out by Mr. Simmins, 
is fitted with a lining of perforated zinc, and the syrup 
is made on the principle of the above feeders ; and as the 
trouble of cooking or mixing sugar and water is thus done 
away with, it will be found a great saving of time, and 
will prove a great accommodation in all apiaries where 
the practice of feeding with syrup is still adhered to. 



USEFUL HINTS. 

Weather. — A fortnight's fine weather, with several 
days of brilliant sunshine, and high temperature, have 
effectually aroused the bees and enticed them forth in 
search of pollen, of which at present they find but little. 
The nut-bushes, laden with catkins and shedding pollen 
abundantly, have been our chief source of supply, the 
crocus and snowdrops not yet having made their appear- 
ance. 

Spring P'lowers. — Soon, however, we may hope to 
welcome these sweet harbingers of spring, together with 
mezereon, the bloom of the elms, poplars, furze, aconites, 
et hoc genus onme, gladdening our hearts, as well as the 
bees, after the long and trying winter, now, as we hope, 
drawing to its close, although, while writing, severe 
frost has again appeared, and the clouds are threatening 
snow. 

Manipulating.— The late fine weather may have 
tempted the inexperienced to manipulate too freely, the 
ill effects of which will soon become apparent from the 
dwindling of the population where the brood-nest has 
been broken or much disturbed. At this early period 
we cannot too strongly urge, upon all, the absolute 
necessity of abstaining "from interference with colonies 
further than merely raising quilts, supplying food where 
it is required, and a change of floor-board, all of which 
operations should be performed with the minimum of 
disturbance. 

Feeding,— Consumption of stores by strong colonies, 



February 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



60 



during the late fine weather, will have become more 
rapid ; and it behoves the careful apiarist to have an eye 
to this matter, and not to allow his forwardest and best 
stocks to perish from want of food. Often have we 
beheld this piteous sight — hives literally full of bees 
utterly prostrated by famine — the dead and dying bees 
blocking the entrances, covering the floor-boards, or 
languidly clustering between the combs emptied of their 
honey, but partly filled with starving brood. Prevent 
the occurrence of so painful a catastrophe by a timely 
supply of food. Soft warm candy, or sealed honey, 
should still be given. 

Moderate Supply. — Soon, in finer, warmer weather, 
syrup will be admissible, precautions against robbing- 
being taken, and care being exercised against too rapid 
feeding, for if colonies arc overfed, mischief will result 
from filling up the brood-combs and thus giving a check 
to the production of brood. Food supplied in excess 
is almost as bad as starvation. This warning becomes 
more necessary where colonies are only moderate in 
strength and confined by division-boards to a few combs. 
In such case the brood-iiest is quickly filled, breeding 
altogether ceases, and day by da}' the colony becomes 
smaller until the end comes. 

Small Colonies. — Hence building up small colonies is 
a work requiring much care and judgment, lacking 
which it is far better to unite. 

Equalisation. — Here one of the great advantages of 
moveable combs is realised. Given a small colony with 
little food or brood, and a large one with abundance — or 
the converse — what more easy than to transpose brood 
or honey, and thus to equalise the two, always pro- 
viding that frames are interchangeable ? But whatever 
manipulation may be deemed necessary at this early 
season, ' when 'twere done 'twere well 'twere done 
quickly,' that no chance of robbing and consequent 
encasement of queens may be afforded. 

Motto for 'Journal.' — Thinking of Shakespeare 
reminds one that ' our Journal ' is sadly in want of a 
motto. Why should we not have one, and what better 
one could we adopt — in these days of sedition, change, 
home rule, misrule, and what not — than 'Stick to your 
Journal.' — Cijmheline, Act iv. Scene 2. (Shakespeare.) 
Yes, we say emphatically, if you have the interests of 
bee-keepers — whether cottagers, amateurs, or profes- 
sionals — at heart, ' Stick to your Journal! Not that we 
apprehend sedition in our camp, but we would have all 
our fraternity loyal and true, and eager to extend its 
circulation to all classes of our fellow-countrymen by all 
means in their power, realising, as we do in our own 
person, how great would have been the advantage 
derived in our younger days from the perusal of such 
an organ. Post tenebras lux! and the deprivation of 
' the Journal ' now would assuredly cause the deprived 
justly to exclaim, ' Quanta sunt tenebree ! vie mihi! vte 
mihijVce!' ('How great the darkness to me ! Woe to 
me, woe to me be ! ') 

Queenlessness may generally be discovered when 
the bees begin their spring flights. Listlessnes3 or in- 
activity, carrying in little or no pollen, sluggishness or 
want of alacrity in entering the hive on returning from 
the fields, restlessness exhibited by going in and out of 
the hive in an inquiring manner, indisposition to defend 
the hive, are all more or less signs of the loss of queen. 
Colonies acting thus should be examined at the earliest 
opportunity, and will generally be found to possess 
neither eggs, brood, nor queen, in which case an early 
union should be made with some other colony. 

Spring Management. — Next in importance after a 
good and safe system of wintering, we place spring 
management ; and, with a view to honey production, 
the first requisite is to obtain large colonies by the time 
the honey harvest begins. It is of no use for hives to 
possess the maximum of population when the harvest is 
nearly over. It must be a very weak colony, or a very 



poor queen, that cannot raise the population to ' boiling 
point ' during a plentiful harvest, but after this the bees 
aro merely consumers instead of producers until another 
harvest arrives. Evident as the truth of this statement 
must appear to $ny one for a moment considering the 
matter, how many there are who keep bees on the plan 
of getting their colonies up to full strength just when 
the honey harvest ends ! It may be from want of care, 
knowledge, or experience, or from not doing things at 
the proper time, or, indeed, from a variety of causes ; 
but certain it is that with many bee-keepers this is the 
rule and not the exception. Again, therefore, we re- 
iterate our former advice to keep no weak colonies, but 
to make it a rule to have all strong and full of bees by 
the end of May or the beginning of June, when the 
white clover commences to bloom. Sometimes and in a 
few districts surplus may be obtained from fruit-bloom, 
but in this climate, with its frequent cold and late 
spring's, it is very rarely indeed that bees can do more 
than supply their own necessities of daily consumption 
before the time above mentioned, even in our southern 
counties. If we take the 7th of June as the general 
time at which colonies should be ready for the harvest, 
then six weeks previously — i.e., about the 25th of April 
— preparations should commence for raising the popula- 
tion of the hives by stimulating to brood-rearing, by 
judicious and careful brood-spreading, by the union of 
weak colonies, and, in all these operations, by the least 
possible interference with or manipulation of the bees 
and their hives. By such means we venture to say that 
half-a-dozen strong colonies thus prepared will collect 
more honey than a score of others which have been left 
to their own devices or treated according to ordinary 
methods, whether the object be comb or extracted 
honey. Our ideas on stimulation and brood-spreading 
we hope to give in future ' Hints,' also advice as to the 
manner and time of the general spring overhauling or 
examination of colonies, — which is not yet. 

Patents. — A more general inclination appears to be 
springing up amongst English inventors of apicultural 
appliances to resort to the Patent Office for protecting 
their inventions. The recent reduction in fees for 
patenting, and the reasonable sum for which provisional 
protection for a period of nine months can be obtained, 
together with the unscrupulous manner in which any 
unpatented article or idea is seized upon by other in- 
terested persons, readily accounts for this development. 
Mr. Root, editor of American Gleanings, some time ago 
made the following statement in regard to the same 
subject from an American point of view : — ' I am very 
glad indeed to note the disposition among bee-keepers 
of forbearing to copy the works of each other, patent or 
no patent. The supply dealer who would unhesitatingly 
copy something well known to be the property of 
another, without getting the privilege of doing so, by 
purchase or otherwise, would very likely lose more than 
he made, so strong is the disposition of our people to 
give honour to whom honour is due.' He would, be a 
very bold man who would endorse this statement if it 
were applied to Englishmen. And yet we have always 
believed that honour and honesty prevailed, to say the 
least, in as great a degree on this side of the Atlantic as 
on the other. The subject has of late been repeatedly 
brought under our notice by inventors submitting thoir 
novelties for inspection and advice, almost invariably 
with the proviso that the invention is to be protected, 
and must therefore be considered private and confidential. 
Amongst the last articles with which we have been 
favoured are a standard frame, and sections of various 
sizes and shapes, by our old friend, Mr. James Lee, 
which bid fair in our estimation to hold the field against 
all comers. So great is the ingenuity displayed, and 
yet so perfect the simplicity, that we shall be much 
deceived if the invention does not command a very 
large sale both in England and America, in both "of 



70 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 17, 1887. 



which countries we understand that it is intended to 
take out patents. More at present we must not divulge, 
except that it is in contemplation to provide perfect 
machinery for turning' out the articles in the large quan- 
tities likely to be demanded. The specimens forwarded 
to us are of the most perfect and accurate construction, 
and when arrangements are completed, can be supplied 
at the present prices of good frames and sections both 
here and in America. We believe that hives on the 
same principle will be supplied also, but a specimen of 
these we have not yet seen. The reproach, if there be 
any truth in it, that for our best ideas in apicultural 
appliances we are indebted to Americans, is surely being 
wiped out, and now we are going to turn the tables upon 
our cousins. Can we fancy ourselves sending sections 
to Amei'ica, and actually manufacturing them in that 
country, instead of receiving them from thence ? ' So 
the world wags, so the world wags.' 

Preparing Hives, Supers, &c. — We well remember 
the late Mr. Pettitt, of Dover, exclaiming loudly against 
painting hives, because, as he maintained, it prevented 
the escape of moisture from the interior, an idea con- 
trary to the natural instinct of the bee, which leads it to 
cover the interior walls of its domicile with varnish, or 
propolis, to prevent the escape of heat or moisture. 
Hence we find experienced apiarists recommending a 
coating of varnish to he applied to the inner walls of 
modern frame-hives. A composition, formed of two- 
thirds resin and one-third beeswax, should be melted, 
mixed well together, and applied warm with a brush, 
care being taken to brush it well into the corners and 
cracks, thus saving the bees much labour at a season 
when time and labour mean honey. Mr. Heddon re- 
commends lubricating the hive bearings with tallow, 
and rubbing it well into the wood, when, he says, you 
will enjoy the luxury of removing covers, supers, honey 
cases, &c, in the twinkling of an eye, without a snap, 
jar, or bee protest. 



ASSOCIATIONS. 

BUCKS BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of this Association was held on 
Thursday, February 3rd, at the George Hotel, Ayles- 
bury, when there were present the Eev. J. Hill in the 
Chair, the Kev. E. K. Clay, the Eev. F. S. Sclater (Hon. 
Secretary), Mr. W. Sturdy, &c. The Secretary read 
the annual report and balance-sheet. 

The Committee congratulated the Association on the 
fine exhibit of honey which secured for Buckinghamshire 
the fourth prize in Class I. at the recent South Kensing- 
ton Show, and which included honey collected from 
thirty-eight different bee-masters. Lectures have been 
given at Amersham and Wolvcrton, whilst the bee-tent 
has been usefully employed at Stoke Green, High Wy- 
combe, Denham, Mentmore, and Oving. Experts' work 
has been chiefly done through the local advisers, to 
whom the thanks of the Association are due. The 
honey census has been very partially collected this year, 
through the failure of members to make a return as 
requested. Returns were received from fifty-five mem- 
bers. Honey yield : — Extracted, 2018 lbs. ; 1-lb. sections, 
2506; 2-lbs., p ; other supers, 103 lbs.; wax, 48 lbs. 
The Association was able to sell at a good price the 
whole of the honey taken to London. From the balance- 
sheet it appeared that there was a deficit on the year of 
12/. Is. 2d. 

Baron F. de Rothschild, M.P., was elected President 
for the ensuing year, and the other officers were re- 
elected. 

The annual drawing for three hives afterwards took 
place, the winners being, 1st, Mr. W. Garrett, Fenny 
Stratford; 2nd, Mr. J. Elliott, Wicken; 3rd, Mr, C. 
Middleton, Eton. 



DERBYSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The fifth annual general meeting of the Derbyshire 
Bee-keepers' Association was held in the Guildhall on 
Friday, 21st January, 1887. Col. Sir H. Wilmot, Bart., 
V. C. C. B., presided, and amongst those present were 
the Rev. J. Wadham, and Messrs. W. Newton, W. Wilks, 
W. Handley, D. Cooper, A. Cooper, Holmes, Fearn, 
Johnson, Austin, Sims, Boden, Atkins, and Hodder. 
We extract Hhe following- from the Report for the past 
year :— 

' The Committee, in setting before you their fifth 
Report, are glad to be able to congratulate the members 
of the Association upon the sure and steady progress 
which has characterised their efforts for the past year, 
and upon the permanent position it has now attained in 
the count}'. The number of subscribing members is now 
350, which, with twenty-three donors to the prize fund, 
makes a total of 373 as against 267 last year. After 
paying all expenses, we are able to carry forward a 
balance of 25/. 16s. 2s d. ; the sum being 71. 8s. id. in 
1885. The annual show for 1886 was, by permission of 
the Committee of the Derbyshire Agricultural Society, 
held in connexion with theirs, on September 8th and 0th, 
and was a great success. The number of exhibitors was 
about the same as last year, but the apparatus showed a 
marked improvement. The quantity of honey was much 
larger, and its quality pronounced by the judges to be of 
the first order. The Committee, in concluding their 
Report, desire to point out the good accruing to the 
Society from the various lectures held in different parts 
of the county, and trust that the members generally 
will do all in their power to advance the cause of the 
Association.' 

The President (the Duke of Devonshire) and Vice- 
Presidents were re-elected. Mr. Copestake was re- 
appointed Treasurer, and Mr. W. T. Adkins, Secretary. 
The Secretary then moved the re-election of the District 
Secretaries, which was carried. The draw for the two 
prize hives next took place, the successful members being 
Mr. G. Griffin, Clay Cross, and Mr. J. Dowens, Foxlow, 
Buxton. It was decided to allow the Secretary a sum 
of 10/. per annum for his services, instead of 5/. as 
hitherto accorded. 



ESSEX BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The Annual Meeting of the Essex Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation was held on Saturday evening at the Corn 
Exchange, Chelmsford, Mr. G. H. Aubrey presiding. 
There were also present Messrs. F. H. Meggy (hon. 
secretary), Reginald Christy, Leonard Brown, Edmund 
Durrant, F. Maryon, W. T. Braddy, W. Debnam, 
and others. The annual report and accounts were 
presented. The report recapitulated the work of the 
year, and recommended that from the 1st of January 
agricultural labourers should be admitted to the benefits 
of membership on ihe payment of a subscription of Is. 
per annum. The financial statement showed that, not- 
withstanding the heavy expenditure during the past year 
entailed by the holding of county shows, and the large 
number of members visited by the expert and receiving 
copies of the Bee Journal, the income for the year balancad 
the expenditure and left a small surplus to carry forward. 
It was shown that there were about ninety new members, 
the total number of members and donors being over 300. 



HEREFORDSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting of the members of the above 
Association was held on Monday, January 31st, in the 
Woolhope Club Room, at the Free Library, when there 
was a good attendance. Dr. Chapman was voted to the 
Chair. 

From the annual statement of accounts it appeared 



February 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



71 



tlint there was a balance in favour of the Association of 
187. 19s. Ad. The report stated that the season had been 
moderately favourable, and fair yields were reported 
from most districts, the honey not being' contaminated 
with honey-dew so much as last year. Three private 
demonstrations had been given in the gardens of mem- 
bers with most satisfactory results, and the report dwelt 
upon the advantages of this plan to cottage bee-keepers 
who did not attend horticultural shows. Demonstrations 
were also held in connexion with the horticultural shows 
at Hereford (St. Peter's) and Boss. Honey fairs had 
been organized in different parts of the county with 
much success, and the Association had taken a part in 
the Exhibition at South Kensington. 

On the election of officers Mr. Rankin was unani- 
mously re-elected President. The Committee, with the 
exception of those members who had resigned, were re- 
elected, and the Rev. James Oakley, the Rev. — - Herbert, 
Mr. Edgar Morris, and Mr. Spencer were added to it. 
Mr. Watkins was re-elected as Secretary, the work he 
had done for the Association having been warmly eulo- 
gised. Messrs. Hole and Meadham were elected experts, 
and Mr. F. James representative to the Bee-keepers' 
Association. 

GLAMORGANSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 
The annual meeting of the Glamorgan B. K. A. was 
held at Cardiff on Thursday, February 3rd, C. F. 
Gooch, Esq., in the chair. The Report and Balance- 
sheet were passed. After the election of Committee 
and Chairman, the latter referred in very warm terms 
to the past services of the Hon. Sec, Mr. E. Thornton, 
and he was sure all the members would regret that 
he felt it necessary to resign. A cordial vote of 
thanks was given to Mr. Thornton for his past services. 
Mr. Clark, Penarth, was elected hon. sec, and Mr. W. 
Gay, 4 Flora Street, Cathays, Cardiff, was elected hon. 
asst. sec. and expert for the County. Messrs. D. A. 
Thomas, Ysgnboaven, and 0. F. Gooch, Cardiff, were 
elected representatives for the County. Mr. W. Gay, 
certified expert of the B.B.K.A., and expert of the 
county, then read a paper on the profitable management 
of a hive, &c. A general discussion followed. A vote 
of thanks to the chairman concluded the proceedings. 



LEICESTERSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The general annual meeting of this Association was 
held on Saturday, January 20th, at the Old Town Hall, 
Leicester. Mr. Carter, of Mill Hill House, Leicester, 
was voted to the chair. 

The Report and Balance Sheet were adopted. A dis- 
cussion then followed on the ways and means of im- 
proving the position of the Association ; and as the em- 
ployment of an expert to visit the members was thought 
likely to be beneficial in this direction, it was proposed 
by Mr. Meadows, seconded by Mr. J. Cooper, and carried, 
that the prize-money usually offered for appliances be 
applied towards paying the expenses of an expert. 

Proposed by Mr. Fosbrook, seconded byMr. Foxon, and 
carried, That arrangements be made for an expert to visit 
the apiaries of such members as required his assistance. 

After a short discussion on the difficulties members 
found in disposing of their honey, it was proposed by the 
Rev. M. A. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Meadows, and 
carried unanimously, That a honey fair be held in the 
current year in accordance with Rule.X. 

The business of electing Committee and Officers was 
then proceeded with. The re-election of the Secretary 
was coupled with a gratuity of three guineas, and a 
hearty vote of thanks to him and his wife. A special 
vote of thanks to the Leicestershire Agricultural Asso- 



ciation for their liberality was passed. The meeting- 
closed with a vote of thanks to the Chairman. 

Both before and after the meeting Mr. W. P. Meadows 
interested the bee-keepers present by exhibiting and ex- 
plaining the working of the Jones-IIeddon and the 
Bebington hives. 

OXFORDSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The annual meeting was held at the Clarendon Hotel 
on Wednesday, January 20th, when there was a large 
number of members present. The Right Hon. the Earl 
of Jersey (President) occupied the Chair. 

The Secretary presented the balance-sheet, from which 
it appeared that the total receipts amounted to 331. 7s. 3d., 
while the expendituie reached 35/. 2s., being a balance 
on the wrong side of 1/. 14s. 9d. The report stated 
that the number of those who have joined the Society 
during the year was no less than 01 ; thus, notwith- 
standing the loss of 25 members, there is a net increase 
of 30 members, bringing the total membership of the 
Society from 102 to 138. A spring tour had been 
undertaken by Messrs. Perry and Cobb, the former 
taking the northern, the latter the southern part of the 
county. The autumn tour was carried out by Mr. 
Cobb alone. Nearly every member was visited, and 
had his bees examined, and advice given to him. It 
was decided not to hold a show this year, partly on 
account of the expense incurred the previous year, and 
partly because it was hoped that an offer which was 
made to secretaries of flower shows would accomplish 
the same object as a honey show. The bee-tent again 
visited several places, viz., Henley (two days), when the 
Berks Association also sent a tent with exhibits of 
honey, bee-furniture, and appliances ; Trinity College, 
on the occasion of the Royal Horticultural Show at 
Commemoration ; Headington, Watlington, Woodstock, 
and Shipston. At the latter place the Rev. II. Barton 
acted as expert. 

On the election of officers Earl Jersey was re-elected 
President ; the Rev. F. C. Dillon, Secretary ; the Vice- 
Presidents were re-elected, and the following were 
elected Local Secretaries : — The Rev. H. Sturges (Wit- 
ney), the Rev. W. Neame (Islip), the Rev. D. Thomas 
(Cuddesdon), the Rev. C. "Williams, of Benson (Wat- 
lington district), Mr. W. C. Hayes (Chipping Norton), 
Mr. Scrivener (Bicester), Mr. C. Harris (Oxford), and 
Mr. T. Hughes, of Combe (Woodstock district). 

At the conclusion of the meeting the Earl of Jersey, 
with characteristic generosity, handed the Secretary an 
amount to cover the deficit on last year's account. 



HORSFORTH DISTRICT BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The bee-keepers of Horsforth have met, and come to 
the following conclusions: — 1. The society shall be called 
the Horsforth District Bee-keepers' Association. 2. The 
annual subscription shall be 2s. Gd. 3. That monthly 
moveable meetings at convenient centres be summoned 
b3 r the hon. secretary, for purposes of mutual improve- 
ment in bee-culture. 4. That 5s. be at once forwarded 
to the hon. sees, of the Yorkshire Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation, thereby qualifying the Hon. Sec. and another 
member as County committee-men, in accordance with 
the recent resolution of the Y.B. K. A. 5. That bee- 
keepers within the district desirous of joining the Asso- 
ciation be hereby invited to communicate at once with 
the district secretary. 0. That the district hon. sec. 
be N. F. G. Burniston, Esq., Throstle Nest Apiary, 
Horsforth, near Leeds. 7. That the treasurer and dis- 
trict adviser be A. W. Henderson, Esq., Bank Terrace, 
Horsforth. 

The members at the close of the meeting congratulated 
themselves upon being the first to have the honour of 
taking this new departure in our county. 



72 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 17, 1887. 



ferespntrenx*. 



The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed" 
by his corespondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write on one side of 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, out as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Boohs for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to *The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," cfo Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W. C Ml business communications relating 
to -Advertisements, &c., must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

*** In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as welt as the page on which it appears. 

WINTER MANAGEMENT IN CANADA. 

[815.] You did me the honour of asking me to occa- 
sionally pen a few lines for the Journal. Nothing would 
afford me greater pleasure than to do so if I were per- 
suaded that anything I could write would be of interest or 
profit to your readers. I certainly owe }'OU and your con- 
stituents a debt which cannot be paid by me in this way. 
I have no faith in my ability to teach the British bee- 
keeper the mysteries of his craft. I know them now too 
well to doubt their skill in these, or to esteem my own 
in any way superior to theirs. I am conscious enough 
of the fact, however, that I owe both them and you a 
heavy debt of gratitude, and would discharge it (in part) 
in this way. But how shall I place the first item to the 
credit side of my account with you ? is the question that 
suggests itself to me. I repeat, Not by a lesson in bee- 
keeping certainly. Let present circumstances then suggest 
my topic. 

It is ten o'clock p.m. The family have retired, and I 
sit alone at the table with a bright fire blazing in the 
grate. The temperature of the room is about 05°. 
The glass outside registers 3° below zero. What a 
difference in temperature between the within and the 
without ! You say, How intensely cold it must be to 
cause the mercury to drop so low ! Methinks your 
sympathies go out to the unfortunate men and women 
who are compelled to be out on such a night, and you 
bless your stars your home is in Old England and not in 
Canada. What are McKnight's feelings you, perchance, 
ask yourself ? Well, they are those of the poet when he 
wrote — 

' Backward, turn backward, Time, in your flight, 
And make me a boy again just for to-night ! ' 

for I hear the merry jingling of the sleigh-bells and the 
rollicking laughter of a happy sleighing party out for a 
pleasure drive. Wrapped in their warm robes they skim 
over the well-beaten snow road, the hoofs of the horses 
keeping time to the ' tinkling of the bells,' and the 
hilarity of the party raised to its highest pitch by the 
bracing air of a genuine typical Canadian winter night. 
The earth is blanketed with the ' beautiful snow,' a foot 
and a half thick ; the air is as still as death, the moon 
looks down from a cloudless sky and her rays are reflected 
back with such brilliancy that the very stars are chased 
out of the firmament. It is not a night for Canadian 
youth to huddle together by the ' ingleside,' but such an 
one as they love to meet with one another on the hill- 
side and engage in the exciting sport of ' toboggen ' sliding 
— strike across country on snow-shoes, or drive out in 
sleighing parties. It is, I repeat, just such a night as 
Canadian youth delight in, and will suffer nothing by 
comparison with one of sleet and wind or of heavy hang- 
ing clouds without either. 

Bray don't pity us because of the severity of our 
climate. We don't need your commiseration on this 
score. But how, you ask, does it affect your bee- 
keepers? Well, it necessitates a different mode of 
winter management from that practised by our British 



brethren. It makes winter protection a necessary element 
on success. We winter in two ways — indoors and out. 
The indoors method I need not dwell upon, as you do not 
need to practise it. Every house has its cellar, and most 
people keep their bees where they keep their roots and 
perishable vegetables. A few have ' bee-houses ' specially 
constructed for wintering their pets. Those who winter 
on the summer stands use double-walled hives, or some- 
thing better than a simple outer case. These double- 
walled hives, however, are the exception and not the 
general rule. 

I shall attempt to briefly describe the method generally 
practised in outdoor wintering. It consists of an outer 
case with some kind of packing between and above. 
This outer case is constructed in the following way, with 
modifications here and there. First make a rough stand 
five or six inches wider every way than the bottom 
board of the hive. Now set your hive on this stand with 
the centre of the bottom board over the centre of the 
stand. The stand will then project five or six inches 
every way beyond the outer limits of the bottom board. 
Now make a case the outer limits of which will corre- 
spond with the outer limits of the stand. This case must 
be open at bottom and top ; the top of this case should 
be.six inches higher in front than back and about twice 
the height of the hive. When this case is placed over 
the hive it rests on the stand, which makes a nicely 
fitting bottom for it. The front of this case must have 
an opening below corresponding with the entrance to the 
hive. Now erect a nice little bridge between the hive 
and the outer case that will permit the bees free access 
to the outer world, and preventing the packing when put 
in from blocking up this passage. The hive is now sur- 
rounded by a case with an empty space between and 
around of some five inches or so. Before packing between 
and above the hive itself must be prepared. This ia 
usually done by spreading a quilt over the top of the bar- 
frames. This quilt should be a little larger than the top 
of the hive. The empty super is now placed on the top 
of the hive and this keeps the quilt securely in its place. 
The case is now ready for the packing, and the best 
material for this purpose is cork-dust, such as fresh 
grapes from the Mediterranean are usually put up in. 
The next best is dry saw-dust, such as may be procured 
in a factory where dry deals and boards are repped in ; 
saw-dust. from green logs should never be used. Cut 
straw, dry leaves or chaff will do, hut not so well. 
Whatever material is used it should be well packed 
around and over the hive right up to the roof of the 
case. The quilt over the bars precludes the possibility 
of the packing getting to the cluster. A roof or top, 
projecting a little over the frame, is now put on and the 
work is done. Some people place a device on top of the 
bars and under the quilt to allow the bees a passage over 
the top bars. I have put them away both with and 
without this device and found no difference in wintering. 
The front of the case being higher than the back causes 
the roof to shed the rain freely. I did up fourteen 
stocks in this way last year and the rain came through 
the winter finely. I have over forty put away at the 
present moment, and I have no fears for their safety. 

Brobably you prepare your own bees for winter in 
some such way. If so this paper will be neither interest- 
ing nor profitable to your readers. — R. McKnight, 
Owen Sound, Ontario. 



BEE-KEEPING IN CANADA. 
[816.] A correspondent under the above heading, 
B. B. J. p. G05, writes in a tone which can scarcely be 
passed in silence with justice. I am in a position to speak 
witli knowledge of the Caledonian Show ; it is not far 
from the home of my parents, not far from my present 
place of residence, and I have been in the placo many 
times. 



February 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



73 



In the first place, the Caledonian Show is not what 
we know as a large show. The directors of such a show 
as the Caledonian generally know but little about bee- 
keeping, and it is considered one of the most insignificant 
of the departments. The prizes only extend to the best 
10 lbs. of extracted, or, iu a mistake, they may even say 
strained honey, and the best 10 lbs. of comb honey. 

Now, at just such a show I have seen a pan of broken 
comb take the first prize from beautifully filled sections, 
and the dark inferior grades of honey get the preference 
because the judges knew nothing about bee-keeping, and 
they think such looks more natural. 

We must remember that bee-keeping has made won- 
derful progress during the last few years, and the know- 
ledge the bee-keepers possess has not yet been trans- 
mitted to the general public, or, at least, only in a small 
measure. So much so, that at our Provincial Exhibition 
last year, when showing goods to the judges, they 
glanced over the list, and then remarked, ' Wax and 
honey extractor, is that not all the same thing ?' But is 
that an indication of the state of apiculture in our land ? 
Far from it. 

The hives spoken of at Caledonia were either frame- 
hives, or the}' were there as a joke, or a curiosity. I 
have no hesitancy in saying this as bee-keepers know 
better in that locality. No intelligent bee-keeper uses the 
box-hive. I have been amongst many bee-keepers during 
the last five or six years ; and with the exception of the 
second year when I went to a box-hive locality, and pur- 
chased seventy-nine stocks in such hives and transferred 
them during fruit-bloom, I have rarely seen a box-hive. 

There are, however, quite a few in exceptional 
localities in Ontario, although, I believe, more in the 
province of Quebec. Ontario is the honey-producing 
part of Canada, at present however. These remarks, 
coupled with my previous one on Canadian hives, will, I 
think, throw sufficient light upon the question. I regret 
that Mr. S. T. Pettit, the President of our 0. B. K. A., 
should have found it necessary to leave England before 
the time when the British and Canadian bee-keepers 
met ; there would have been another Canadian to assist 
in throwing additional light upon bee-keeping as con- 
ducted here. The conversational powers of a few (three) 
must have been, at times, taxed to the utmost. 

I have had the pleasure of meeting with Mr. J. A. 
Abbott of Southall, London, England, and spent an 
afternoon partly journeying by rail with him. I learned 
very much of interest and solid profit from him, and had 
a very pleasant time. It is a bad season to judge of bee- 
keeping in Canada, but I think Mr. Abbott will have 
gleaned sufficiently to be in a position to endorse the 
majority of the statements made, or the tenor of them. — 
R. F. Holtermann, Brantford, Canada. 



DOUBLING. 

[817.] Last season I followed the instruction in your 
admirable article on doubling, and as a consequence had 
large stocks and no swarms. I have six hives, and my 
average was sixty-one pounds per hive, section and ex- 
tracted, taldng the 4J x 4{ section at one pound. The 
previous season, commencing with three stocks and in- 
creasing by natural swarming to six, I had an average of 
eighty-three pounds per hive. The difference in the season 
would account for this increased result. There is, how- 
ever, one drawback to this method of doubling ; that is, 
brood in the upper boxes. One of my hives had four 
bodies, holding twelve frames in the lower hive, ten in 
the others, and had brood in the middle frame of all the 
upper boxes in September, which was a great incon- 
venience in extracting ; and when 1 had worked the hive 
gradually down, I found the lowest compartment quite 
empty of brood or honey. In another hive what held 
twenty-two frames in the body and twenty in the upper, 
I had brood in both, and a quantity of drone-comb drawn 



out between the two tiers of frames and well up into 
some of the upper ones. I therefore think that some 
kind of queen-excluder should be used above the frames 
in the lower body ; not excluder-zinc, which I consider 
an abomination, and would, in all probability, make the 
bees swarm ; but either by strips of wood on the top of 
the frames leaving the required width between, or a pro- 
perly made board to fit the hive, with long strips cut out 
of it, or the top bar made wide enough to prevent the 
queeu going up. I have no difficulty with queens in my 
sections, and the tees seem to find no hindrance to their 
working by having to pass through the narrow strips of 
the section. The hive that gave me the best result last 
year was one with twenty-five frames in the body and 
sections above. I had 108 lb. sections on at one time, 
and full of bees, but owing to the season had only sixty- 
three completed. Can you suggest any plan to overcome 
this difficulty ?— W. II. Jenkins. 

[You do not say so, but we presume you have yowx 
frames fixed by broad shoulders or some other means, 
to the regulation distance apart of about li in. from 
centre to centre. This, we think, is the main cause why 
you have brood right up into the top storey. We keep 
the two lower storeys for brood and bring the combs to 
lj in. from centre to centre, but when we add our third 
storey the frames in this are placed at lj in. from centre 
to centre. The queen seldom rises into this storey as 
the combs are too thick for her to lay in, and they form 
a better barrier to the storey above than any queen- 
excluder. We tried boards with slits in them the same 
as Heddon now uses before we used excluder zinc more 
than twelve years ago, when we worked large supers, 
but as they were constantly shrinking and expauding 
they did not exclude the queen from the supers. We 
have placed a square of enamel cloth over the frames 
li in. smaller all round than the top of the hive, and this 
prevents both queen and bees from passing up the 
centre, which is the most likely place for the queen to 
use in going up. It is carrying out the principle of the 
Stewarton hive, in which the openings into the supers 
are on either side of the brood nest. Another way is, 
when you put on a third storey to remove all combs 
containing honey in the lower hives, and to put them 
into the upper hive, placing them If in. from centre to 
centre, and giving the lower storeys empty combs for 
the queen to lay in. When combs are only used for 
extracting there is not such an objection to the queen 
going up as there is when sections are worked. Still 
an endeavour should be made to keep the queen to the 
two lower boxes and secure honey in the two upper 
ones. — -Ed.] 

HONEY IN ZINC VESSELS. 

[818.] Having in November and December read the 
various opinions in the B. B. J. as to the danger of 
keeping honey in zinc vessels, and having myself in use 
a large galvanised iron reservoir obtained during the 
summer from Messrs. Abbott, I without delay bottled 
off its contents, which had been standing about ten 
weeks, into glass jars, and at the same time made a care- 
ful chemical examination. I may say that the vessel 
had been in use all through the summer and autumn, the 
quantity of honey it contained varying according as I 
drew off and sold, or added to the store. It had never 
been cleaned or emptied. As the result of analysis, I 
could find no trace of zinc in any of the clear honey 
bottled off. I found, however, on washing out the dregs 
with hot water, that the washings had a metallic taste, 
and contained a considerable quantity of zinc salts in 
solution. 

I draw the conclusion that the action on the hive is 
confined to the film of honey in immediate contact with 
it, which remains adherent and does not diffuse through 
the main mass unless it is rubbed off and stirred up. As 
there must always be risk of such disturbance, the use of 



74 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 17, 1887. 



unprotected galvanized reservoirs cannot be considered 
free from danger. 

To arrive at something certain as to the energy of the 
chemical action, I, on the 30th of November, cleaned a 
piece of sheet zinc six inches by two inches, having a 
surface of twenty-four square inches. And, after weighing 
it on a delicate chemical balance, I immersed it in half a 
pound of clear pure honey contained in a covered glass 
beaker which I kept on the chimney-shelf from day to 
day, occasionally warming on the hob and stirring with 
a glass rod. I took out the zinc a few times, washed it 
with distilled water, and re-weighed. The weights were 
as follows: — 

Grammes. 

Nov. 30, 1886. Original weight of clean zinc = 29-0250 

Dec. 1 „ Weight after immersion =29-0134 

„ 2 „ „ „ „ =29-0075 

„ 1-1 „ „ ,, ,, =28-9990 

Jan. 29, 1887. „ „ „ =28-9910 

Total loss of weight in two months = 0-034 grammes or 
0-52 grains of metallic zinc. The action is thus seen to 
be slow and of no great amount even with the assistance 
of heat and stirring. 

I intend to varnish the inside of my reservoir. Can 
any of your readers say whether the ordinary varnish 
sold as 'White Hard' spirit varnish, would answer the 
purpose of protection without giving a taste to the 
honey? — R. E. Lloyd. 



DISTRICT ASSOCIATIONS. 

[819.] I am delighted to see your leader on this sub- 
ject, it gives all your readers the lines to work on, and I 
need not say how my ideas exactly coincide. 

' Amateur Expert,' who is always terse and business- 
like, even in his most playful vein, places me under 
obligations to him for his valuable hints. I shall make 
it a point to try and pierce the veil of his incognito, 
which he freely admitted nearly fell (or was torn) from 
the statue at one of the Canadian gatherings. 

These very hints of ' A. E.' (without any effort on my 
part) have brought me letters asking for advice as to the 
formation of District Associations, and my help in 
lecturing in various parts of our county; with each of 
these I have complied, and so will continue to the fullest 
extent of my leisure, but our county is so large and 
individual exertion so seemingly barren of results, that 
a score or two working enthusiasts might be imported 
from our champion counties with the greatest advan- 
tage to us. My time, however, is so full}' occupied by 
business that I must often let the will go for the deed. 

There is a splendid harvest of young bee-keepers who 
are longing for the Society and mutual pleasure of asso- 
ciation, but the workers (may I say the high and dry P) 
are hard to move. They do not fear 

' Lest they 
By thousands tumble from their honey'd dome 
Into a gulph of blue sulphurous flame.' 

Enthusiasm is wanting amongst those who have learnt 
their bee-keeping by practice and current literature 
without, association, and they appear now desirous of 
sipping their nectar under their own hedges. To all 
such ' high and dry ' I now appeal for the sake of those 
others who want light and leading. The Yorks B. K. A. 
have now (before ' A Worker's ' suggestion in a recent 
issue was made) passed a resolution inviting the bee- 
keepers of various parts of Yorkshire, without more ado, 
inform themselves into District Associations, no matter 
how small. These are to be entirely self-governed 
and self-officered ; they are to have the fullest and 
freest liberty, and by payment of 5s. per annum per 
Association to ' the County,' can have the advantage of 
their secretary and another member being on the 
committee, with themselves having all the privileges of 
membership. So that now nothing remains but for our 



brethren in various parts of Yorkshire to organize 
themselves, and this will be perhaps best done b}' one 
or two in each district calling, by cheap advertisement 
in daily paper, a meeting of bee-keepers to discuss and 
carry out the idea. I would suggest as a start that — 

Bradford, Scarborough, Doncaster, 

Skipton, Walton, Brighouse, 

Harrogate, York, Wakefield, 

Thirst, Hull, Goole, 

Middlesbrough, Barnsley, Harrogate, 

be the first great districts (each of which is equal to 
some counties), to again subdivide some time in the dim 
and distant future by the natural process of development, 
i.e., by the simple one of 

1 When the church can raise a choir, 
Why then they'll raise a song,' 

no matter , how small the choir. So pull yourselves 
together, ye ' high and dry,' and let us have some public 
spirit for the sake of the bees who sacrifice so much for 
us and our service. Don't let us be saturated with the 
spirit of this ditty : 

' We're honey-and-wax-3'oung-rnen, 
We're wood-nails-and-tacks-young-men, 
Oh, isn't it funny, we're going to make honey 
Turn fast into money-youDg-men.' 

It's all very nice to think of 

' A golden hive, on a golden bank, 
Where golden bees by alchemical prank 
Gather gold instead of honey.' 

' Ho, ho, to ye, 

Woe, woe, to ye ' 

if ye turn from the warning in the sulphur-pit couplet. — 
11. A. IT. G., Horsforth, near Leeds. 



SELECTED DRONES. 

[820.] The question of the survival of the fittest 
amongst bees is a very important one, and no doubt 
ought to receive more attention than it does at present. 
We all know that some queens possess better qualities 
than others, and we ought to preserve those good 
qualities as far as we can ; but how can this best be 
done ? I know, sir, that your advice is very valuable on 
this subject, and ought to be acted upon ; but without 
all act upon it, the few will not obtain the results ex- 
pected. 

I think it is quite as important that the drones should 
be selected as the queens, and here arises the difficulty. 
Supposing the strongest two hives in the apiary con- 
taining two of the best queens are chosen in the spring 
for breeding queens and drones, it is absolutely necessary 
that the drones be flying before anj' others within a 
radius of several miles, or the probability is that the 
young queens will not mate with the drones prepared 
for them, and as skeps generally produce drones early, 
there is but little time for getting a lot of selected 
queens impregnated by selected drones. Virgin queens 
(bees) are somewhat like the tender sex of another 
species, they prefer selecting their own husbands, and 
will not always accept what is offered them. 

Early last June, a hive was found to be queenless and 
without brood. A frame of brood was at once given 
and a queen raised from that brood — or eggs, rather. 
Her majesty began to lay and, in due course, young bees 
appeared, two-thirds of which were, in appearance, 
beautiful Ligurians. They are hybrids, of course. 

Now, sir, there was not a single Ligurian within a 
distance of thdke miles, and therefore this young queen 
must have been mated by a drone from that distance. 
There were plenty of English bees near and doubtless 
many drones at that time, but she rejected them. — A. 
Geeen, Selston, Alfreton. 



February 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



75 



RESUSCITATION OF BEES. 

[821.] On "Wednesday, the 19th ult., a thaw set in, and 
upon visiting my hives I found that, although shaded as 
they were, the bright half-hour's sunshine about noon 
had tempted the bees out, and about two hundred had 
paid the penalty, and were to be found upon the snow 
and ice, apparently dead. I picked up about a score, and 
while engaged in conversation with another person I 
suddenly became cognisant of a movement on the part 
of the bees in my hand. As it was evident the bees had 
been revived by the warmth, I heated a saucer in an 
oven, and gathered up sufficient (of the to all appear- 
ance dead bees) to fill the saucer, and after changing the 
saucer a time or two for one freshly heated, I had the 
pleasure of seeing nearly the whole of the bees revive, 
and return to their respective hives. It was the more 
remarkable as some were taken from pools of icj r water, 
and others had small particles of snow and ice clingnig 
to their bodies. — G. N. Railway. 



MADAGASCAR BEES. 
[822.] As communication between Madagascar and 
the rest of the world is very slow, I have only just heard 
of the question asked by ' Colenso ' as regards the cubic 
contents of the hollow tree stated by me to contain 
about two hundred and eighty cubic feet. I must thank 
' Colenso ' for kindly pointing out a very stupid mis- 
calculation, and apologise to your readers for the same. 
What I should have written was about sixty cubic feet, 
if in my mind's eye I had not seen a tree of twice the 
diameter. — C, P. C, Madagascar, 



PHYSIOLOGICAL QUERIES, &c. (756). 

[823.] No reply to the former query has yet appeared 
in the Journal, which I regret, as it is an interesting 
subject, and evidently has an important bearing on the 
new system of inversion advocated by a certain section of 
American apiarists, and more lately brought before the 
notice of bee-keepers in this country. The discussion 
raised relative to the latter question is instructive. I had 
several opportunities of closely examining the Jones- 
Heddon hive at the Colinderies, and from personal 
observation I can fully endorse the remark of J. M. 
Hooker (766) that hives of such thin material are not 
sufficient for use in this country, and I should never 
think of using them without an outer case, and the 
hive then becomes too expensive. 

' Devonshire Dumpling's ' advice to cottagers to try 
the Jones-Heddon appears to me too ridiculous to notice, 
and I can only account for such advice by supposing 
' D. D.' is endeavouring to grind his axe at the expense 
of the poor cottager. I am one of those looking for 
information that can be relied on, and if ' D. D.' will 
give the particulars of his management, and if he would 
also add the district where his apiary is situated, it would 
give additional interest to the information. The one or 
two isolated cases given without any particulars furnish 
no data sufficiently reliable to be a guide, and my advice 
must also be to go slow with the new system. — W. Soab, 
1 Sussex Villas, Kensington, 



PHYSIOLOGICAL QUERIES: INVERTIBLE 
HIVE. 

[824.] I beg J. Lee's pardon if I misapprehended his 
views as to invertible hives. I see it is the Jones- 
Heddon hive he objects to, and not so much the upside- 
down plan ; and I am glad to see J. Lee is making a 
hive like the Jones-Heddon, but one that is adapted to 
the British climate. So far, so good. I see he seems 
astonished at my advice to cottagers to try it. Now, 
Mr. James Lee, you say that your British Invertible 
hive requires no arguments to prove its utter unsuit- 



ability to the cottager, as it required more skill and 
judgment to work it ; I say ' work ' it, as some of my 
cottage bee-keepers might not understand what ' mani- 
pulate ' means. I did not think of advising a cottager 
that was not a bee-keeper, or a Journal reader, or one 
unskilled. Does 'J. L.' think, after the establishment of 
the Bee-keepers' Association for so long, and the British 
Bee Journal, with all its useful information, that cottagers 
have made no progress? Surely they are not all kid- 
glove bee-keepers that subscribe to the Journal; and 
what does the Journal teach them ? I venture to say 
that there are more skilled cottage bee-keepers on the 
weather side than on the lee of the ship, or the advice 
of the Journal cannot be much good ; but yet it has 
come from a monthly one to a weekly one, and I fancy, 
Mr. Editor, it is going the right road to be twice a- 
week soon. I hope we shall get some skilled cot- 
tagers if we have none now equal to the gentlemen 
bee-keepers. And how much more skill does it require 
to work the Jones-Heddon hive ? Are there British 
Invertible hives in this country ? Has J. Lee had any 
experience with either ? by his inquiry I should say 
not; and as my invertible hive is not very easy to work, 
I think the Heddon Mve will be easier—more honey I 
do not expect. — Devonshire Dumpling. 



INVERTIBLE HIVES. (793.) 
[825.] I see J. M. Hooker (803) is coming down on 
poor ' Devonshire Dumpling ' like a thousand of bricks. 
Poor 'Dumpling! ' I hope he will escape in safet}', as I 
have the pleasure of knowing him and am well acquainted 
with his mode of working. I tried inversion last season, 
although on a smaller scale than 'D. D.' ' J. M. H.' is 
not far from the mark in supposing ' D. D.' ' to be one of 
these.' I don't suppose ' D. D.' will mind me telling 
' J. M. H.' that he had one swarm last summer from a 
right-side-up hive. I can assure 'A. E. ' that a hot 
dumpling is a ' rum article ' for ' fancy dealers ' to close 
their teeth on. I think ' D. D.' knows a little about 
manufacturing hives, as well as how to use them and the 
profits to be derived from them. I have used cheese- 
boxes and they answered very well, and they are much 
thinner than the Jones-Heddon. Our friend Neigh- 
bour has got a ' nobby hive ' which no doubt will suit 
J. M. Hooker, as it is J inches thick and prettily 
decorated with thumb -screws. Hurrah for Mr. Sim- 
mins! I am sure we are all glad to see his notice in 
the valuable British Bee Journal — good luck to them all, 
dealers, fancy dealers, upside downers, and rightside 
uppers. — Apple Dumpling. 

The Bee's Stino a Useful Tool. — From lengthened 
observations, Mr. W. F. Clarke, a Canadian, has come to 
the conclusion that the most important function of the 
bee's sting is not stinging, but its use by that wonderful 
creature as a tool. Mr. Clarke says he is convinced that 
the most important office of the bee's sting is that which 
is performed in doing the artistic cell work, capping the 
comb, and infusing the formic acid by means of which 
honey receives its keeping (Qualities. The sting is really 
a skilfully contrived little trowel, with which the bee 
finishes off and caps the cells when they are filled brimful 
of honey. This explains why honey extracted before it is 
capped over does not keep well. The formic acid has not 
been injected into it. This is done in the very act of 
putting the last touches on the cell work. As the little 
pliant trowel is worked to and fro with such dexterity, the 
darts, of which there are two, pierce the plastic cell surface, 
and leave the nectar beneath its tiny drops of the fluid 
which makes it keep well. This is the 'art preservative' 
of honey. Herein we see, says Mr. Clarke, that the sting 
and the poison-bag, with which so many of us would like to 
dispense, are essential to the storage of the luscious product, 
and that without them the beautiful comb-honey of com- 
merce would be a thing unknown. This is certainly a most 
wonderful provision of nature.— Iron, 



76 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 17, 1887 



Replies to |m, 



*t* In their answers. Correspondents are respectfully requested to 
mention in oach instance the number and the title of the query ashed. 



[774.] Separation or Wax from Pollen. — I always found 
extracting wax was a messy job, as after boiling and straining 
through a cloth, as described by ' Amateur Expert,' I 
buried cloth, wax, and all, because it was so messy, and I 
made up my mind never so do any more ; but speaking to 
neighbour Killiek on the subject, he told me it was an 
unnecessary trouble, and offered to lend me his extractor, 
which offer I soon accepted, as he said there was no mess ; 
and having a few old combs that I had not disposed of, I 
followed his instructions, and, to my surprise, every morsel 
of wax was extracted, leaving all the pollen, &c, easily to 
be cleared away, and the wax wanted no more refining. 
It is the best and simplest one I ever saw, and every 
cottager should have one that has only got a few stalls of 
bees, as I think we ought to produce more wax, and get it 
made into foundation, instead of purchasing so much, now 
it can be done so easy with little experience, and the times 
won't allow us to be too extravagant. — T. B. 



ti cries. 



Queries and Answers arc inserted free of charge to Correspondents 
Whan more than one query is sent, each should be on a separate piece 
of paper. 

Our readers will greatly oblige us by answering, as far as their know- 
ledge and observation's permit, the Correspondents who seek assistance. 
Answers should always bear the number and title placed against the 
query replied to. Any queries unanswered in this way will be answered 
by the Editor and others. 

[826.] Crates of Thirty -five Sections. — Have any of 
your readers tried crates of thirty-five sections instead of 
twenty-one? If so I should be glad to hear their experi- 
ence thereon. Having a hive suitable for storifying, and 
wishing to work for sections, I thought of having two 
crates made to carry thirty-five sections to each. There 
are nine frames in the hive at present, well covered, and 
with plenty of sealed stores, but when full it takes fifteen 
frames. — West Somerset. 

[827.] Moveable Frame-hive. — To whom is due the 
honour of the invention of the moveable frame hive? Give 
the date or year. — Douglas. 

[828.] Glass Hive. — Who was the first inventor of glass 
hives ? — Douglas. 

[829.] Poisonous Honey. — Is honey produced from the 
rose-laurel and the yellow azalea proved to be poisonous ? 
If so, how does it not poison the bees when they gather 
it? — Douglas. 

(&t\m% from % ptbes. 

Plymstocks, South Devon, Jan. 26th. — The sun coming 
out brightly, and the bees flying, I ventured to examine and 
see if there were sufficient stores. Found them rather short, 
so shall have to try Mr. Simmins' latest dodge. Received 
with what equanimity I could the first sting of the season. 
I have been wintering my three stocks under enamel cloth, 
and am amazed at the result. They were very short of 
stores when put into winter quarters, owing to an illness 
which prevented me feeding, and yet they are not entirely 
without now, and wonderfully strong. One lot was a single 
driven stock and they were fairly fed up before I got ill, 
they are now nearly as strong as the others. Your advice 
in the ' Correspondents ' column, Mr. Editor, made me 
hesitate before trying this plan, but ' Useful Hints ' decided 
me for it, and I'm glad he did. — Trevor Saynor. 

Malvern, January 28(/i. — To-day being beautifully fine, 
and bees flying freely, I took the opportunity to examine 
my hives. I found all in good condition, scarcely any 
stores touched, and in one stock breeding had not only 
commenced but there was a quantity of sealed brood, and a 
good number of young bees flying out for the first time. 
This is the more remarkable considering the sharp frosts 
we have had. 



Swaninore, Bisliop Waltham, January 29t7i. — After a long 
spell of very bad weather we have at last a few mild days 
on which it has been possible for the bees to get out for a 
flight, and of which they have not failed to avail themselves. 
The general report of the district is that so far the bees 
seem to have wintered well. My own are all apparently 
strong and no signs of dysentery. — H. W. West. 

North Leicestershire, January 31st. — From December 6th 
to 31st inst. (fifty-one days), the bulk of the bees kept to 
close quarters ; a few ventured out on the 18th and 19th, 
but only to perish in the snow. Losses are almost nil, but 
some stocks are very short of food, apparently through late 
breeding in October and November. Since the 20th the 
bees have been in flight daily, and seem very much inclined 
to while away their time in robbing all round. — E. B. 

Uttoxeter. — On February 2nd I was called upon by the 

coachman fiom Miss W , with a request to go and see 

her bees. I said it was too early to examine bees yet. But, 

he said, Miss W is afraid they will be short of food. 

Impossible, I said, I attended to them myself in the 
autumn and they had abundance. Being urged I promised 
to go on the following Friday if it was a nice day. Friday, 
February 4th, was a fine day, so I set off to the place in 
question, a distance of about five miles. The coachman 
acting as my assistant, we commenced with No. 1, a bar- 
frame hive. As soon as the roof was lifted off I said, Some- 
thing has been the matter here, and was answered that the 
hive had been blown over late last autumn, and George 
(servant-lad) said he had put it all right again. Well, 
I said, if bees will winter this way, they will winter nearly 
any way. The bars were all out of place, nearly cornerways 
in the hive, the quilt laid on anyhow just over the cluster, 
there was an opening in the left front corner that I could 
get both my hands in right into the hive without touching 
quilt, hive, or bars. Well, I thought, this is enough to 
kill them all, such a winter as we have had. But the 
bees were healthy and well and numerous. Their loss had 
been very small. It was only the work of a minute or so 
to put all right, in doing so I saw a patch of brood in 
various stages on one bar about as big as a five-shilling 
piece. The straw hives (four or five in number) were then 
examined, and floor-boards cleaned ; all were in good order. 
Lastly, another bar-frame hive was looked at, which was 
all right, only some of the quilting a little damp ; this was 
changed, and all made snug and comfortable. I may say, 
in conclusion, that this lady has kept bees now for some 
years, devoting time, attention, &c, to them, and every 
penny profit realised is devoted to charitable purposes, — an 
example worthy of imitation. — F. Harper, Uttoxeter, Staf- 
fordshire. 

Fakenham, Norfolk, February 1th. — Not having opened 
one of my hives since August, and as I did not feed in the 
autumn (though I had taken 60 lbs. from it), I was anxious 
to know what state the bees were in. January 28th being 
a very fine and warm day I could not resist the temptation 
to look at them (against instructions). To my great surprise 
I found grubs and brood on two frames which appeared 
to be in a forward state ; there was plenty of food, very 
few dead bees, and quilts perfectly dry. Is it not unusually 
early ? I did not winter them in the usual way ; instead 
of cutting holes through the combs, I left the empty crate 
on, so that the bees could run over the top of the frames. 
I put the wood dividers down to keep the bees from getting 
through, and then put the quilts in the crate. I also put 
a piece of glass across, so that I could see the bees, and 
left them on twelve frames. I peeped at them several 
times during the very cold weather, and always found them 
between the frames and crate, going from one end of the 
hive to the other, and appeared very healthy. I have now 
reduced the number of frames, which is usually done in 
the autumn. I generally winter in that way, and do not 
reduce the number of frames till early spring, and always 
find them in good condition, 

Alton, Feb. 10. — Mice in Hives. — Thinking it would be 
of interest to the readers of your valuable Journal, I here- 
with give an account of my finding traces of mice in my 
hives. As soon as the snow was gone, and the weather 
warm, and the bees were out having a cleansing flight, I 
went round my apiary to open tho roofs of hives to give 
them an airing ; when, on opening one of tho hives — the 
bees being placed at the back part of the hive — I saw a lot 



February 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



77 



of dead bees on the top of the covering, all wet, and shook 
them all off. I went again next day, when I saw a lot more 
all bitten to pieces. I went again the following day, when 
there was another lot, having a hole bitten between the 
wings, also a large plum-stone carried up with them. Being 
at once convinced that the bees did not carry the stone up, 
I put in a trap for mice. Next morning there was one 
mouse, second morning caught three, third morning two 
mice, making a total of six mice. The trap was placed on 
the floor-board inside of hive in front of the division-board. 
I have now twenty stocks of bees, which all appear very 
strong. I examined the one where the mice had been at 
play, and found no damage done by them, and, to my 
delight, found a large patch of brood, this being on Satur- 
day the 5th, it being a very warm day; so, judging by the 
one, the bees are very forward in this district. I have not 
lost one stock this winter. — F. G. Ayling. 

Lismore, Feb. 12. — The weather is very dry here, not a 
drop of rain these last eight days, some of which were sunny 
and fine, allowing bees to fly freely. Some days, however, 
there were frosts at night and light cold wind by day, so 
that the bees, on the whole, have not had as much benefit 
from the crocuses — which are now out in sheets — as might 
have been expected ; still I have seen a good many little 
orange-coloured loads going into the hives. I think my 
bees have now given up going back to the old site. I stuck 
a big branch of laurel in front of the hives, and this seems 
to have at last attracted their attention to the change of 
locality. Besides crocuses and snowdrops and gorse, we 
have in the gardens here a good deal of a dwarf heath now 
in bloom, on which the bees work most energetically on 
fine days, seeming to prefer it to anything. A good deal of 
hazel is also out. I alluded some time ago to a plan I 
have adopted of feeding my hives in spring without remov- 
ing roofs or disturbing the cushions, &c. I found last 
spring that some hives which I tilted up a tiny bit in front, 
and fed by pouring in a little syrup, got on just as well as 
the hives on which I had elaborate and scientific feeders ; 
so, for convenience sake, I have adopted the r>lan to all my 
hives, only making an entrance at back of hives by means 
of a tin tube about J inch wide, with a little flat rim or 
collar at one end by which to secure it after the wall of the 
hive has been bored to receive it. The pipe is made long 
enough to project J inch beyond the inner wall of the hive. 
When not open for syrup to be poured through, I keep it 
clo: ed with a cork. By means of a funnel with bent pipe I 
pour into each hive at evening its allowance of syrup. In 
one or two hives I have a little trough beneath the pipe on 
the floor-board about g inch deep, with wooden sides and 
coarse perforated zinc cover, through which the bees can 
suck the syrup. The trough can hold about two wineglass- 
fuls of syrup. In this way any one can feed twenty or 
thirty hives in a few minutes, and there is no fear of dis- 
turbance of quilt or roofs and covers put on insecurely. 
Also where hives are exposed to wind, and have to be 
secured, they need not be disturbed. I bore the hole for 
the pipe at the centre of the back of the hive, about 1 inch 
above the floor-board. My frames are at right angles to 
the door. For ladies who do not like lifting off heavy hive- 
roofs this plan is very convenient. — F. W. C. 

Navan, Ireland. — The past honey season has been a 
fairly good one in this district. I commenced the season 
with seventeen stocks of bees, thirteen in bar-frame hives 
and four in skeps. I obtained about 600 sections and 
nearly 200 lbs. of extracted honey. From three of the 
straw hives I got very little, as they swarmed and took to 
the sections badly. The other gave me over forty sections. 
My bar-frame hives seldom swarm. From my best hive I 
took eighty-three sections and 16 lbs. of extracted honey ; 
another gave me 62 lbs. of extracted and twenty-one sec- 
tions. I intended to have sent some honey to the Irish 
Association's Honey Market, but getting what I considered 
fair offers, I sold privately. I got from 9s. to 12s. per 
dozen. — M. D. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

All queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of -personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

J. Drinkall. — Why Drones do not store Honey. — There are 
physiological reasons why drones are not able to store 



honey. The tongue is much shorter than that of the 
worker, and the body is much larger, so that the drone 
cannot put its head and thorax into worker-cells. The 
gland structures are also different, and those producing 
the ferments necessary to convert the cane sugar of 
nectar into the grape sugar of honey are so altered and 
diminished in size as to make them incapable of yielding 
this secretion. In bees there are four systems of glands 
which yield secreting fluids. In the drone, System I. is 
entirely wanting, but, according to Schiemenz ( Ueber das 
herkommen des Futtersaftes und die Speicheldrilsen der 
Biene, 1883), this system exists in the worker for the pur- 
pose of supplying a secretion for brood-food, and also 
for feeding the queen, with probably additions from the 
other glands. System II. in the drone is different, the 
secreting cells of the worker being replaced by fat-cells. 
In System III. the glands, as well as the reservoirs 
attached to them, are much smaller in the drone ; there- 
fore secretion could not be produced in nearly the same 
quantities as in those of the worker. If these three 
systems are brought into action either together or 
separately in the conversion of nectar into honey it is 
evident that drones are not physiologically adapted for 
this purpose. 

W. M. — Size of Extractor. — You have now evidently found 
out one of the disadvantages of not having all your 
frames Standard size. The Baynor extractor will take 
your largest size ; the cages of this are 11J inches. 

Beeswing. — Putting Swarms Together. — Throw both the 
swarms on to a board in front of the hive that they are 
to occupy, and let them run in. Secure the least valu- 
able of the two queens if you happen to see her ; do this 
just before dusk. Prop up the front of the hive at least 
an inch to give them a clear passage. You can sprinkle 
each lot with syrup scented with a few drops of essence 
of peppermint if you like, but there is no absolute 
necessity. 

De B. — Buttercups, gorse, and broom secrete honey, but 
not to a great extent ; they are, however, prolific in the 
production of pollen, especially gorse and broom. The 
horse-chestnut produces both honey and pollen, the 
former rather copiously. 

F. H., Kent. — Queen - excluding Zinc for Dividers between 
Sections. — There seems every reason to suppose that 
this, or zinc, or tin, having even larger holes, would be 
less obstruction to the work of the bees than close sheets 
of wood or tin, while preventing bulging of the combs. 
Try it by all means. 

W. T. C. — No. Glass is quite unsuitable for putting on 
the top of frames at any time. You can exhibit honey 
at a show of the B. B. K. A. without being a member. 

Honey-drop. — Stimulating. — It is best to commence by un- 
capping cells around the brood-nest, and when brood is 
in progress give thin syrup. Whether your stocks have 
sufficient stores depends upon the amount contained in 
the ten frames upon which they were wintered. If well 
filled there should be plenty. 

K. G. — We hope to be able to give insertion to the engrav- 
ings of your plan of reversing frames in our next issue. 

J. A. B. — Poisonous British Honey. — We have had no ex- 
perience of poisonous honey, and are doubtful if there 
is any dangerously poisonous nectar secreted in this 
country. 

Hawes Bee-keeper. — A sample of your honey having been 
submitted for analysis to Mr. Hehner, he states that it is 
unadulterated. 

Putting Swarms Together. — I may say I join swarms 
in the usual way. If they come off on the same day they 
join without any precautions. If some time has elapsed 
I smoke well the hive I am going to unite to and throw 
the other swarm on to board in front of hive, and 
sprinkle with thin syrup. If I see any signs of fighting I 
at once open out the hive and mix the bees with the last 
swarm, sprinkling all with syrup. Young bees do not often 
require you to use scented syrup. The mere fact of opening 
out the hive stops the fighting to a great extent by fright- 
ening the bees. — Arthur J. H. Wood. 

A Rectification.— In my letter to the British Bee Journal 



78 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 17, 1887. 



of January 20th, I said, in reference to a 2-lb. section sold 
by Mr. Blow of 8i x 4J dimensions, ' I should like them 
better if they were 2 inches wide.' I find they are 2 inches 
and the mistake arose from my using Tery thin tin dividers 
with them and wooden dividers with the 1-lb. sections 
running parallel with them, so that the 2-lb. did not come 
nearly so far to the end of the crate as the 1-lb. At the 
same time I ought not to have made the mistake, as it is 
depreciating what I look upon as a most beautiful section, 
as in my opinion it is very necessary to keep down the 
height of sections if we wish them finished quickly and 
well. I only used these sections on three hives and they 
were well finished off in every case. — Arthur J. H. Wood, 
Ripon. 

ighow j?$_nnouncements. 

Giving Name and Address of Secretary, Date and Place of 
Shoio, Date of Closing Entries. Terms : Three Insertions 
and under, Two Shillings and Sixpence ; additional inser- 
tions, Sixpence each. No charge made to those Associations 
whose Shoivs are announced in our general Advertising 
Columns. 

July 11-15. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huekle, Kings Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Rickards, Poole, near Leeds. 

^Business directory. 



HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bkos., Southall, London. 

Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Road, Bristol. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Burtt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 

Edey & Son, St. Neots. 

Hole, J. R. W., Tarrington, Ledbury. 

Hov.ard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Meadhah, M., Huntington, Hereford. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 1-49 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothakd, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co. , Limited, 17 King William St. , Strand. 

Country Honey Subtly, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 



THE WINDSOR BEE-KEEPER'S 
Choice Selected Collection of 



SUBS 



i) 30) o 



SOUGHT AFTER BY BEES. Free by post, 2/6. 

SOLD BY (162) 

JOHN SMITH, The Royal Nursery, Clewer, Windsor, Berks, 

CHAPMAN HONEY PLANT. 



I WILL send to any address 2G varieties of BEE- 
FLOWER SEEDSJ including the Noted CHAPMAN 
HONEY PLANT, for 2s. post paid. GARDEN SEEDS — 
I will send 21 packets of Garden Seeds to any address for 
2s. 6d. post paid. BAR-FRAME HIVES with Straw 
bodies, the hive least affected by heat or cold. My Hives 
and Appliances are all forwarded carriage paid, and re- 
turnable if not approved on arrival. Please send your 
address on post-card, and I will send Descriptive and 
Priced Catalogue post free. Address John Mooee, Seed 
Merchant, Market Place, and Prospect Farm, Warwick. 

i^ARLY BEE FLOWERS. — Plant now. — 
Li Strong Plants of ARABIS and LIMNANTHES, 1/9 
per 100, free. Address S. S. Goldsmith, Boxworth, St. 
Ives, Hunts. 

Patent Bee Feeder.— Removing the Flask. 




Or for giving warm syrup in cases of dysentery. 



SUGAR. 



. Having had many enquiries from 
those who cannot obtain the right 

Genuine POETO RICO, on rail at 
, lis. 56-lbs., 5s. 9d. 28-lbs. DUTCH 



kind, we now offer 
Brighton, 21s. perewt, 
CRUSHED, best for Syrup, 22s. M. per cwt., lis. 6rf. 56-lbs., 
6s. 28-lbs. Quantities of not less than 2 cwt. of Dutch 
Crushed, direct from London, at 19s. 6d. per cwt. ; not less 
than 10 cwt. Porto Bico, at 18s. For Cash only with Order. 
No Samples sent, as we recommend only what we would 
use ourselves. Subject to fluctuations in Market. 

Address: Simmins' Factory, Brighton. (161) 
QKBPS, FOUNDATION, &c. 

° 1 lb. 21- or 1/10. 

Dealers and others apply for List (110 Illustrations), 
G. STOTHARD, WELWYN, HERTS, a 2324 

QCREAV CAP JARS.— Fifty 2-gross Cases of 
O new Straight Shape 1-lb. JARS to be Sold at a great 
reduction, together or separately. Address Fredk. Pear- 
son, Stockton Heath, Warrington. 

FOR SALE.— OBSERVATORY and FRAME 
HIVES, STOCK FOUNDATION and FOUNDATION 
MACHINE, with SECTION CRATES and FRAMES, to 
be sold cheap. Apply to C. Cust 3 Temple Terrace, 
Dorchester. A 2347 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Steangewats' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c' 



[No. 2U. Vol. XV.] 



FEBRUARY 24, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



(Sfohorial, Sottas, #r. 

THE MEXICAN BEE. 

There is not so much known about the different bees 
in the American Continent as might be expected. In 
these days when there is a great tendency to obtain 
everything new and novel, and when there is such a 
great desire to introduce new races, it cannot be un- 
profitable to glean what information we can of the 
numerous varieties. By the Mexican bee many have 
thought that there is only one variety, ' the Stingless 
Bee;' but besides this we are assured there are many 
other kinds domesticated in that country. We doubt 
but that many of the species which are said to be 
without stings do in fact possess that organ, though 
often a feeble one, and are not readily provoked to use 
it. Great attention is paid to the Mexican bees by the 
natives, not so much on account of their honey, although 
remarkably rich and delicate, as for the sake of the wax. 
In Yucatan there are colonies of them domesticated 
consisting of five or six hundred hives. 

Hernandez describes several kinds of the insect in 
Mexico, — one resembling the European, and which pro- 
duces a honey like our own. It is domesticated by the 
Indians, who lodge the swarms, he says, in the hollows 
of trees. A second species is noticed by the same author 
as smaller than ours, so much smaller as to resemble 
' winged ants,' and as without stings. They build their 
nests, which are composed of several layers, in the rocks, 
and also suspend them on trees. Their honey is dark- 
coloured and high-flavoured. The cells are of smaller 
dimensions than those of the domestic bee; and it is 
probable, though not so stated, contain only brood ; the 
honey being found in small cups. The larvse, it appears, 
are esteemed a delicacy, for the historian tells us that 
when roasted and seasoned with salt they have the taste 
and flavour of sweet almonds. This species collect their 
honey and live much in the same way with the honey- 
bees of Europe. Other small stingless bees are men- 
tioned, which establish themselves underground in nests 
of a globular shape, but of very coarse workmanship ; 
their honey, too, is inferior, and is never used but in 
default of better. In domesticating their bees the 
Mexicans lodge them in hives formed of short logs of 
wood, from 2 to 3 feet long, hollowed out about 5 
inches in diameter, having the ends filled with clay and 
a hole for entrance bored on one side, about half-way 
between the ends. They are suspended in a horizontal 
position from the branches of trees. 

The interior of a hive presents, like that of a humble 
bee, a confused and irregular appearance. The combs, 
which have but one series of cells, are placed, some in 



a vertical position and others horizontal. They are 
grouped together in an oval mass, and occupy nearly 
half of the internal space, while the other half is stored 
with the honey cups. The hone}', as has been stated, is 
deposited in small globular bags, hung round the sides 
of the hives, or placed at the bottom; some of these 
receptacles are more than 1A inches in diameter ; and in 
many instances are so connected together that, as in the 
case of cells of common honey-comb, one side serves for 
two cups, thus combining economy and strength. And 
these magazines of honey being altogether apart from 
the brood - combs, and noways connected with them, 
great facility is afforded in depriving the bees of their 
stores. The honey is thin in consistency, but of a very 
agreeable flavour, and gives out a rich aromatic perfume. 
The wax is coarse, and of a brownish yellow ; propolis 
does not appear to be used. The Mexican bee is smaller 
by one-fifth than the European. Many of the species 
to which has been given the denomination of Melipona 
or Trigona are described as having no stings, or at least 
so feeble a weapon as to produce no sensible injury ; and 
from this circumstance they are known in the Spanish 
colonies by the name of Angelitos, or little angels. The 
population of a hive is generally under a thousand. 

A glance at the habits of some of the many varieties 
cannot fail to be of great interest, although the intro- 
duction into our apiaries of the so-called ' stingless bee ' 
might be the reverse of an improvement. We have 
noticed that the honey in Mexico obtained from these 
bees was thin in consistency, and this in a country 
where the bee flora is almost perfect; what could we 
expect on these shores? perhaps the honey would not 
keep and soon turn sour. The fact of the Mexican bee 
storing its honey in large cells, or cups, and always away 
from the brood; what a revolution in apiculture its 
introduction would cause ! 



NEIGHBOUR'S INVERTIBLE PRIZE SECTION 
RACK. 

This improved rack was shown by Messrs. G. Neigh- 
bour & Sous at the great show at South Kensington 
last autumn, where it was awarded a silver medal. 

The illustration shows so clearly the arrangement that 
only a few words will be needed in explanation. The 
outer casing of the rack is really in two halves, and 
each can be used separately if required. It will be seen 
that the rack consists of a tray composed of a frame 
with two bars across the bottom and four sides, which 
are half the height of the sections. The frame is just 
half a bee-space in thickness, so that to have the full 
bee-space an additional frame, also half bee-space thick, 
has to be placed between the tray and the tops of the 
hive-frames to secure the requisite bee-space. Three 
rows of. seven sections are put in this tray, and they 
are wedged up by means of a screw working against a 
board at the ends of them, The top tray is the exact 



80 



THE BEITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 24, 1887. 



counterpart of the lower one, and slips over the sections. 
These two form an outer casing, and hy screwing up the 
sections the whole case can he inverted,- or by merely 




removing the upper half any of the sections can he 
removed separately. 

These cases are used in pairs for storifying, are made 
with either wood or metal cross bars, and by the above 
arrangement are perfectly interchangeable and invertible. 
Great care must be exercised in inverting just at the 
right time. The centre sections are always more ad- 
vanced than those at the sides, and the inversion should 
only take place when the outer ones are in a sufficiently 
forward state. 



BEE-KEEPING IN IRELAND— HONEY PRODUCE 
IN 1885. 

In reference to the above the Registrar-General states : 
An effort was made to ascertain the extent to which 
bee-keeping is followed in Ireland, and the degree of 
success attained in this special branch of rural economy. 
The inquiry related to the season of 1885. As this was 
the first occasion on which any inquiry in relation to this 
subject was made, it can be readily understood that the 
returns were in many instances defective ; and that there- 
fore the results obtained do not set forth the actual fact 
with that accuracy and completeness which may be hoped 
for in future, now that it is known that returns regarding 
this question will be collected each year with the agricul- 
tural statistics, and that the enumerators have, according 
to instructions,, pointed out to all those bee-keepers who 
had not hitherto kept any records on the subject, the 
desirability of noting the particulars as to which inform- 
ation is required. From the tabulated returns it will 
be seen that there were 21,327 swarms at work in Ireland 
during the season of 1885, of which 6027 were located 
in the province of Leinster ; 6554, in Munster ; 6440, in 
Ulster ; and 1406, in Connaught. Of the 21,327 swarms, 
6283 were at work ' in hives having moveable frames,' 
and 16,044 'in other hives.' The quantity of honey 
produced, according to the returns, was 302,297 lbs. Of 
this 60,226 lbs. were produced in the province of Leinster ; 
103,528 lbs. in Munster; 83,348 lbs. in Ulster; and 
36,1951bs. in Connaught. Of the 302,207 lbs., 105,4141bs. 
were produced ' in hives having moveable frames,' and 
196,8831bs.' in other hives.' It was stated that 187,481 lbs. 
was 'run honey,' and 114,816 lbs. 'section honey.' The 
average number of pounds of honey to each hive having 
a moveable frame was — For the whole of Ireland 20 lbs. ; 
in Leinster, 10 lbs. ; in Minister, 20 lbs. ; in Ulster, 20 lbs. ; 
and in Connaught, 24 lbs. The average number of pounds 
to each of the other hives was — For Ireland, 12 lbs. ; in 
Leinster, 11 lbs.; in Munster, 15 lbs.; in Ulster, 11 lbs. ; 
and in Connaught, 16 lbs. The average quantity produced 
in all hives was: In the whole of Ireland, 14 lbs. ; in 
Leinster it was 13 lbs.; in Munster, 16 lbs. ; in Ulster, 
13 lbs. ; and in Connaught, 10 lbs. The number of stocks 
brought through the winter of 1885-6 amounted to 
16,362, of which 4403 were in hives having moveable 
frames, and 10,860 in other hives. According to the 
returns collected there were 7165 lbs. of wax manufac- 
tured in 1885, of which 1573 lbs. were from hives having 
moveabh- frames, and 5502 lbs. from other hives. 



JOTTINGS BY AMATEUR EXPERT. 

' Mel sapit Omnia.' 

We have got over the annual meeting- and the election 
of the Committee of the B. B. K. A. Mr. D. Stewart's 
place is filled by the Rev. G. V. Oddie, a very good bee- 
keeper, but a gentleman probably not known by a dozen 
members of the B.B.K.A. outside his own county. This 
gives Herts four seats on the Committee of the B.B.K.A., 
and three of the four gentlemen live almost within sight 
of one another. Very handy this if they all happen to 
be on the same sub-committee. 

The Rev. G. Raynor carried his ' reform hill,' lowering 
the qualification from 11. to 10s., although some of us 
'Radicals' wanted 'universal suffrage ;' but if defeated 
we still hope. 

I was struck with the fact that each of the candidates 
got fewer votes this year than formerly, although the 
'roll' of the B.B.K.A. is larger than it ever was. The 
reason, I learn, is, that members generally used greater 
discrimination than heretofore, and instead of giving all 
their votes, only voted in many cases for those they 
actually knew. This is a healthy sign. Many votes 
were also lost through the members failing to 'brass- 
up' in time. 

The meeting was not only a very full one, but was 
marked by the keen interest taken by all present in the 
proceeding's. While this is so, we never need fear as to 
the future of the B.B.K.A. I was sorry Mr. Cowan 
was not present, but he is very hard at work to get his 
work well in hand before April, when he hopes to see 
the scenery between the 'Atlantic and the Pacific' 
Imagine him toiling, as he often does, for the good of 
others, from 6 a.m. to 10.30 or 11 p.m., and all for the 
love of it, and yet we sing, ' Britons never shall be 
slaves ! ' It reminds me of an old girl who said, ' She 
not only liked work, but she actually loved it.' 

Our President was as gracious as she always is. Her 
Ladyship is a true ' Queen Bee ' in her benevolence as 
well as her devotion. To her influence with H.R.H. 
we mainly owe our great show at the ' Colonial ; ' from 
her purse came a good slice of the prize money ; nay, 
more, to her Ladyship we are mainly indebted for the 
privilege of getting the medals cast from the die of the 
Indian and Colonial Exhibition medals ; and, to crown 
all, when there was no wherewithal to pay for the 
medals, from our President's purse at once the money 
was forthcoming. 

After this, some of the exhibitors who had almost 
despaired of ever getting their medals will understand 
why they have been so long in coming. Doubtless most 
or all will get them by the time this sees the light ; and, 
for myself, I confess when I do get mine I shall value it 
more for the sake of the Baroness than for its other 
associations. While jotting about medals, may I say 
I think the new pattern B. B.K. A.'s medals are very 
pretty ; the device of the ' queen-bee ' has given place 
to a view of a modern apiary. Had I been in position 
to have given a suggestion at the time the thing was 
being considered, I should have gone in for a bust of 
her ladyship the President. What do the readers of 
the B. B. J. say to that ? 

I have run out my allotted space before I turn to 
' jot ' about passing matters. May I tell ' F. II., Kent,' 
if he uses queen-excluder zinc for dividers he will not 
get his sections finished smooth, but they will be un- 
dulated, like the waves of the sea on a small scale. 
What a rebuke from the bees themselves to those who 
advocate narrow sections for storing as being more 
' natural ! ' 

How homely friend McKnight makes us feel one 
can almost see him sitting by his ' ingleside ' over yonder, 
burning his ' midnight oil ' for us. The two ' Dumplings ' 
are jovial fellows. Mr. Grimshaw, too, I imagine, is in 
the height of his element; from quoting poetry he turns 
poet (?) himself. Well, I hope he will get 'plenty of 



February U, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL 



81 



work to do. There is nothing beats good 'chatty* 
meetings of district associations and lecturing in small 
villages for getting new members : and as to my incog, 
he must be joking, as I thought long ago he had seen 
through it, considering at Jermyn Street he has more 
than once been within nose -rubbing distance of — 
Amateur Expert. 



BRITISH BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The Annual General Meeting of the above Associ- 
ation was held on Wednesday, February 16th, 1887, at 
3.30 p.m., at the offices of the Royal Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 105 Jermyn Street, 
St. James's. The spacious Board Room was crowded by 
an audience of ladies and gentlemen, amongst whom 
were the Baroness Burdett-Coutts (President of the 
Association), the Hon. and Rev. Henry Bligh, the Rev. 
F. T. Scott, the Rev. George Raynor, the Rev. Dr. 
Bartrum, the Rev. F. G. Jenyns, the Rev. J. L. Seager, 
the Rev. F. S. Sclater, the Rev. W. E. Burkitt, Mr. 
Hooker, Captain Bush, Mr. Zehetmayer, Mr. Otto 
Hehner, Mr. Sambels, Mr. Haviland, Mr. Blow, Mr. 
Lyon, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Meggy, Mr. Horton Ellis, Dr. 
"Walker, Mr. Eastty, Mr. Athawes, Mr. Henderson, Mr. 
Bunbury, Mr. Neighbour, Mr. Graham, and Mr. Willard. 

Owing to the absence of the President at the com- 
mencement of the proceedings, her Ladyship having a 
prior engagement, the Hon. and Rev. Henry Bligh took 
the chair temporarily. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the last Annual 
General Meeting, which were confirmed. 

Mr. Horton Ellis moved a vote of thanks to the 
retiring officers and committee for their services during 
the past year. As one of the county representatives, he 
wished to say that bee-keepers all over the kingdom 
must feel indebted to those gentlemen whose zeal in 
their duties had done so much to benefit the cause. 

The Rev. W. E. Burkitt seconded the motion, which 
was carried unanimously, 

At this juncture the Baroness Burdett-Coutts arrived, 
and presided till the conclusion of the proceedings. 

Her ladyship moved that the report and balance-sheet 
issued for the year 1886 be received and adopted, with a 
vote of thanks to Mr. Kirchner, the auditor, which reso- 
lution was passed unanimously. The following is the 
report : — 

The Committee have much pleasure in presenting 1 to the members 
their report for the year 1886. In no previous year has the work of 
the Association been more successful; this success being mainly due 
to the support and patronage which has been given to the Association 
by their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, and 
other members of the Royal Family, and to the loyal and pecuniary 
support given by the County Affiliated Branches. 

Considerable progress has been made both in North and South 
Wales, associations having been formed in the counties of Glamorgan, 
Cardigan, and Montgomery. The Committee are much indebted to 
Dr. G-. Walker and Mr. W. B. Webster for their lecturing tours in 
North and South Wales. 

As indicated in the last report, the Committee have taken steps to 
provide a work on bee-keeping in the Welsh language. The ' Skep ' 
pamphlet translated into Welsh was issued early in the year, and 
efforts are now being made (the Committee being aided by some 
residents in Wales) to translate and circulate ' Modem Bee-Keeping ' 
in Welsh also. 

The Royal Agricultural Show of 1887 will be held at Neweastle-on- 
Tyne. The Committee consider this an opportune time for the Asso- 
ciation to endeavour to advance and consolidate their work in the 
North of England. With this view they have resolved to arrange for 
a lecturing or expei-t's tour during the ensuing spring months. 

Considerable assistance is also needed towards the development of 
the work in many of the larger counties, such as Yorkshire, and 
others. The funds at the disposal of the Committee being very 
limited, they are reluctantly compelled to withhold assistance in 
some cases where it is urgently needed. It is therefore hoped that 
the aims and objects of the Association will be made more widely 
known by the members and others interested in the progress of our 
home industries. 

During the past year the work of the Committee has been more 
than usually arduous. In addition to the ordinary standing sub- 
committees, it was found necessary to appoint other special sub- 
committees for certain particular work. 

Seventeen general committee meetings have been held during the 
year, in addition to a large number of sub-committee meetings. 

The sixth edition of ( Modern Bee-Keeping,' consisting of 10,000 



copies, has been issued during the year. A special sub-committeo 
was appointed for the revision qf the work, and a fair proportion of 
this edition has already been disposed of. 

Four quarterly meetings have been held during the year for the 
discussion of various subjects connected with bee-keeping. As inti- 
mated in the last report, the usual papers have been dispensed with 
at these meetings, and in place thereof discissions have been intro- 
duced upon various subjects. Several new inventions have been sub- 
mitted to these meetings for criticism. 

A special social meeting to welcome the representatives of Canadian 
bee-keepers attending the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, consisting 
of Mr. Pettit, President of the Ontario Bee-Keepers* Association, 
and Messrs. S. Cornell, D. A. Jones, and R. McKnight, was held at 
South Kensington on October 6th. Upwards of 100 sat down to 
luncheon. Dr. May, Educational Commissioner for Ontario, and 
Pasteur Descoulayes, Secretary of the Soci<£te Romande d' Apiculture, 
were also present. Subsequently a conference was held in the Con- 
ference Room attached to the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, at 
which nearly 250 members and friends attended. 

Examinations for third-class certificates have been held in the 
counties of Buckinghamshire, Glamorganshire, Hampshire, Hertford- 
shire, Lancashire, Leicestershire, Middlesex, Somersetshire, Stafford- 
shire, and Wiltshire. The Committee again call the attention of 
county secretaries to the absolute necessity of making the arrange- 
ments for these examinations strictly in accordance with the rules 
laid down. On one or two occasions during the past year the exami- 
nations have failed entirely through the insufficient arrangements, 
much needless waste of time aud money on the part of the examiner 
and the candidate being caused thereby. 

Three candidates have taken second-class certificates during the 
year. 

The Committee are much indebted to the following gentlemen for 
acting as examiners or judges at county shows, viz., Rev. C. G. 
Anderson, Rev. Dr. Bartrum, E. H. Bellairs, W. Broughton Carr, 
R. R. Godfrey, W. N. Griffin, J. M. Hooker, the Rev. F. G. Jenyns, 
the Rev. F. S. Sclater, the Rev. J. Lingen Seager, and Dr. G. Walker. 

The Committee much regret that they have not been able to pro- 
vide for the exhibition of the historical collection of appliances, 
ancient and modern, presented to the Association by Mr. T. W. 
Cowan in 1885. The provision of a permanent museum for this and 
other objects of the Association only awaits the necessary funds. 

Three exhibitions have been held during the year. 

1. At Liverpool, in connexion with the show of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society. In consequence of the early date at which this 
show was held, it was found impracticable to arrange for a thoroughly 
representative display of honey, &c. The department allotted to 
bees and bee-keeping appliances, although small, proved one of the 
most attractive in the exhibition. The Committee were supported 
most efficiently by the executive of the Lancashire and Cheshire 
Association, 10?. being contributed by this affiliated branch towards 
the expenses. The Rev. Dr. Bartrum, Mr. W. Broughton Carr, and 
Dr. Walker, officiated as judges, to whom thanks are due for their 
gratuitous services. 

2. At Norwich, in connexion with the Royal Agricultural Society's 
Annual Exhibition. This exhibition of honey and appliances was by 
far the best ever held in connexion with the Royal Agricultural 
Society. The entries were large and the exhibits numerous, and of 
good quality, occupying a space of 200 feet in length by 20 feet in 
width. The Bee Department was honoured by a special visit from 
their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, the 
Royal Princesses, the Ladies-in-Waiting, with other distinguished 
visitors from Sandringham. The Royal party made a thorough 
inspection of the various exhibits throughout the department, being 
conducted by the Chairman, Mr. T. W. Cowan, and the following 
members of the Committee, who explained the uses of the various 
exhibits, viz. , the Rev. G. Raynor, the Rev. J. Lingen Seager, the 
Rev. F. G. Jenyns, Captain Bush, R.N., Mr. J. M. Hooker, and Mr. 
H. Jonas. 

3. At South Kensington, the Committee were enabled to arrange 
for what may be considered the grandest and most effective display 
of honey and bee-keeping appliances that has ever taken place in. 
this country. Such an exhibition was rendered possible by the kind 
permission of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, Executive President of the 
Royal Commission of the Indian and Colonial Exhibition, and by the 
support given by the President of the Association, and those who sub- 
scribed liberally to the Donation and Guarantee Funds. 

The Committee were most loyally supported, both pecuniarily and 
otherwise, by a large number of the county associations. Reference 
to the balance-sheet will show that several of the county branches 
contributed largely to the fund raised for carrying out the exhibition, 
apart from the ordinary statement of income and expenditure. A 
separate balance-sheet relating to this show, together with a list of 
contributors to the donation and guarantee funds, is published at the 
close of this report. 

The thanks of the Association are due to Sir Philip Cunliffe Owen, 
Secretary to the Royal Commission, who was most assiduous in his 
labours to promote the success of the exhibition, and also to the 
President and Council of the Royal Horticultural Society, who gave 
material assistance. Messrs. T. "W. Cowan, C. E. Fletcher, R. R. 
Godfrey, and W. Martin, also merit the thanks of the Association for 
performing the most difficult task of judging so large a quantity of 
exhibits. The Committee have much pleasure in announcing that 
His Royal Highness the President of the Royal Commission has been 
pleased to permit the exhibitors at this exhibition to receive medals 
struck from the dies as used by the Royal Commission. 

The Committee feel sure that this act on the part of His Royal 
Highness, and the munificence of the generous donor who provided 
for the cost of these medals, will be highly appreciated, both by the 
exhibitors and the members of the Association generally. 

The thanks of the Association are due to Mr. T. W. Cowan and 
Rev. F. G. Jenyns for donations of books to the Library. 

The Committee consider that the Association has march reason to 
congratulate itself on the work of the past year. A great stimulus 
has been given to the industry of bee-keeping throughout the United 
Kingdom, and the demand for honey hag considerably increased, 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 24, 1887. 



Great progress has been made by Honey Companies and other agencies 
in bringing- the valne of pure British honey under the notice of the 
residents of London and other large tAvns. 

The Finance Committee have again to report their satisfaction with 
the manner in which the accounts have been kept by Mr. Huckle. 
The receipts and expenditure have been exceptionally large in con- 
nexion with the several exhibitions held during the year, so that the 
work devolving on the Secretary has been very heavy. The assets of 
the Association having been carefully valued, they are glad to report 
that the accounts for the year show a balance on the right side. 

The Rev. G. Raynor said that the pleasing duty had 
fallen to his lot for several years past of proposing a vote 
of thanks to the Council of the Royal Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for the gratuitous use 
of their Board Room for committee and other meetings, 
and he had much gratification in asking the meeting to 
vote a similar resolution on that occasion. He need not 
enlarge on the benefit derived by the Association from 
the kindness of the R. S. P. C. A., and he thought the 
members present could hardly express their thanks in 
sufficiently warm language. From his own personal 
knowledge he felt sure that the goodness of the Royal 
Society was highly appreciated, because they of the 
B. B. K. A. would certainly be in a difficulty if deprived 
of the advantage of meeting in that beautiful room. 

The Rev. F. T. Scott had much pleasure in seconding 
Mr. Raynor's proposition. The Society conferred an 
immense advantage on the B. B. K. A. by placing their 
Board Room at its disposal. It was a most comfortable 
room, and well suited to the requirements of the Associ- 
ation, which was thus saved considerable expense. Some 
charitable institutions proposed to commemorate the 
Jubilee year by providing themselves with new offices, 
but he did not think the Association would be able to 
do that, nor was there any necessity while they had 
such excellent accommodation. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

The President returned thanks on behalf of the Royal 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in her 
capacity as President of the Ladies' Committee of that 
body. It was a source of great pleasure to the Society 
to know that their Board Room was occupied from time 
to time by an Association whose objects tended to the 
furtherance of those principles in which the Society was 
deeply interested. 

The Rev. Dr. Bartrum moved the re-election of the 
President, Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Auditors, Analyst, 
Librarian, and Secretary for the year 1887. He con- 
sidered it a great privilege to be allowed to propose, as 
he had done in previous years, the re-election of the 
noble lady in the chair that day, who stood at the head 
of their Association, and who was, in fact, their queen- 
bee. She was an excellent example of the advantage to 
the community at large of ladies taking their proper 
place in thesocial scale. It was a great gain to the cause 
of bee-keeping that their Society was led by one who 
showed so much active sympathy with the work, and 
who was always ready to assist with her counsel and 
benevolence — indeed, the Association could scarcely go on 
were it not for the valuable aid given by the Baroness. 
The Vice-Presidents proposed to be elected were the 
heads of the various County Associations, among which 
were the Princess Christian, some Pukes and Earls, 
and, generally speaking, persons occupying leading posi- 
tions in society. He moved that Mr". W. O'B. Glennie 
be re-appointed Treasurer. That gentleman held an 
official position in the Bank of England, and had been a 
staunch friend of the cause and a member of the Com- 
mittee many years. With regard to Mr. Otto Hehner, 
Mr. Henderson, and Mr. Huckle, they were well known 
to the members of the Association, and their claims on 
account of past valuable services were indisputable. 

The Rev. F. G. Jenyns seconded the motion, which 
was carried unanimously. 

The President, in acknowledging the honour conferred 
upon her, said it was difficult to express how much she 
appreciated it. Every opportunity that sho could find 
to promote so useful and important an industry as bee- 



keeping -would be utilised for that purpose. A . great 
many public objects which had arisen, developed, or been 
created during the reign of Her Majesty the Queen, 
would during the present year, no doubt, be brought 
prominently under notice. It might be that so small an 
industry as the one in which they were engaged would 
not obtain a very large share of public attention ; but 
she thought that if statistics were published of the agri- 
cultural and food developments during the last fifty 
years, the production of honey could not be left out of 
consideration, and their Societ}' must take credit for 
having popularised an industry which had added greatly 
to the welfare and amusement of all classes. She was 
afraid that any advice of hers in regard to management 
would not be very valuable, but they would remember 
that the bees managed their own affairs extremely well, 
and in that respect did not give much trouble to their 
queens. (Laughter.) It was a great pleasure to be for 
another year associated with those officers of the Society 
who had always co-operated with her in the kindest way 
when she required any information. (Applause.) 

The Secretary read the results of the election of Com- 
mittee for the year 1887, the following members being 
successful : — T. W. Cowan, Hon. and Rev. II. Bligh, 
Revs. G. Raynor, F. S. Sclater, F. T. Scott, J. L. Seager, 
E. Bartrum, F. G. Jenyns, G. V. Oddie, Captains Bush, 
C. D. Campbell, Messrs. W. H. Dunman, J. M. Hooker, 
H. Jonas, G. Walker. 

Captain Bush moved a hearty vote of thanks to the 
scrutineer of the voting-papers (Mr. Dunstan), for the 
satisfactory manner in which he had performed his 
troublesome and uninteresting task. 

The Rev. F. S. Sclater seconded the vote, which was 
unanimously carried. 

The Hon. and Rev. Henry Bligh said a sad task had 
now fallen to his lot, and that was to move a resolution 
with respect to their late friend, Mr. Fox Kenworthy, 
who within a few weeks had passed away, and left 
vacant an onerous post in the bee world. Perhaps there 
was no one better qualified to speak of that gentleman, 
and the good name he had left behind, than himself (Mr. 
Bligh), because he had acted with their lamented friend 
as co-secretary of the Middlesex Bee-keepers' Association 
for the last two or three years. He (the speaker) never 
met with any one more thoroughly devoted to his work, 
or one who was more ready to give his time and labour, 
at considerable self-sacrifice, to their cause. At the time 
he was taken from them his good work was beginning to 
develope itself and show the results of continuous efforts. 
Mr. Kenworthj- was known to them not only as Secretary 
of the Middlesex Bee-keepers' Association, but he had 
also acted for a considerable time as Secretary of the 
parent body at a time of great difficulty. The resolution 
was : — 

'That the members of the 13. B. K. A., assembled at the 
annual general meeting, have heard with the deepest regret 
of the early death of Mr. Fox Kenworthy, formerly Honorary 
Secretary of the Association, and wish to record their appre- 
ciation of the good work which, under difficult circum- 
stances, he then did for it ; and also wish to express their 
deep sympathy with Mrs. Kenworthy on the death of a son 
who was highly esteemed and respected by all.' 

Mr. Hooker seconded the motion, and said he heartily 
endorsed Mr. Bligh's eulogy of the late gentleman, whom 
he knew both in his private and public capacity. 

The President thought there was no need to go through 
the formality of putting the resolution to the meeting, 
because the expression of regret and sympathy contained 
therein must commend it to every one. 

The Rev. G. Kaynor moved : — 

' (1) That in Eule 4 the words, " Subscribers of 11. per 
annum and life members alone shall be eligible for election 
as members of the Committee," be omitted, and in lieu 
thereof be added the words, " Subscribers of 10s. per annum, 
donors of prizes of 11. in the preceding year, and life 
members alone, be eligible for election as members of the 



February 24, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



88 



Committee." (2) That in Eule 5, the words " but not " be 
omitted, and in lieu thereof be added the words " and also." ' 

He eDtered into a retrospective view of the subject, 
and recounted the proceedings which took place at the 
previous annual general meeting in reference to the 
motion of Mr. Stewart, which was lost on being put to 
the vote. He opposed Mr. Stewart's proposition on that 
occasion because it was introduced at the fag end of the 
meeting, when very few members remained to discuss 
the question. There was now a good opportunity of 
considering the matter, and he would like to know the 
sense of the meeting thereon. Mr. Cowan was fully in 
accord with the motion, but earnestly hoped the qualifi- 
cation would not be reduced below 10s. 

The Bev. F. G. Jenyns seconded the resolution. 

Captain Bush opposed the reduction of the qualifi- 
cation. He said that nearly all the members of the 
Committee lived some distance in the country, perhaps 
twenty to fifty miles ; and surely, if they could afford 
to pay the expense of travelling to and from London to 
attend meetings, they could afford to pay 1/. annually to 
the Association. The resolution was a mistake, because 
members desirous of being put on the Committee would 
he willing to raise their subscriptions to the required 
amount ; and if they could not do so, probably they were 
not in a position to spare the requisite time to attend 
meetings. Besides, the Association would most likely 
suffer a pecuniary loss if the resolution were carried, and 
he did not think it would be better served. 

Mr. J. Eastty supported the resolution, saying that 
there were bee-keepers in London who would probably 
be willing to serve on the Committee, but who could not 
afford to paj r 1/. annually. Bees were successfully kept 
in South Kensington, and he himself had raised 18 lbs. 
of honey in Bermondsey. 

Mr. Bunhury said the reasons which held good in 
reducing the qualification to 10s. were equally in favour 
of a reduction to 5a., and he moved as an amendment 
that a 5s. annual payment entitle the subscriber to serve 
on the Committee. 

Mr. Meggy seconded the amendment, and said that he 
believed the success of the Association depended on the 
width of its basis. 

Mr. Sambels spoke in favour of the amendment, and 
pointed out that, under the present rules the Committee, 
by uniting amongst, themselves, could return any member 
they chose, owing to the plurality of their votes. 

Mr. Baldwin hoped that in no case was the amount of 
subscription paid to the Association governed b} r a desire 
for plurality of votes. 

The Rev. F. G. Jenyns explained that the united 
strength of the Committee's polling power only amounted 
to sixty votes. 

Mr. Athawes supported the amendment, and objected 
to plurality of voting. 

The Rev. G. Kaynor disputed the cogency of Captain 
Bush's arguments. He thought, as a tentative measure, 
10s. was low enough, because every person who had the 
well-being of the Association at heart would be prepared 
to pay that small amount, especially as it constituted the 
qualification necessary to serve on the Committee. He 
was of opinion that it would be better to pass the reso- 
lution, and see how it worked for a year or two. 

Mr. Horton Ellis having seconded the amendment, in 
the place of Mr. Meggy, who was ruled out of order, it 
was put to the vote, and negatived by 14 to 7. The 
original motion was then carried by a majority of 10 ; 
15 for, and 5 against. 

The Hon. and Bev. Henry Bligh moved: — 

' That in Eule 8 the words " from the unsuccessful 
Candidates, according to the priority of votes obtained at 
the Election," be omitted, and in lieu thereof be added the 
words, " by the Acting Committee.'" 

The Rev. F. S. Sclater seconded the motion. 

The Rev. G. Raynor suggested that the substituted 



words should be, ' from those members who are eligiblo 
and willing to serve.' 

A long discussion enjaed in which the President, Mr. 
Sambels, Mr. Lyon, tire Hon. and Rev. Henry Bligh, 
the Rev. J. L. Seager, and Mr. Blow took part, the 
mover undertaking to withdraw his motion- This course 
being objected to, a division was taken, when a majority 
of 12 were in favour of the withdrawal — 1& for, and 
against. 

The Rev. Dr. Bartrum moved : 

' That the following words be added to Eule 8 : " Every 
member willing to serve on the Committee, and who has 
not served during the previous year, must be nominated by 
one or two members of the Association. The name or 
names of the person or persons so nominating, together 
with the name of the nominee, shall be stated on the voting 
paper. Every member desirous of nominating a member 
of the Committee shall have a paper sent him for that 
purpose, on applying to the Secretary for the same, the 
written consent of the nominee to be forwarded to the Sec- 
retary with the nomination paper." ' 
He thought the present system of electing members of 
the Committee was unsatisfactory, and different to that 
carried out by other institutions. In the case of the 
British Dairy Farmers' Association, with which he was 
acquainted, the practice he had endeavoured to embody 
in the resolution was in force, and had acted very well. 
It seemed to him that old and tried friends of the cause 
like Mr. Cowan and Mr. Raynor ought not to be put to 
the trouble every year of finding a nominator. Those 
who had done good work in the past should be freed 
from such obligation. However, that was a question for 
the meeting to decide. 

Mr. Baldwin suggested that the nomination form l:e 
bound up with the rules. 

Mr. Sambels seconded the resolution. 

Mr. Haviland thought the old members of the Com- 
mittee would find no trouble in obtaining nominations. 

Mr. Athawes moved as an amendment that the words 
' who has not served during the previous year ' and ' one 
or,' be omitted. 

Mr. Hooker seconded, and Mr. Blow supported the 
amendment. 

The Rev. Dr. Bartrum consented to the omission of the 
words ' one or.' 

The Rev. G. Raynor and the Rev. F. G. Jenyns agreed 
with Dr. Bartrum in thinking that old members of the 
Committee ought to be exempted from the ride compelling 
annual nominations. 

The amendment having been put to the meeting, was 
carried by a majority of 3 — 14 in favour and 11 against. 
It was then submitted as a substantive motion in the 
following form, and carried unanimously : — 

' That the following words be added to Eule 8 : " Every 
member willing to serve on the Committee must be nomi- 
nated by two members of the Association. The names of the 
persons so nominating, together with the name of the 
nominee, shall be stated on the voting paper. Every mem- 
ber desirous of nominating a member of the Committee, 
shall have a paper sent him for that purpose, on applying 
to the Secretary for the same, the written consent of the 
nominee to be forwarded to the Secretary with the 
nomination paper." ' 

The Rev. W. E. Burkitt moved :— 

' That in framing Schedules, special care should be used 
to make all Eules definite, and that they should be strictly 
enforced ; also that it should be the duty of the Committee 
to make sure that the Judges shall make themselves 
acquainted with the Schedule before commencing their 
duties.' 

Mr. Walker seconded the motion. 

The Rev. F. T. Scott objected to that part of the 
resolution which saddled the committee with the duty 
of making sure that the judges studied the Schedule 
hefore commencing their duties. 

The Rev. G. Raynor thought that meeting was 



84 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 24, 188?. 



scarcely the proper tribunal before which to bring any- 
improper action of the judges, to whom a certain amount 
of discretion must be allowed. l. 

The Rev. Dr. Bartrum thought the motion implied a 
censure on those gentlemen who, at enormous trouble 
and personal inconvenience, had undertaken an onerous 
task. He hopjd Mr. Burkitt would be satisfied with 
the protest he had made without pressing the motion 
to a division. 

The Bev. J. L. Seager moved : — 

' That the Committee be requested to draw up a form of 
Rules for exhibition, with a view to establishing uniformity 
at all shows throughout the Counties ; a recommendation 
being added that the shows should be advertised as being 
held under the B.B.K.A. Eules.' 

He thought, possibly, that this would prove generally 
acceptable, as well as meet Mr. Burkitt's wishes. 

The Rev. F. S. Sclater seconded, and Mr. Sambels 
Supported the motion. 

The Rev. W. E. Burkitt agreed to withdraw his 
resolution, and support Mr. Seager's. 

After a few words from the President, Mr. Seager's 
motion was carried unanimously. 

The Hod. and Rev. Henry Bligh moved a hearty vote 
of thanks to the Baroness Burdett - Coutts, for her 
kindness in being present, and for the admirable way in 
which she had presidei 1 over the meeting that day. He 
also wished to draw their attention specially to the 
Baroness's goodness i relation to the medal. It had 
been debated by the Committee what form the medals 
commemorative of the South Kensington Exhibition 
should take, and ultimately application was made for 
leave to give the Colonial Exhibition Medal to all those 
who had exhibited at the Honey Show. Tins, however, 
it was found would involve a very large cost — quite 
beyond the means at the disposal of the Committee. At 
this juncture the President kindly came forward, and 
generously offered to defray the whole expense. He was 
quite sure they would all thoroughly appreciate such 
kindness, and tender her their most heartfelt thanks. 

The resolution having been carried by acclamation, 
the President briefly expressed her acknowledgments 
for the cordial vote of thanks passed to her. It had 
afforded her the greatest pleasure to assist the Committee 
in regard to the medals. She thought the proceedings 
at the South Kensington show marked a distinct step in 
advance of the former position of the B.B.K.A. The 
holding of the British Honey Exhibition last year in the 
Conservatory at Kensington was due to a very kindly 
act on the part of the Prince of Wales, which was not 
accorded to any other industry. She knew that the 
show was admired very much, and she thought that the 
Prince had given a substantial proof of his appreciation 
of the movement by permitting the die which was used 
for the Colonial Exhibition to be placed at the disposal 
of the Committee. It was to be hoped that the medals 
would give pleasure to all the fortunate recipients of 
them. Since they last met, she had been asked to 
become President of the Middlesex Bee-Keepers' Asso- 
ciation, and had complied with such request. Her 
ladyship concluded by expressing the pleasure with 
which she found herself amongst those who were 
devoted to the interests of the Association. 

Great Tit Killed by Bees. — The great tit (Parus major) 
ia a well-known enemy to the bee-keeper. First he comes 
to pick up the dead bees thrown out during the winter, and 
when theBe are exhausted he pecks at the mouths of the 
hives, and when a bee comes to the door to see what is the 
matter he snaps it, and flies on to the top of the hive or 
some convenient post, perhaps, and there dresses his prey 
preparatory to eating it, generally commencing by biting off 
the tail end of the bee, with the sting attached ; this he never 
eats, but leaves it on the top of the hive or post. I was once 
very much annoyed by a pair of these tits daily molesting 
■ ■ hive, and not only killing a number of bees, but keeping 



them in constant commotion at a time of year when they 
should have been at rest ; so I set a small trap, used for 
catching mice, at the entrance of the hive, and in a very 
short time I saw one of the tits fly on to it and get caught 
by the leg, when immediately a number of bees rushed out 
and stung him round the beak and eyes, and in exactly four 
minutes he was dead. I ought to say that I should have 
put him out of pain at once only the bees were roused by 
finding they had got their enemy in their power, and had I 
interfered to do so I should have got well stung, so I ran to 
the bee-shed for my veil, but when I returned the tit was 
just dying. I do not think I have molested one of these 
birds since, the whole family are so useful and interesting ; 
I always encourage them in the garden. During the present 
hard weather the great tit daily pays visits to the bee-hives. 
F. Botes (Beverley). — Field. 

l&amtyavtozxat. 

The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write on one side oj 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Boolis for Review, 
&c, omsfc be addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," c)o ITessrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

%* In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when spealdng of 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it appears. 

OUR HONEY IMPORTS. 

The value of honey imported into the United King- 
dom during the month of December, 1886, amounted 
to 1639/. 

We are now in possession of the full returns for the 
past year, which are as follows : — 

January . . . . . . . . . , 424 

February . . . . . . . . . . 451 

March 2,722 

April 1,113 

May 1,541 

June 2,900 

July . . . . . . . . . . 6,505 

August . . . . . . . . . . 1,255 

September 2,812 

October 1,257 

November . . 2,527 

December . . . . . . . . 1,639 



Total for the year . . . . £25,146 

Comparing this total with the figures for which we 
have authentic data, we find that the total imports were 
as follows : — 

1883 1884 1835 1836 

33,778/. 62,357/. 01,344/. 25,146/. 

It should, however, be remembered that the figures 
for 1883-5 are approximate only, the order from the 
Board of Trade to tabulate honey only dating from 
January, 1886. These latter, moreover, do not include 
the vast quantity of honey sent through Colonial Govern- 
ments to the Indian and Colonial Exhibition. Honey 
will be included for the first time in the Annual Returns 
of Imports and Exports to be shortly published ; and 
although we may expect the total to appear insignificant 
beside the immense sums paid annually for eggs, butter, 
&c. &c, the item will unquestionably be of considerable 
interest to the public at large, besides awakening bee- 
keepers to the fact that we are still unable to entirely 
supply the home consumption. As some time may, 
however, elapse before these 'Annual Returns' are 
officially published, it has seemed to mo better not to 
await them, but to send them to the Bee Journal made 
up as in former years.— E. H, BijLLAins, .Feb, 18, 



February 24, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



85 



SIHMINS' 'UNION' OR 'UNIVERSAL' HIVE. 

[330.] This hive has had three years of careful consider- 
ation, and was in the first instance developed because I 
had found the ' Standard' frame (14 inches by 8i inches) 
decidedly inferior to larger frames I had formerly used, 
either for the production of honey, or bees for sale. After 
various experiences, a frame 14 inches by 14 inches lias been 
found the most appropriate, all things considered, as it 
enables a stock to build up more rapidly in early spring and 
gives greater security in winter, as the stores are arranged 
in the best possible position, in relation to the cluster. 

As a single frame, the present ' standard ' is too small ; 
as a storifying frame it is too large ; therefore a smaller 
extracting- super is connected with the large hive, and 
which can be used both at the back and front of the 
14 inch-by-14 inch frame, as well as on top. 

The frames of this shallow hive (fig. 1) are 12 in. by 
6 in. x f ; there are eight of them spaced rather more than 
the 1J in. from centre to centre. By a simple metal key 
running throughout the length of the hive, the frames 
are all held securely in place, as the said key passes 




Fig. 1. 



through a saw-cut in each end of the top bars. There are 
plain metal ends on the frames, which are grooved to cor- 
respond with saw cuts, so that the key is entirely hidden. 
The key is entirely hidden from the action of the bees, and 
as the frames hang clear of each other, the weather has 
no effect upon the wood as with close-end frames, or 
broad shoulders when used in a limited space. 

A novel feature in connexion with the shallow chamber 
is that the usual bee-space is at the top instead of at the 
bottom, as of old. The reasons for this are (1 ), to give 
greater strength in the margin above saw-cut in hive side; 
(2), to receive pliable honey board (Fig. 2 or 3) across and 





Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



close on the frames as constantly recommended by us as 
the only means of totally excluding brace combs. Of 
course this implies that the extracting super can also be 
used independently of the large hive, similar to the 
' Stewarton,' and with but a slight alteration in the 
position of the saw-cut, Heddon's half bee-space can be 
provided for those who desire to try inversion. At the 
same time the hive, as presented, can be used either way 
up, though I do not claim that any advantage is to be 
gained by inverting brood combs during the honey season. 
"When used by itself the small hive has a sunk floor-board 
which acts as a permanent feeder, when inverted. 



When either extracting or comb supers are used on end 
against the large frames (Figs. 4 and 5) the f-in. space is 
placed next the latter. If on top, the same can also be 
done, though my own practice is to keep such the right 





Fig. 4. Fig. 5. 

way up with the bars across those of the lower frames, 
close on to them ; this also excludes brace combs when 
working for extracted honey, and when one has ones 
tried the plan, he will never again submit to a clear bee- 
space immediately above the brood frames. It is there 
alone that comb attachments are liable to be built, but 
any space allowed between further super additions are 
not subject to this annoyance. In following out this plan 
of working for the past six years I have not had a 
single piece of comb attached to our sections, as often 
is the 'case on 
the underside 
of sections 
worked with 
the clear 
space under. 

The comb 
super (Fig. 6) 
is also 14 in. 
by 14 in., con- 
taining three skeleton folding frames (Fig. 7), enabling 
each set of seven 4j in. by 4| in. sections to be inverted 
separately at will when full 
sheets of foundation are not 
used. I, however, prefer 
to fill the section with 
foundation, which gives a 
comb more perfect than a 
starter only, followed by in- 
version. The sections are 
securely keyed in position 
that the crate may be used 
Fig- 7. on end with the large frames 

and also to aid in 'throwing' out the bees without 






Fig. 8. 



handling each section separately, though if supers be 
removed during the middle of the day a little smoke 



SG 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 24, 1887. 




will generally clear out most of the bees then at 
home. 

The large hive is (Figs. 8 and 9 A) 10 in. by 19 in. 
outside, and is arranged to take either the 17 in. or 
15g in. top bars of the Standard frame, as in AB. With- 
out any alteration 
it also takes our 
large frames (Fig. 
10), which have 
their ' lugs ' placed 
down the side on 
the same level as 
those of a standard 
frame : thus they 
stand 51 in. higher, 
but to economise 
heat above the clus- 
ter and also to en- 
sure that the)' hang 
' true ' it has been 
necessary to make 
these frames close- 
ended above the 
level of the side 
walls upon which 
they rest. The hive 
is double-walled, and packed with cork -dust on two 
sides. For my own use I retain the same dimensions, 
but at the front (south) wall have no space between the 
double lining (Fig. D) ; and as the hive and floor are 
square the entrance can be placed in any position in re- 
lation to the frames. This floor is also invertible and a 
permanent feeder, with circular flight holes. I prefer 
this to any other arrangement but can allow the sliding 
entrance as generally used if desired. 

The large frames (Fig. 10) are set at If in. from centre 
to centre as we have found this the best for a fixed 
distance with a frame of this 
size, because in winter the 
cluster can be compact with- 
out spreading the combs, and 
the large surface of comb ad- 
mits of sufficient stores being 
placed within easy reach of the 
same; in summer it presents 
the same advantage of con- 
traction that I have practised 
with various frames for the 
past ten years. Hence it is shown that few manipula- 
tions are necessary, and, when handled, one frame stands 
as two of the ' Standard ' size. 

The extracting super, with its frames keyed in position, 
was designed in the first instance to accommodate a new 
mode of extracting ; the fixed combs, also enabling those 
bees to be ' thrown ' out which smoking fails to drive 
down. No alteration is made in the distance from centre 
to centre of the shallow frames, when the same are used 
on a separate stand as a brood-chamber as well, as this 
arrangement permits of plenty of stores for winter, and 
more room for the bees to cluster between, as in this case 
the bee-nest is spread out horizontally instead of in an 
upward direction as in the deep frame. Thus, to suit 
their own particular formation, the deep and shallow 
chambers are each arranged to meet all necessary con- 
ditions without further manipulations. 

"Where the large frames are not desired the outer ease 
will do for giving protection to the small hive, or the latter 
can stand all the year round without other protection. 

There are no plinths used anywhere about the hives, 
but the upper edge of each chamber has a ^-inch rabbet 
cut out all round the outside, thus forming a gutter to 
carry off any moisture and making it impossible for the 
same to penetrate into the hive. 

The small hive has no dummies, but the larger one has 
one dry-sugar feeding dummy, and ono plain dummy 




Fig. 10. 



supplied with it ; or two original dry-feeding dummies if 
Standard frames only are wanted. 

All parts of the hives are tongued and grooved, 
so as to come correct to guage, that any one may 
buy in the flat and put them together at home. 

I have been fully 
aware that the 
greatest obstacle in 
the way of intro- 
ducing another 
frame would have 
been the loss of 
uniformity, seeing 
that the ' Stan- 
dard' is so gener- 
ally used, simply 
because it is the 
' Standard,' and 
for that reason 
has been recom- 
mended by many, 
myself among the 
number, before I 
was really aware 
that I was using it 
at a serious loss. I 
have accordingly ensured that the present hive will, with- 
out alteration, take in the same body (14A in. space) my 
new large frame, the ' Standard ' frame with either 17 in. 
or 15j in. top bar, the crate of twenty-one sections as one 
large frame, the shallow chamber of eight frames as a 
combined frame ; and, moreover, that the large frames 
may be used in any existing Standard hive, the latter 
also serving as a cover or shelter to the shallow hive, when 
used independently. Hence the hive is very appro- 
priately called the ' Union,' or ' Universal.' — S. Simmins. 



A DISCOURAGED ONE. 

[831.] I have received (on Saturday) my first dis- 
couragement in bee-keeping, and in the midst of my 
trouble I turn to you, in the hope that I may receive 
some small crumb of comfort. 1 may say that I had 
anticipated your appeal to the teachers of schools to take 
up the ' hobby,' and this gave me the more satisfaction 
to see the appeal. I had always a burning desire to be 
the possessor of at least one or two hives, but up till last 
back-end I was in the dark how to procure a hive. 

Accident, however, threw an opportunity in my way ; 
a friend, who had just made a good start, having to 
dispose of his stock by order of his employer. To make 
a long story short, I bought a swarm which had come 
away in May, and which my friend had hived in a box 
hive (not frame). My friend is one of the old school, on 
the verge of conversion, but a most enthusiastic bee- 
keeper withal. I lend him my Journals each week, and 
they do a great amount of good, as there are a few of 
the old school here. Of course I cannot presume to 
educate them yet. To contiuue my story : — The hive is 
a box, with a hole in the crown for supering, and is 
enclosed in a substantial case, which I have packed with 
chaff, and the whole has been kept 'dry as a bone.' 
During the long spell of snow my friend paid me a visit, 
with the sorrowful news that a neighbour had lost his 
stock (a weak one) through the ravages of mice, which 
had ' cleared the shop ' of every bee. He thought it 
advisable to have a peep at my stock, to see how they 
appeared to be stocked. Of course, I need not say that 
he could not see much by talcing off the bit of board 
which covered the hole, but he advised me to give them 
some syrup ; and being onty too thankful for advice, I 
gave about a pint, when I saw a warning against feeding 
with syrup in the Journal, and I at once discontinued. 
It occurred to me at the time that surely a swarm 
coming so early as May ought to be sufficiently stored, 



February 24, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



87 



even in a poor honey season, when thej' had been allowed 
to keep all their takings. I hope I have shown wisdom 
in deciding to let them alone till late next month, i.e., if 
I have any left. As you now know the particulars with 
respect to the constitution of my apiary (?), I will now 
tell my tale of woe. During the prevalence of the late 
cold and boisterous winds, I have kept the sliding doors 
closed up to about one bee-space. On Saturday last we 
had a grand spell of sunshine, though the wind was very 
cold. I left home for the day, leaving things as usual, 
and on Sunday, on taking a walk round my garden, I 
was staggered to see about a score dead bees lying in 
front of the hive. But oh, worse still. I opened the 
doors, and to my great horror I found the entrance 
crowded with dead or dying pets. The thought of it 
makes me ill when I recall it. I should think there were 
about one hundred dead, or dying. I cleared the entrance, 
of course, but I shudder to think of what may be the state 
inside. Can you account for it ? "What am I to do ? 
I look about for some to advise me, but alas ! I will 
await my next issue of the Journal with impatience. 
Perhaps, if I stop here, you will permit me to write to 
you again. I wish that box-hive far enough. Please 
give me a good dose of advice, but pray don't call me 
knobstick, and tell me to go out of the business. — 
Discoueaged, Alderley, Creioe. 

[The syrup you gave during the frost would not have 
much effect upon the bees until warmer weather came. 
' The grand spell of sunshine' aroused the semi-dormant 
bees, and, partaking freely of the syrup, excitement 
followed, when, rushing to the narrow entrance, a block 
took place, and many were suffocated. Your discovery 
of the state of things on the following day was fortunate, 
and, in all probability, saved the colony. Raise the hive 
from the floor-board about an inch, by gently inserting 
wedges on four sides, when you can clear out the dead 
bees and refuse by inserting a piece of stout wire, with 
hook at end. If you find piles of dead on the board, 
turn up the hive and ascertain whether the whole have 
perished. If you find few dead— say a hundred or two — 
clear them out, lower the hive gently to the board, keep 
the entrance at full summer width, not less than six 
inches, and give a cake of warm candy at the feed-hole. 
We do not think, however, that you will find the bees 
short of food, but you ought to be able to discover this 
by lifting the hive, and if you turn it up j'ou may as- 
certain, to a certainty ,their state. — Ed.] 



EXPERIENCE OF A NOVICE. 

[832.] Being a novice at bee-keeping, I should like to 
be allowed to give you my experience during the last 
two years, so that I may have the assistance of your 
valuable paper ere another season comes upon us. 

I must begin by stating that I live in a neighbourhood 
not particularly well suited to bees, being near the sea, 
where high winds are prevalent, and the fields around 
chiefly occupied by broccoli and potatoes. "Within a 
a distance, however, of from two or three miles there is 
a large quantity of both heather and gorse. Two years 
ago I commenced bee-keeping with three stocks, and did 
remarkably well, taking no less than 70 lbs. of honey 
from one hive and forty-eight sections from another. 
This determined me to increase my stocks, which I did 
in the autumn by means of driven bees. I opened the 
season last year with twelve stocks, expecting, before the 
summer ended, to take a large amount of surplus honey. 
Alas ! I was doomed to disappointment. Up to the 
third week in June the bees did wonders. My hives 
were literally crammed with bees, all my hives were 
either doubled or had two tiers of sections. One hive I 
doubled and in addition added three crates of 21-lb. 
sections, and the whole were taken possession of by the 
bees. All seemed to be going on swimmingly until the 
end of June, when the honey flow almost ceased for the 



season. I took a little honey from a few of the hives, 
but in August, when I came to examine the brood-nests, 
I found they were all empty, and the greater number of 
the sections were unfinished. I had to give each hive in 
the autumn 16 lbs. of syrup, and I found by October 
that hives which had contained enough bees to cover 
twenty frames only contained sufficient to cover six or 
seven." I successfully introduced, late in the season, a 
Carniolan and a Ligurian queen, by following Mr, 
Simmins' directions. 

My stocks are at present all alive though not strong, 
covering about four frames on an average. I may say 
that I used no excluder zinc, so that the queens (all 
young ones) were able to roam about at leisure. I shall 
be very glad if any of your correspondents can tell me 
wherein I erred, and how I should act for the future. 

My own idea is that the queens raised too large a 
number of bees, and that towards the end of the season, 
the honey harvest failing, this large number of bees 
exhausted the gathered stores, and then numbers of them 
perished prematurely, from having to range long distances 
in search of the sweets of life. Had I used excluder 
zinc, and confined the queen to so many frames, say ten 
or twelve, I believe the results would have been more 
satisfactory. I shall be grateful for any help your kind 
readers may be able to give me. — Rjquieeb. 

[There does not seem to have been any honey in your 
district after June, consequently when the flow ceased 
breeding also ceased, and we think you erred in not at 
this time removing your sections. If your colonies did 
not develope to their full strength before the honey flow 
commenced they could not store any, but in your case 
there does not seem to have been much honey to store 
when they had become strong. East season was a bad 
one in most districts, and the one before an exceptionally 
good one. As brood-rearing with you ceased so soon it 
is not surprising that your colonies dwindled down by 
October. Breeding should have been encouraged by 
stimulative feeding, so as to have had a large number of 
bees to commence the winter with. The old bees died 
off naturally, and, unless breeding had been kept up, 
restricting the queen to a certain number of frames 
would not have assisted you. — Ed.] 



A VOICE FROM SUSSEX. 
[833.] We are very, very sorry to inform you that the 
queen of our hive has been missing for a very long time, 
and we cannot tell what has become of her majesty. 
We are rather afraid that she has perished with her hive, 
for she had nothing but drones there. Could her parents 
tell us what we are to do, and where we might get 
another queen ? Or, if the parents have another young 
princess to spare, we would gladly accept her as our 
queen, providing she will stay at home and attend to 
the duties of the hive. We do not mind what breed, or 
what colour, or what country, she may come from, pro- 
vided she does not lay too many drones' eggs. Tell her 
there is plenty of good honey in Sussex, and plenty of 
good working bees, but no store-room. We will start 
the new hive with worker-comb foundation. — A Foeest 
Bee, Sussex. - 

A VOICE FROM CUMBERLAND. 

[834.] I am rather inclined to think that the Cumber- 
land Bee-keepers' Association is in a somewhat similar 
position to that of the Yorkshire. Why such slow pro- 
gress has been made I am unable to say, unless it is that 
those who should have been the principal workers are 
satisfied with the little knowledge they have got, and do 
not care to let it be known amongst their more unfortu- 
nate neighbours. I wish to ask the chief actors, or 
rather those who should have taken the more active part, 
why they did not continue and keep it on the move 
when there was every prospect of the Association doing 



88 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[February 24, 1887 



so well. At the commencement — that is, in 1883 — 
some of those who took an interest in it did exert them- 
selves a little in getting the Association into a workahle 
form, and the number of members in a very short time 
was upwards of seventy. After the autumn of 1884 
nothing more was done, or very little. Since then all 
has been darkness, and whether the Association is really 
dead or alive I know not ; but there need be no wonder 
about it getting into such a low state when we 
have not a doctor in the county who is willing to come 
forward and give his advice, and try to stop the course 
of the disease. I have never once heard of a resi- 
dent bee-keeper in Cumberland giving a lecture on bee- 
keeping, except a cottage bee-keeper at Keswick ; and I 
believe this is the only place where the annual meetings 
have been kept up. It appears that we have not got 
the right sort of workers in Cumberland who are willing 
to give a helping hand now that it is so much needed. 
We have in this county a very large number of bee- 
keepers, and most of these keep their bees on the old 
barbarous system. I think by this time, if those con- 
nected with the Association had acted up to the spirit 
in which it was formed, some scores of those might have 
been induced to keep their bees on the humane prin- 
ciple. We have had neither lectures nor shows, except 
one tour through the neighbourhood by Mr. White and 
another by Mr. Sissons. After these gentlemen had 
livened things up a little I looked for some of our own 
members to follow their example. I see in the list of 
members the names of either seven or eight clergymen. 
Surely one might think that out of this number some of 
those reverend gentlemen would have taken a little 
more interest in it, and not allowed it to be neglected as 
it has been. We want a Kaynor or a Bligh amongst us. 
If this had been the case Cumberland would have been 
in a more flourishing state than it is at the present time. 
I hope that another attempt will shortly be made to 
revive the Association, and not let it be said that a 
cottage bee-keeper is the only one that is anxious for the 
future prosperity of the Cumberland Bee-keepers' Asso- 
ciation. — Worker Bee. 

gleplus t0 $mxm. 

*.* In their answers, Correspondents are respectfully requested to 
mention in each instance the number and the title of the query ashed. 

[818.]— In reply to ' E. E. Lloyd,' I have had some ex- 
perience in varnishes, and I do not think there is any 
varnish or polish made (we must remember they are only 
gums in solution) that will withstand the salts or chemicals 
held in solution in water. To prove my assertion, let any 
one try the effect of a good strong solution of soda in water 
on any varnish or polish, be it on wood or your hands, and 
they will soon see how rapidly the gums are decomposed ; 
but they must not neutralise the soda by the addition of 
Boap. I should recommend him to treat his vessel as I am 
doing Clark's patent feeder. I make them hot, and pour 
Borne melted beeswax in. It will not break off, and is just 
the thing. — W. T. Green. 

[82G.] Crates of Thirty-five Sections. (West Somer- 
set.) — Nothing is gained by having so many sections in one 
rack ; the weight of rack is increased, this being a great 
consideration. A portion of the rack would have to be 
enclosed underneath, as it would more than cover the right 
number of frames for a brood-nest, hence there would be a 
great loss of heat. Work your bees on the storifying 
principle, not laterally, you will not be then far wrong. — 
W. B. Webster. 

[827.] Moveable Frame-Hive. (Douglas.)— To Major 
Munn is ascribed the making of the first moveable frame- 
hive, this being considered a failure, the date being 1841. 
Ten years after, Langstroth so improved on it as to make 
it practicable. — W. B. Webster. 

[827.] The Frame-Hive. — The moveable comb frame 
hive was introduced and improved upon by Mr. Langstroth 
about 1852.— J. D. McNally. 



[827.] Inventor of Moveable Frame Hive. (Douglas.) — 
Huber is credited as being inventor of moveable frame (top 
bar) ; but Langstroth improved it by adding the end rails 
and bottom bar ; although it appears to have been in use 
as early as 1675-6 by Geo. Wealer, as one author says, 
and probably even then an old invention. — Edward 
Clowes. 

[828.] Glass Hive. — About the first mention we have of 
glass hives were those used by Mr. Maraldi about the year 
1777 for the purpose of watching how bees paired. Many 
conjectures regarding the pairing of bees have been pub- 
lished ; one of the most ingenious appears to have been 
suggested by Aristotle, and revived by Maraldi, the cele- 
brated inventor of glass hives. — John D. McNally. 

[828.] Glass Hive. (Douglas.) — Such a thing I have 
never heard of ; if you mean an observatory hive, that is, a 
hive having glass inserted in portions of it for the purposes 
of observation, the first record that I can find is Huber. — 
W. B. Webster. 

[829.] Poisonous Honey. (Douglas.) — According to my 
experiences, poisonous honey produced in England is a 
myth ; I never trouble my head about such a thing when 
eating any description of English honey. Your second 
query has puzzled the greatest scientists, and cannot be 
satisfactorily answered. How is it that the goat, for 
instance, will eat leaves and thrive on them, whereas a 
horse, doing the same, would be killed? To bring it 
nearer to the subject, How is it that a very few people cannot 
eat honey, as it produces nausea ? It doesn't with me. — 
W. B. Webster. 



umz&, 



Queries and Answers are inserted free of charge to Correspondents 
When more than one query is sent, each should be on a separate piece 
oj paper. 

Our readers will greatly oblige us by answering, as far as their know- 
ledge and observations permit, the Correspondents who seek assistance. 
Answers should always bear the number and title placed against the 
query replied to. Any queries unanswered in this way will be answered 
by the Editor and others. 

[835.] Artificial Swarming.— Who is reputed to be the 
first that practised artificial swarming ? — Edward Clowes. 

[836.] Quieting Bees. — "Who was the first that found out 
a method of quieting bees through the influence of smoke ? 
— Edward Clowes. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS. 

All queries forwarded will be attended to, and those only of personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

Letters or queries ashing for addresses of manufacturers or correspon- 
dents, or where appliances can be purchased, or replies giving such 
information, can only be inserted as advertisements. The space 
devoted to letters, queries, and replies, is meant for the general good of 
bee-heepers, and not for advertisements. We wish our Correspondents 
to bear in mind that, as it is necessary for its to go to press in advance 
of the date of issue, queries cannot always be replied to in the issue 
immediately following the receipt of their communication. 

E. Shotter. — Fowls. — Fowls rerely attack bees. Ours 
have the range of the apiary, and we have never seen 
them attack the bees. The most they do is to pick up 
an occasional drone when it comes across their path. 

Cottager. — Extracting. — It is better not to extract from 
combs of the year, at least before the autumn, by which 
time they have generally become tough enough for 
extracting. The American flat-bottomed wired founda- 
tion is the best for the purpose. If this is used there 
will be no danger of breakage towards autumn, with 
ordinary care. We never use excluder zinc. If brood is 
deposited in the upper storeys it is easy to remove it to 
the brood-nest below, and to remove the outer combs of 
honey from the lower to the upper chambers. Excluder 
zinc disheartens the bees, and hinders free and hearty 
work. At least this is our experience, but it has its 
advocates, which are more numerous in America than in 
England. Wiring the frames, with a view to extracting, 
is better even than wired foundation. If your colonies 
are strong, when the honey season arrives, you may 
safely insert two or three frames of foundation, in each 
of your colonies, close to the brood-nest, and remove the 
frames displaced by these— provided they are free from 



February 24, 1887.] 



THE BEITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



89 



brood — to the upper chambers. These frames of foun- 
dation will be utilised for brood, since queens prefer, 
above all things, to deposit eggs in newly-built worker 
comb. 

A. W. — 1. The sugar forwarded is not suitable for dry 
sugar feeding ; Porto Rico is the best. 2. Enamel cloth, 
like sample, will answer your purpose. 3. For syrup- 
making, Sir. Simmius uses Dutch crushed sugar, which, 
we note, he recommends in his advertisement to his 
customers; it answers its purpose well, but we prefer 
Duncan's Pearl or crystallized sugar. 

Ignoramus. — 1. Age of Queens. — The first swarm, which 
you had in June, 1885, would have a queen of 1884. 
When that stock, No. 1, swarmed in June, 1S86, the 
queen went with the swarm, No. 2 ; the second swarm 
had a young queen, No. 3 ; thus No. 1 and No. 3 have 
each a queen one year old, and No. 2 a queen three 
years old (unless she had been superseded by the bees, 
which is sometimes the case). 2. American Bee-keepers' 
Magazine may be procured from Mr. Huckle, King's 
Langley, or from Messrs. Aspinwall & Treadwell, 
Barrington-on-Hudson, New York. 3. Symington's Pea 
Flour. — Yes, that will do very well for artificial pollen. 
4. Measurements of Hive. — The only measurements 
which need be kept to are the width from side to side, 
144; in., and the depth from the edge of sides on 
which the frames rest to the floor-board, which must be 
8A in. The length of the hive is a matter of detail, and 
regulated according to the number of frames you intend 
to use. 20 in. for a single hive is a very convenient 
length. Refer to pp. 60 and 69, Yol. XIV. 5. Queen- 
wasps. — It is early to see these upon the wing. Carrying 
pollen would show that the stock carrying it in has com- 
menced brood-raising. 

J. C. I. — 1. Inverting Sections. — The object in inverting 
sections is not so much getting them filled quickly as 
having them fixed to the bottom securely. Turning 
them on one side would only accomplish this in a partial 
degree. Before trying either plan read ' Amateur Ex- 
pert's ' note in a recent issue. The advantage of re- 
versing is very doubtful. 2. Wire-cloth Mesh. — Wire- 
cloth of ^-inch mesh is used by a few bee-keepers in 
America, and the inventor claims great results through 
the bees being able to form a solid cluster. This, how- 
ever, like many other new ideas, requires proving before 
it can be recommended. 

J. B. S. — Bee Space between Bottom Bar and Floor-board. — 
Let there be y^ths of an inch only between the bottom bar 
of your frames and the floor-board of your hive, whether 
you use metal ends or not. This reply meets both your 
queries. 

East Lothian. — Transferring.— We suggest that you should 
stimulate the bees in the skeps, and get swarms from 
them as early as possible, and transfer twenty-one days 
after swarming. For method of transferring consult 
Modern Bee-keeping or Cowan's Beekeepers' Guide. 

A. F. — Summer Shade for Hives. — If the hives are single- 
walled it is very necessary that they be shaded in some 
way or other during the hot summer weather, otherwise 
the bees are likely to swarm. If the temperature rises 
rapidly above 95° swarming is induced, and this may be 
brought about if the hive is fully exposed to the sun, 
and its rays strike directly the thin walls of the hive. 
If the bees are not ready to swarm they spend a great 
deal of their time outside when they ought to be working 
inside. Double walls are a protection. We do not think 
you have quite understood the outer cases alluded to. 
The hive we use is not double-walled, but by means of 
the outer eases we make it so. The hive itself, which 
has no top or bottom, stands on the floor-board, and the 
outer cases surround it. In winter the space between 
the hive and outer casing is filled witli chaff, which is 
removed in the summer, and allows a free circulation 
of air between the two, especially if the latter be wedged 
up to allow the air to enter at the bottom. The outer 
cases are made of four boards nine inches deep, and are 
exactly like the hive, or like a box without top or bottom. 
They are made of half-inch stuff, and have a plinth 
round the lower edge, so that when one is put on the 
top of the other they are kept in position. One can be 
placed above the other to any height, and the loose roof 



is then placed above them, just as is shown in the illusd 
tration on p. 12, which also shows the four hives plaoe s 
one above the other surrounded by the four outer case, 
and covered by the sloping roof. With 
such hives there are too many bees to 
allow any snails to congregate ; but bees 
do use the space between, more espe- 
cially at night, when they do not find 
room inside the hive. In very hot wea- 
ther we put the outer cases one on the 
top of the other in such a way that there 
is an outlet for the air between each. The sketch we give 
will illustrate our meaning. The shaded part represents 
the hive, and the outer lines the casings, as seen when 
looking down upon them from the top. 




Trade Catalogues. — We have received Trade Catalogues 
from Messrs. G. Stothard, Welwyn, Herts ; T. B. Blow, 
Welwyn ; E. C. Walton, Muskham ; Simmins, Brighton. 

.©how ^Announcements. 

July 11-15. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huckle, Kings Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Rickards, Poole, near Leeds. 



business ^Directory. 



HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Road, Bristol. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Burtt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 

Edet & Son, St. Neots. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Hutchings, A. F., St. Mary Cray, Kent. 

Meadham, M, Huntington, Hereford. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King William St., Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Simmins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J. , Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H,, Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[Feb. 24, 1887. 



MANIPULATE WITHOUT SMOKE I 



WEBSTER'S FUMIGATOR 

Entirely supersedes the Smoker, both in Simplicity and 
Effectiveness. No ' going out.' No tainting or soiling of 
combs. Always ready for use without any preparation. 
Can be carried in the pocket. 

With Bellows, 4s. 6d. ; postage, 4W. 

Without Bellows, 3s. ; postage, 3d. 

Can be adjusted to any ordinary smoker bellows. 

6 oz. Bottles of Agent— carbolic acid, oil of tar, and water, 

properly mixed — 6d. each. 



WEBSTER'S SWIVEL FRAME- LIFTER 

WILL BE READY SHORTLY. 
With this appliance, frames can be removed from hive, 
replaced and examined on both sides without inverting, with 
one hand, leaving the other free for manipulating, at the 
same time preventing soiling the hands with propolis. 

W. B. WEBSTER, 

SOLE MANUFACTURER AND INVENTOA, 

WOKINGHAM, BEBKS. 

AWARDS FOR FUMIGATORS LAST SEASON. 
1st Prize Silver Medal, Royal Counties' Agricultural Show. 

Highest Award, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London. 
2nd Prize Bronze Medal, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 
London. 
2nd Prize Altrincham, Lancashire and Cheshire B. K. A. ' 

LYON'S Patent METAL EM 

The only perfect pattern. The metal being flush with 
the inside of the Hive side, CANNOT BE FIXED TO IT 
BY PROPOLIS. All the so-called Improvements CAN. 

The Special Alloy used allows them to be LIGHT YET 
STRONG. One gross weighs 5£ lbs. 

Price for 1887 5/Q per gross. 

DR. PINE'S VEILS. 

Prize Medal, 1879, for the best Bee Dress, The only 
Medal ever awarded to a Veil, 2/2 each, post free. Every 
genuine Veil bears the Registered Trade Mark. 

DR. PINE'S LOTION. 

The ONLY CURE for Stings, 1/8 per botlle, post free. 



CHESHIRE CCTXS.XS. 

Guaranteed, with Directions, 1/2 per bottle, post free. 

METHYL SALICYLATE, or ' APIFUGE.' 

1 oz. bottle, post free, 1/8. 

HIVE MAKERS supplied with SPRINGS, GLASSES for 

Sections, PHENOL, METHYL SALICYLATE, in bulk, 

&c, &c, at lowest prices. 

F. LYON, 94 Harleyford Rcl., London, S^E. 

M?Q> DEALERS. 

SEND to A. P. Hutchtngs for quotations of 
AMERICAN WHITE BASSWOOD ONE-PIECE 
SECTIONS of the finest manufacture and quality, 300,000 
will shortly be on hand. Special terms for all Orders 
before March 25. Don't fail to get my prices before you 
Order elsewhere ! Address, West Kent Steam Power Hive 
Works, St. Mary Cray, Kent. 



s 



% 



THE WINDSOR BEE-KEEPER'S 
Choice Selected Collection of 

if $&ewBsts 

SOUGHT AFTER BY BEES. Free by post, 2/6. 

SOLD BY (102) 

JOHN SMITH, The Royal Nursery, Clewer, Windsor, Berks. 

CHAPM AN HONEY PLANT. 

I WILL send to any address 26 varieties of BEE- 
ELOWER SEEDS, including the Noted CHAPMAN 
HONEY PLANT, for 2s. post paid. GARDEN SEEDS.— 
I will send 21 packets of Garden Seeds to any address for 
2s. Sd. post paid. BAR-FRAME HIVES with Straw 
bodies, the hive least affected by heat or cold. My Hives 
and Appliances are all forwarded carriage paid, and re- 
turnable if not approved on arrival. Please send your 
address on post-card, and I will send Descriptive and 
Priced Catalogue post free. Address John Moore, Seed 
Merchant, Market Place, and Prospect Farm, Warwick. 

iTiARLY BEE FLOWERS. — Plant now. — 
[i Strong Plants of ARABIS and L1MNANTHES, 1/9 
per 100, free. Address S. S. Goldsmith, Boxworth, St. 
Ives, Hunts. 

Sectional view of New Patent Bee Feeder. 



Simple, Safe, Clean ! 

Unrivalled for Summer 
Feeding. No excitement. 
No robbing. 

Note bottom of 
feeding flask brought 
within reach of Bees, 
also how quarter inch 

No waste of syrup. 




An Improved Slide for 1SS7. 
Stocks may now be fed in 
the coldest weather, with- 
out fear of chill. 

cavity crossing the 
combs gives safe 
and easy access to 
all the cluster. 

No metallic surface. 



See Advt. next week. Price Is. Gd. each, complete. 

Send P.0.0. to Patentee, J. P. HOPKINS, Milverton, Somerset. 



SUGAR. 



. Having had many enquiries from 

those who cannot obtain the right 

kind, wc now offer Genuine PORTO RICO, on rail at 
Brighton, 21s. per cwt., lis. 56-lbs., 5s. 9d. 28-lbs. DUTCH 
CRUSHED, best for Syrup, 22s. 6d. per cwt., lis. dd. 56-lbs., 
6s. 28-lbs. Quantities of not less than 2 cwt. of Dutch 
Crushed, direct from London, at 19s. 6rf. per cwt. ; not less 
than 10 cwt. Porto Rico, at 18s. For Cash only with Order. 
No Samples sent, as we recommend only what we would 
use ourselves. Subject to fluctuations in Market. 

Address: Simmins' Factory, Brighton. (161 



QKEPS, FOUNDATION", &c. 

*"» 1 lb. 2/- or 1/10. 

Dealers and others apply for List (110 Illustrations), 
G. STOTHARD, WELWYN, HERTS, a 2321 

O CREW CAP JARS.— Fifty 2-gross Cases of 
O new Straight Shape 1-lb. JARS to be Sold at a great 
reduction, together or separately. Address Feedk. Pear- 
son, Stockton Heath, Warrington. 

FOR SALE.— OBSERVATORY and FRAME 
HIVES, STOCK FOUNDATION and FOUNDATION 
MACHINE, with SECTION CRATES and FRAMES, to 
bo sold cheap. Apply to C. Cust, 3 Temple Terrace, 
Dorchester. a 2347 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Stbangbways' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c.' 



[No. 245. Vol. XV.] 



MARCH 3. 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



$bHoriaI, Ifalias, #c 



OUR WAX AND HONEY IMPORTS. 

Having been enabled in our last issue, through 
the kindness of E. H. Bellairs, Esq., Hon. Sec. of 
the Hants and Isle of Wight Bee-keepers' Associa- 
tion, to give the returns of the value of honey 
imported into the United Kingdom during the 
past year, and as we are now, by the official pub- 
lication of the 'Annual Statement of the Trade of the 
United Kingdom with Foreign Countries for 1885,' 
in possession of the amount and value of the im- 
ports of wax for that year, we are in a position to 
compare these data with those of the respective 
preceding years. 

The subjoined tabular statement specifies the 
foreign countries and the British possessions from 
which wax is exported, with the amount and value 
of the same : — 

evets. £ 

Germany 10,749 29,054 

France 1,244 6,088 

Portugal 965 5,523 

Italy 666 3,978 

Morocco 964 5,287 

China 778 2,354 

Japan 6,115 12,883 

United States of America ... 2,911 17,639 

Chile 499 3,461 

Brazil 5,605 17,886 

Other Foreign Countries ... 1,432 4,126 

Total from Foreign Countries 

West African Settlements ... 
British Possessions in South 

Africa 
Mauritius 

British East Indies ... 
Hong Kong ... 
Australasia ... 

British West Indies 

Other British Possessions ... 

Total from British Possessions 

Total ... 38,925 149,253 

It will be seen from the above that the mean 
value of wax per cwt. is 31. 16s. &d.; in the previous 
year it was 3/. 14s. 10c?. There has been a con- 
siderable increase in the amount received from the 
British possessions over the previous years. Wax 



is of various kinds — vegetable, mineral, and insect 
— and from the preceding statement of the value, 
we are able to deduce the nature, of the wax 
imported. That from Japan is 2/. 2s. 1<7. per cwt.; 
from Germany, 21. 14s.; from China, 3/. 0s. 9d. ; 
wdiile that from Italy fetched 51. 19s. 5cl; from 
the United States, 67. Is. -2d.; and that from 
the British possessions averaged 5/. 17s. 3rf. We 
note that Holland, which figured as a contributor 
in the previous year, is absent from the list this 
year ; while China and South Africa, which were 
absent the previous year, appear this year as large 
importers. 

The following statement gives the value and 
amount of the wax exported from the United 
Kingdom to the respective countries : — 

cwts. £ 

1,342 4,825 

3,561 13,827 



31,928 


108,279 


291 


1,737 


1,286 

2,040 

903 


7,659 

11,776 

5,465 


625 

892 

1,012 


1,770 
5,367 
6,921 


48 


279 


6,997 


40,974 



Russia ... 

Germany 

France 

Other Foreign Countries 
British Possessions 



1,409 

3,573 

443 



5,044 

11,918 

1,092 



10,328 36,706 
Comparing the quantities of wax imported during 
the two preceding years, the results are, — 
1883. 1884. 1885. 

28,192 cwt. 28,258 cwt, 38,925 cwt. 

The value of the above for the same years is, — 

97,142?. 105,8131. 149,253/. 

While the amount of the wax exported for the same 
years is, — 

12,504 cwt. 10,378 cwt, 10,328 cwt. 

And the value thereof, — 

41,339/. 36,437/. 36,706/. 

From a comparison of the above we see that 
there was a considerable increase in the import of 
wax during the year 1885 over that in 1884, while 
that re-exported during the same years has almost 
remained stationary. It is evident that if it would 
pay bee-keepers to direct their attention to the 
production of wax together with that of honey, — 
and we see that many practical bee-keepers are so 
doing, — there would be a market for it in this 
country. The amount of wax used in the produc- 
tion of comb-foundation by manufacturers alone 
is very large, and an attempt should be made 
by bee-keepers to raise a larger quantity in pro- 
portion to its requirements. The British Honey 
Company have done much in increasing the pro- 



92 



THE BRITISH BEE JOUBNAL. 



[March 3, 1887. 



duction of honey : could they not also find it to 
their interest to stimulate the expansion of that 
of wax? 

In our last number Mr. Bellairs gave us, so far 

as ho was able, the value of the imports of honey 

for last year and that of the three preceding years. 

The values for 1S84, 1885, and 1886 are,— 

1884. 1885. 1886. 

62,357/. 61,344/. 25,146/. 

Those of 1884 and 1885 are approximate only, 
and those of 1886 do not include the honey sent 
through Colonial Governments to the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition. 

For some years past we have been indebted to 
S. Seldon, Esq., of the Statistical Office, Customs, 
and to Mr. Bellairs, for the information that has 
appeared so regularly in our pages of the value 
of the monthly imports of honey into the United 
Kingdom ; and we are sure that bee-keepers are 
fully sensible of their indebtedness to those 
gentlemen for the trouble they have so kindly 
taken. From January, 1886, the imports and 
exports of honey will be found in the 'Annual 
Statement of Trade with Foreign Countries.' As, 
however, this Statement does not usually appear 
before the month of September, we are pleased to 
be assured by Mr. Bellairs that he will continue 
his good offices by forwarding month by month the 
accounts as he has done in previous years. 



USEFUL HINTS. 

Weather. — During the last fortnight the weather 
has continued cold, cheerless, and changeable, and our 
bees have been entirely confined to their hives, with the 
exception of one fine day which enabled them to fly 
freely and to display their numbers. 'All things come 
to those who wait,' and 'Post nubila Phccbus' is a true 
proverb in more senses than one. Soon, therefore, shall 
we realise that— 

. . . ' Day by day 
New pollen on the lily petal grows, 
And still more labyrinthine buds the rose.' 

Country Life.— After our experience of the dense 
London fog up to noon on the 17th nit., the day after 
our annual meeting, when gas and electric lights failed 
to dispel the gloom, and, unable to decipher the figures 
on the dial-plates, we were compelled to resort to the 
nearest policeman to learn the time, we congratulated 
ourselves in the words of our favourite poet, — 

' fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, 
Agricolas !' 

And choked almost to suffocation, pitying the gasping 
Londoners while contrasting their state of existence 
with that of our own happy country fraternity, we 
exclaimed in fullness of heart, — 

' We possess the flowers and trees, 

Modern hives and golden bees ; 

Fruit and nectar, both divine, 

We shall reap at harvest time.' 

And, finding on reaching our quiet country home, with 
its hive-scattered lawns and shrubberies, that the day 
had been one of brilliant sunshine, we were more than 
ever impressed with the truth of the old saying, ' God 
made the country, man made the town.' 

Enamel cloth and Hive-covering. — Although we 
have repeatedly explained the way in which we use the 
enamc 1 cloth as a coveringfor hives, weare constantly asked 
for information thereon. Indeed the reiteration we are 



compelled to use in this, our department — reiteration of 
methods of management, facts, advice, So., &c, many of 
which have been ever present to our minds for well-nigh 
half acentury, and haverepeatedlyappeared in the columns 
of our Journal, is one of our most irksome tasks ; and yet, 
with the knowledge that all this repetition is absolutely 
necessary, we must not shirk a duty so obvious, asking 
only that our readers will exercise a little patience and 
forbearance towards our wanderings into ' devious paths 
and pastures new.' The enamel cloth we always use is 
American, and we place the enamelled or glazed side 
downwards upon the frames. These American cloths 
are sold by most English dealers in two sizes to suit 
small and large hives, and are neatly bound on two sides 
with strips of tin. In making winter preparations wa 
place several thicknesses of felt, carpet, chaff-cushions, 
or both, upon the enamel cloth, and over all a weighted 
crown-board. These prevent all escape of heat, and we 
have wintered upwards of fifty colonies during the 
recent severe winter, and brought them safely through — 
thus far — without a single loss. The interiors of the 
hives are perfectly dry, combs and all, and the bees in 
perfect health, without a symptom of dysentery. Our 
apiary occupies a bleak position, some of the hives 
facing east and south-east, and the entrances have been 
kept at summer width, the narrowest being six inches, 
and others the wdiole width of the hive, while severe 
frost and snow, with easterly winds, have prevailed for 
many weeks. 

Spring Examination op Colonies. — Most apiarists 
recommend a thorough examination of all colonies at 
spring. Columella advised that the hives should be 
opened at spring, and all filth which had accumulated 
during the winter should be removed ; and most modern 
bee-keepers follow his advice. Spring is rather a loose 
term, and allows a wide margin as to the precise time of 
this general examination. Our own idea is that the 
middle or end of the present month is soon enough, and 
that it should be performed in fine weather only. The 
colonies should be disturbed as little as possible during 
the examination, and to this end we prefer the use of 
diluted carbolic acid in preference to smoke. (See Modern 
Bee-keeping, p. 29.) An old calico or woollen quilt steeped 
in the solution, and laid over the frames of the hive will 
effectually quiet the bees, when operations may be com- 
menced. A spare hive and floor-board, perfectly dry 
and clean, should be placed on the stand of the hive 
under examination, the latter having been removed a 
couple of feet to one side. Leave the brood-nest until 
last, removing the surrounding frames on both sides one 
by one to the new hive. When the next is reached, if 
breeding is in progress, we prefer to transfer the four or 
five frames which compose it without separating them, 
which may easily be done by placing two short laths or 
thick pieces of wire under both ends of the frames and 
removing them altogether. It is not at all necessary to 
' interview ' the queen if you are convinced she is there 
and performing her duties. The outside frames having 
been replaced in their former position, division-boards 
may be applied as required, sealed honey supplied if 
needed, and the quilts returned. The signs of breeding 
will be occasional dead larva? on the floor-board, eggs or 
brood in the comb, vigour and dash of the bees carrying 
in pollen, &c. The emptied hive, when scraped, disin- 
fected, and dried, will be ready for the next operation. 
These manipulations must be performed quietly but 
quickly, giving no chance of robbing, to prevent which 
all frames not under inspection should be covered with 
the carbolised cloth. With a little practice it is surprising 
how quickly these examinations may be accomplished. 
When the enamel sheet is used there is great advantage 
in its lightness, flexibility, and in the non-adherence to 
it of propolis. It may be stripped off the frames quickly, 
and a slight spraying of weak carbolic solution will at 
once keep the bees in check, when it should be allowed 



March 3, 1*87.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL, 



93 



to fall back into its place, and each frame may be un- 
covered separately as required. The condition of the 
colony as regards population, stores, brood, &c, should 
ba noted either on tahlets attached to the hives or in a 
book kept for the purpose, together with the date of 
examination. 

Artificial Pollen, &c. — On every bright day bees 
will now be very busy on the crocus and other spring 
blooms, on which the scattering of pea or other meal will 
greatly assist them. A supply of water must not be 
neglected. Also on bright days remove hive-roofs, or 
covers, turning them up to the sun, but do not forget 
when night comes to replace them. Dislodge spiders, 
their eggs, larvae of moths, &c. 

Coming Campaign. — These matters completed, a 
beginning will have been made for the approaching 
campaign, and bee-keepers and bees will have been 
aroused to make further preparation for reaping a future 
harvest. 

Stimulating. — By 'stimulation' is usually under- 
stood a supply of food given in driblets, generally at 
spring time. The system has its advocates and oppo- 
nents. The former argue that the bees and queen 
perceiving that food is coming in are incited thereby to 
earlier preparation for brood-rearing than would other- 
wise have taken place. The latter, granting this, are of 
opinion that the bees, stimulated to early brood-rearing, 
are induced to leave the hive in search of pollen, water, 
or food at unseasonable times and during the prevalence 
of cold spring winds, and so perish in numbers, being 
chilled and unable to reach their hives, hence follows 
spring dwindling with its attendant evils, until finally 
the colony is often lost. In our opinion spring dwindling 
arises chiefly from another cause, viz., dysentery or 
diarrhoea. The intestines having become diseased by 
improper food, and too low a temperature, the vitality 
of the colony is reduced, and that to so great an extent 
that its members perish while in search of food and in 
the performance of their heavy spring labours. Once 
entered upon the downward road the final catastrophe 
soon follows, the brood-nest becoming circumscribed, no 
matter how prolific the queen may be, it gradually be- 
comes less and less ; eggs laid are neglected or devoured 
owing to the paucity of nurse-bees to incubate them, 
and the end comes through robbery, desertion, or death. 
We have never found judicious feeding of fairly populous 
colonies at spring injurious, but care must be taken to 
feed so sparingly that the brood-nest shall not become a 
repository for food instead of brood. Many colonies 
have at spring more honey than their wants demand. 
In such casus we prefer the repeated uncapping of a few 
cells near the brood-nest to give syrup, the stimulating 
effect being quite as great, and, as the brood is extended, 
the outer clogged honey-combs may be extracted and 
returned to the hive. This plan is productive of more 
extensive and more certain stimulation of brood-rearing 
than any other with which we are acquainted. 

Food Recipe. — The following recipe is recommended 
by Mr. Heddon : — 

'Into a boiling-pan put three pounds of water, heating it 
until it boils, and with a wooden spoon stir the water as 
you sift into it ten pounds of granulated sugar. When it is 
all dissolved, and the syiup is boiling, pour in one half tea- 
eupful of water in which has previously been dissolved a 
level teaspoonful of tartaric acid. Stir it a moment longer, 
and then remove it from the fire. Give the syrup warm 
(not hot).' J L 

For spring use from four to six pounds (say pints) of 
water may be used. Duncan's Pearl sugar we think the 
best of any we have used. For stimulating, a bottle- 
feeder is best, and from two to six holes may be 
used, according to the size and needs of the colony. 
The food should be given warm at night to prevent 
robbing ; and as a further precaution the entrance must 
be contracted. 



Committee Criticised. —Since the work of the 
acting Committee of the B.B.K.A. is often freely can- 
vassed and criticised, — not always in the most flattering 
manner, — the unbiassed opinion of an outside friend, who 
writes to us as follows, may fairly be given : — 

' It strikes me that Captain Bush's view of reducing the 
qualifying subscription for membership on the Committee 
is the correct one. I cannot understand how a man can be 
expected to attend from twelve to eighteen meetings in the 
year, to travel, say, from fifty to a hundred miles (the double 
journey), and, in not a few cases, be obliged to undergo the 
expense of passing a night at a London hotel, — from 
inabilitity to reach his home, — and yet be unable to 
subscribe his pound to the funds of the Association 1 I do 
not wonder that you find a difficulty in inducing qualified 
men to give their time and money — no doubt, often at 
great inconvenience to themselves — at such a rate, in order 
to advance bee-keeping chiefly amongst cottagers, however 
favourite the pursuit may be. To me it speaks volumes for 
the patriotic spirit of our leading bee-keepers, that on such 
terms you are able to procure an acting Committee at all.' 

To our friend we replied that — ' The. case being thus, 
all the more reason why members of Committee should 
be relieved from an annual subscription of one pound ; in 
fact, that the argument cut both ways.' We do not 
anticipate, indeed, a revolution, from the reduction of 
the franchise, and believe that even universal suffrage 
will not destroy the edifice built upon a foundation so 
secure. 



JOTTINGS BY AMATEUR EXPERT. 

' Mel sapit Omnia. 1 

Glorious weather for bees and bee-keepers! My 
queens are all breeding except one — that Holy Land — 
and all hives have plenty of stores and bees. But stores 
will decrease fast now, with bees active and queens 
breeding, let us remember. ' Expert-in-Chief ' Baldwin 
predicts a good year, as bees have wintered well, if — - 
that if is the rub — their owners will only give them 
proper care during the spring. Tell us, ' A. E.,' what is 
proper care ? Meddle as little as possible, meddle as 
much as necessary, but always see to it, above all things, 
that they never for one hour are short of food right up 
to the time of the clover glut. 

I hope the delusion of ever getting bees to store much 
from fruit-blossoms in England is about exploded by 
this time. An enthusiastic contributor to our Journal 
talked last year of getting one ton from this source alone, 
but I never heard that he succeeded. I shall be pleased 
to hear that his hopes were realised, as I could but 
admire his courage when he put the ' hope ' in print, 
and must confess his courage alone merited success. 

If you wish to live a life of peace now-a-days you 
must praise everything, and if you depart from that 
path the 'fortune of war' is your portion. Well, come 
war or come peace, I confess I deem it necessary to put 
in a word of caution to those who are young or un- 
successful at bee-keeping. As bad workmen complain 
of their tools, so unsuccessful bee-keepers hope to get on 
better if they get expensive and elaborate appliances and 
hives. And if they are readers of the B. B. J. they will 
find plenty to allure them into investing their money. 
Hive construction, like most things, has its cycles. We 
are emerging from the simple on to the elaborate ; the 
last cycle of the elaborate reached its zenith about the 
year 1882, when we had hives with brass runners to 
support the frames, so that you might summer on the 
'cool' system, and winter on the 'hot.' Hives with 
' peep-holes ' and glass shutters, trap-doors, knobs, and 
buttons and hooks ad lib., sections ' in front of them,' 
sections ' in rear of them,' sections ' each side of them,' 
and crates of sections on the top. Added to this there 
was excluder-zinc here, there, and everywhere; and 
cushions enough almost to pad an ordinary armchair. 
They were things 'fearfully and wonderfully made,' 



94 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 3, 1887. 



and the price of twenty such hives would build a 
cottage. 

But all this has given way in great part for a neat, 
simple class of hive, fitted with ten or eleven ' Standard' 
frames and good porches and roofs, and most of us have 
found that by good management with such hives we can 
more than double the record in bad seasons that we used 
to get when we used ' fads ' and lots of manipulation, 
even if seasons were better. And now we are coolly 
asked to go back to this kind of thing again. The old 
birds won't be caught with chaff, so I don't attempt to 
advise them, but to the younger I say, ' Save your 
money,' at least all of it except threepence ; and with 
that go and purchase Mr. Cowan's new ' Guide-book 
Pamphlet' on Doubling and Storifying. I had hoped 
some one would have said a good word for it in the 
Journal long ere this. 

Mr. Pettit, the President of the Ontario Bee-keepers' 
Association, has gone home from London to Canada a 
convert to its teachings, and in his Presidential address 
at Toronto the other day almost went so far as to beg of 
the Canadians to adopt it. Mr. Cowan has set himself 
the task of showing how ' honey can be produced profit- 
ably in this country at the present low price with very 
little trouble, and with very much less apparatus than is 
usually employed by bee-keepers;' and in my judgment 
he has succeeded admirably, and if you are bewildered 
by the allurements that are being spread around at the 
present time, there can be no better advice than is given 
in these sixteen pages of this pamphlet, for remember, 
'It is the expensive appliances, frequently more for 
show than use, which run away with all the profit, and 
leave the bee-keeper at the end of the year with a 
deficit.' 

Some are complaining that our ' Standard ' frame is 
too shallow. The Americans and Canadians have used 
a deeper frame for years, and their newest ' craze ' is the 
shallow ' Heddon,' but our ' Standard ' is a happy medium 
between the two extremes. 

I wish I lived in Sussex, for having conquered my 
small world, I thought of sitting down to weep for 
other (bee) worlds to conquer ; but however much I 
sympathise with ' A Forest Bee,' Sussex is too far away 
to get any help from — Amateur Expert. 

ASSOCIATIONS. 

LANCASHIRE AND CHESHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The Annual Meeting of the above Association was 
held at the Bear's Paw Restaurant, Liverpool, on 
Tuesday, the 8th of February, C. P. Titherley, Esq. in 
the chair. Present: Rev. J. F. Buckler, Colonel Heme, 
Messrs. W. B. Carr, W. Lyon, W.Liddell,W. Caldwell, 
G. Roberts, W. L. Maclure, and F. II. Carr. 

The accounts of the Association were presented to the 
meeting, and after the minute of the Committee with 
reference to the donation of 10/. to the B. B. K. A. for 
the Royal Horticultural Show held at Liverpool had been 
read, they were passed unanimously. 

The report of the Committee for 188G was read by the 
Rev. J. F. Buckler, and passed unanimously. 

The report states that the Committee have much 
satisfaction in noting the success which has attended the 
Association's work during 1886, which has been 
chiefly in connection with shows, viz. : — June 29th 
to July 5th, Royal Horticultural at Liverpool, in con- 
nexion with the British B. K. A. July 24th, Iluyton 
and Winston Cottagers' Horticultural Society. July 
30th to August 5th, South Kensington Honey Show. 
August 2nd, Frodsham. August 5th, Barrow, Chester. 
August 25th, Handbridge, Chester. August 26th, Lan- 
caster. September 9th to 11th, Manchester and Liverpool 
Agricultural Society's Show, held at Chester. As no 



charge for admission could be made to the bee tents at the 
Liverpool Show, there was an outlay of over 10/., which 
was to some extent covered by special donations. The 
exhibit sent to South Kensington will long be remem- 
bered by those who saw it, as far ahead of anj- other 
sent to the county competition, which was the first held 
by the British Bee-keepers' Association. The expenses 
connected with this exhibit were heavy, but having 
taken the first prize, and many members giving special 
donations to the cost, and as those who took charge of it 
worked gratuitously, the nett cost is a small charge on 
the year's accounts. Of the 283 members referred to in 
the Report for 1885, 105 have resigned ; 60 have joined, 
leaving 238 members' names on the books, including 41 
in the artizan and cottager list. The disposing of 
members' honey is a question which has had attention, 
and a good quantity has been sold at remunerative 
prices ; and it is hoped the committee for 188" will 
be able to arrange the sale of even a larger quantity. 
The committee think it well to put on record that the 
first conversazione held by members of the Association 
took place in December, 1880, and though the number 
present (about 60) was not as large as might have been 
expected from the long list of members, still, as a 
successful commencement has been made, they hope 
meetings of a similar kind will often be held in the 
future by the L. and C. B. K. A., as such meetings 
bring the members and their friends together. 
Through the kindness of examiners from the British 
Bee-keepers' Association, candidates had a chance of 
getting third-class certificates at the time of the Royal 
Horticultural Show held at Liverpool, and once since ; 
but of the ten candidates who came for examination, 
only three obtained certificates. It is a great satis- 
faction to your committee that this year's work has been 
done in good harmony with the British Bee-keepers' 
Association. 

Some alterations of rules were proposed by Mr. 
M'Clure. 

The Patrons, President, and Vice-presidents were 
unanimously re-elected. Eev. J. F. Buckler, Col. Heme, 
Messrs. W. B. Carr, J. M. Gibbs, Win. Lees M'Clure, 
Geo. Roberts, Wm, Roberts, H. II. Williams, G. G. 
Parker, and §George Aitken, were appointed the Com- 
mittee for 1887. Wm. Lees M'Clure was appointed 
Honorary Secretary, and Mr. W. Tyrer, Treasurer. 
Mr. Wm. Lees M'Clure was appointed to attend the 
quarterly conferences in London; Mr. F. H. Carr, 
expert; Mr. J. A. Bally, auditor of the Association, and 
Mr. Gibbs was re-appointed Librarian. A vote of 
thanks was given to all the officers of the Association. 

After the Annual Meeting a committee-meeting was 
held, when it was proposed and carried unanimously, that 
the Committee meetings be held on the fourth Monday 
of each month, except when that day falls on or after 
the 25th of the month, and in that event the com- 
mittee are to meet on the third Monday of the month. 



WORCESTERSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

The aunual meeting in connexion with this Associa- 
tion was held on February 19, 1687, at the Guildhall, 
Worcester. The Rev. E. W. Isaac presided in the 
absence of the Mayor (Alderman Holland), and among 
those also present were the Revs. R. T. W. Brayne and 
W. M. Kingsmill, Mrs. Swinden, Messrs. II. Goldingham, 
J. A. Watson, T. Cook, C. II. Haynes, J. Powell, 
G. II. Latty, E. A. Dimmock, A. Thorpe, A. E. Bryan, 
J. W. W. Boughton, II. W. Carey, J. Neal, A. II. 
Martin (Hon. Sec), E. Davenport (Expert to the Asso- 
ciation), &c. 

The aunual report stated that the work done during 
the past year had been curtailed owing to the apathy 
of the members themselves by the non-payment of sub- 



March 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



95 



scriptiona, and by a want of interest shown in the 
promotion of the objects which the Association had in 
view. The number of members at the close of the year 
was 186. The total income had amounted to 55/. 2s. &d., 
and there was a balance of 8/. 6s. 4d. in the hands of the 
treasurer, as compared with an adverse balance of 
3/. 5s. 6d. at the beginning; of the year. Early in April 
Mr. C. Brown resigned the appointment of expert to the 
Association. Mr. Davenport, of Stourport, who had held 
the office of expert to the Hants and Isle of Wight Bee- 
keepers' Association, and had a first-class expert certi- 
ficate from the B. B. K. A., was elected to the vacant 
post, and made a tour among the members. Owing to a 
want of funds, the committee were reluctantly compelled 
to abandon the holding of an annual show of bees, hives, 
honey, and apiarian appliances, and they wished to 
impress upon members that if one was to be held in the 
coming year a special subscription must be raised to 
defray the expenses of the same. The committee had 
determined to circulate the Bee Journal every fortnight 
among the members during the ensuing year. The com- 
mittee regretted the removal from the county of Mrs. 
Piers F. Legh, who had given the Association most 
valuable help ever since it was started. In conclusion 
the committee expressed the hope that members would 
take more interest in the Association, and bear in mind 
that one of the main advantages to be gained from 
membership was that the members would probably learn 
something about bee-keeping themselves and might help 
to instruct others who know little or nothing about it. 

On the motion of Mr. Latty, seconded by Mr. Cook, 
the report was adopted. 

Mr. Davenport (expert) said he commenced his tour 
of inspection among members towards the end of April, 
but owing to serious domestic affliction, his visits were 
considerably interfered with. In many instauces he 
found very good results, which showed that in spite of 
indifference amongst some of the members the work of 
the Association had not been in vain. As to the future 
of the Association, it would require the united efforts of 
members if its prosperity were to be increased. Among 
certain things which he regarded as important, he sug- 
gested the division of the county into districts, with a 
secretary and adviser in each district. As to the bee 
tent, he thought the time was past when they could 
expect to make it a source of large profit at the various 
horticultural shows, and he suggested its being thrown 
open free of charge, and hoped tbat contributions would 
be voluntaril}' tendered. He thought that driving from 
the old skep should be abandoned to a certain extent, 
and more attention given on these occasions to bar- 
framed hives. 

Mr. A. H. Martin said they were obliged to Mr. 
Davenport for his report, and he hoped that the work of 
the bee tent would be extended. With regard to 
throwing it open, he should like to see it sent to every 
village green in the county and demonstrations given to 
the villagers in the summer evenings. He much regretted 
that, owing to want of funds, their operations had been 
somewhat curtailed, but he trusted that the coming 
season would bring increased prosperity to the Asso- 
ciation. 

Mi-. Goldingham said that the Association was to a 
great extent a trading Association, and lie considered 
the suggestion of throwing the bee tent open at horti- 
cultural shows a very good one. 

Earl Beauchanip was re-elected President of the Asso- 
ciation, and the' following were elected Vice-Presidents :— 
The Bishop of Worcester, Lady Hindlip, Lady Georgina 
Vernon, Lord Edward S. Churchill, Sir Richard Temple, 
Bart., M.P., Sir E. A. H. Lechmere, Bart., M.P., 
Mr. John Corbett, M.P., the Hon. G. H. Allsopp, MP., 
and the Mayor of Worcester. Mr. T. J. Slatter was 
re-elected Honorary Treasurer, and Mr. A. H. Martin 
Honorary Secretary. Mr. A. H. Martin and Mr. C. H. 



Haynes were appointed as representatives of the Asso- 
ciation at the Conferences of the British Bee-keepers' 
Association. 

The annual ballot for hives resulted in Mrs. Huddle- 
ston, of Dunley, Stourport, and Michael Portinan, of 
Astwood Bank, being the winners. 

The Chairman said a most pleasing duty remained for 
him to propose a vote of thanks to their Hon. Secretary 
for the attention he had bestowed on the work of the 
Association, and they were all greatly indebted to him 
for all he had done. This was seconded by Mr. Golding- 
ham. 

Mr. Martin, in returning thanks, said he was one of 
those who believed that, although much had been ac- 
complished in the past, there was a great future before 
the bee-keepers of this country. The great apiarian 
exhibition held last July, and the exhibition of the 
Ontario bee-keepers later in the year, at the Colonial 
Exhibition, should stimulate them to continue their 
exertions in the objects which the County Associations 
were endeavouring to promote. In conclusion, he pro- 
posed a vote of thanks to the Chairman for presiding at 
the meeting, and said that the committee must shortly 
meet to consider the suggestions that had been proposed 
for the working of the Association in the coming 



MIDDLESEX BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The Annual meeting of this Association was held on 
Thursday, February 10th, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts 
in the chair. Present : Dr. Rayner, Major Fair, Messrs. 
W. H. Kennell, W. M. Graham, J. Peers, T. Leadbitter, 
G. Henderson, 0. Lambert, R. Rose, S. J. Gunn, G. 
Moyes, and the hon. sec. the Hon. and Rev. H. Bligh. 
The following resolution was carried unanimously : — 
' The members of the Middlesex Bee-keepers' Associa- 
tion desire to express the deep-felt sorrow and sincere 
regret with which they have heard of the sad news of 
the sudden and early death of their late secretary, 
Mr. Fox Kenworthy. They feel that the well-known 
excellence of his character, the deep interest which he 
took in the affairs of the Association, and his unwearied 
labours for it, will make his loss more keenly felt by 
them. They would give expression to their sense of 
gratitude which they owe to him for the present state 
of efficiency to which, mainly by his labour, the Associa- 
tion has been raised. They beg leave to offer to Mrs. 
Kenworthy and her family their sincere condolence, 
and to assure her of the very great respect and esteem 
in which the memory of her son is held by them.' 

The Baroness Burdett-Coutts was elected President 
for the ensuing year ; Vice-presidents, Lord George 
Hamilton, the Right. Hon. S. H. Walpole, Sir J. 
Lubbock, the Hon. and Rev. H. Bligh, Mr. Nelson, and 
Mr. Lafone ; treasurer, Mr. Rose ; hon. sec, the Hon. 
and Rev. H. Bligh ; provincial secretaries, Major Fair, 
and Messrs. Graham and Harris ; committee, Messrs. 
Jones, Henderson, Zehetmayr, Mason, and Lambert; 
auditor, Mr. W. G. Jefferys ; expert, Mr. Fewtrell. 

Mr. Bligh presented the statement of accounts for the 
South Kensington show, and announced that the Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts had kindly cleared the deficiency 
amounting to 12/. or IS/. A vote of thanks to the 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts for her liberality and kindness 
in presiding was carried unanimously. 

The following is an abstract of the report: — Increase 
in the number of members, a growing interest in bee- 
keeping, and a marked improvement in the method and 
practice of the bee-keepers of the county, are among the 
satisfactory results which the committee are enabled to 
record in this their fourth annual report. The early 
months of the year were made use of for a series of 
lectures on bee-keeping, most of them delivered by the 
Rev. W. E. Burkitt, Rector of Buttermere, Wilts, and 



96 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL, 



[March 3, 1881 



Secretary of the Wilts Couuty Association, given at 
Ealing-, "Hampton Hill, Brentford, Pinner, Sudbury, 
Staines, Uxbridge, and Twickenham. As soon as the 
bees had got into regular working order, the usual 
spring tour was made by Mr. Fewtrell, B.B.K.A., first- 
class expert, over the larger portion of the county ; 
whilst Mr. Baldwin, Expert-in-Chief of the B.B.K.A., 
broke up some new ground in the north-east corner of 
the county. In the general working of the Association 
the district system has been further developed, and the 
committee gladly record that three new districts are now 
efficiently worked, where a year ago little or nothing 
was being done. The number of members added during 
the year' to the roll of the Association is perhaps the 
best proof of the advance which it has made. At the 
beginning of the year 1886, there were 139 members; 
there are 200 names upon the books now, or a net gain 
of 01. In the great exhibition of Honey and Bee- 
keeping appliances at the Indian and Colonial Exhibi- 
tion at South Kensington in the competition between 
the counties of England, our Association competed, and 
staged, as a single exhibit, 6 cwt. of honey (232 lbs. 
sections and 440 lbs. extracted), out of cwt. contributed 
by 24 members for the purpose. Our exhibit did not 
take a prize; but, at the same time, was universally 
acknowledged to have been one of the most striking- 
features of the show. Ten, at least, of the exhibitors 
will receive the large bronze medal given by the Exe- 
cutive of the Colonial Exhibition, and the rest will 
receive a certificate of merit. In the spring, the com- 
mittee secured at second-hand, and at a very moderate 
outlay, a good manipulating tent, which, for all practical 
purposes, was equal to new. This was brought into 
requisition at several flower shows. With a view- to the 
increase in the number of members, and also to secure 
the early payment of subscriptions, the committee have 
determined to return to all whose subscriptions are paid by 
the 31st of January ten per cent in the shape of prizes 
to be drawn for at the annual meeting. 

During the progress of the meeting the drawing for 
prizes took place. Ninety-seven members had qualified 
themselves to take part in the drawing, and the 
following nineteen won prizes: — M. de Paula, hive; 
Miss Morgan, Bingham smoker ; Miss lleyn, Benthall 
crate ; Mr. A. Mitchell, Benthall crate ; Mr. F. Hughes, 
Benthall crate; Mr. Harveyson, Abbott cage; Mr. C. J. 
Athey, Abbott cage ; Miss George, Bingham knife ; 
Mr. Campbell, Abbott feeder; Miss C. Hale, Raynor 
feeder; Mr. H. Jonas, section crate; Mr. A. Stent, 
feeder; Mr. D. II. Dun-ant, feeder; Mr. W. Hinde, 
BiD"-ham knife; Mr. W. Willan, atomizer; Baroness 
Burdett-C'outts, smoker; Mr. B. Johnson, wire veil; 
Mr. Wall, veil ; Mr. Bligh, 100 sections. 



BERKS BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The. Berks Bee-keepers' Association opened the cam- 
paign of 1887 by a social meeting at the Assembly 
Rooms, Friar Street, Reading, on Thursday last, 
February 24. A committee meeting was held previous 
to the social to elect a hon. secretary in place of Mr. J. 
Bowley, who has removed from the county, and we were 
pleased that the Rev. Roland Erring-ton, Rector of 
Clewer, has kindly undertaken the duties of hon. secretary 
with Mr. A. D. Woodley, 26 Donnington Road, 
Reading, as assistant secretary. That being the only item 
on the agenda paper a vote of thanks was accorded tu 
Mr. Enington for consenting to take the office, the 
meeting adjourned sine die. 

The social meeting opened at eight o'clock, and the 
spacious room was soon a busy scene inspecting the many 
interesting articli s kindly brought by friends. Mr. 
Blow, of Welwyn, brought his new hive, recently limned 
in British Bee Journal, also one of his Carniolan hives with 
painted front, said painting representing the Old Testa- 



ment story of the two she-bears tearing the children who 
cried to the Prophet, ' Go up, thou bald-head; ' also several 
physiological subjects illustrating the honey-bee. Mr. 
Webster, Wokingham, exhibited his ' Jones-IIeddon ' 
hive, fumigators, foundation, and frame-lifters, &c. Mr. 
A. D. Woodley, Reading, a new reversible crate, new 
cheap hive similar to the Sandringham hive, also a Com- 
bination hive, and miscellaneous articles and literature 
connected with the craft. Messrs. Abbott, Southall, sent 
a collection of small articles ; a friend with a microscope 
and microscopic slides came in for a fair share of atten- 
tion. There was the hearty grip of the hand by brother 
bee-keepers whom we had not met for a season, short 
lectures by bee-keepers of known ability, viz., Messrs. 
Blow, Webster, and A. D. Woodley, each illustrated by 
the magic lantern with photographic slides taken from 
the object depicted ; selections of music in the intervals 
between the lectures by Mrs. Frank Oooksey, who kindly 
and ably presided at the pianoforte ; comestibles, nearly 
all containing honey in some shape or form ; and though 
we did not go the length of sweetening our tea and coffee 
with honey, we certainly enjoyed the delicious honey 
ices Mrs. Curry regaled us with. Miss Darvill, of 
Reading, had a fine display of sweets and sweetmeats, 
many of them containing honey. Mr. Blow's hive was 
considered a great advance on the Jones-Heddon for our 
climate and style of wintering, though the general 
opinion of the meeting, as far as I could gather by 
remarks passed by practical bee-keepers, was decidedly 
in favour of the English Combination Hive, which has 
been proved to be adapted to the requirements of the 
bees, as also of bee-masters for every style of supering 
either for extracted or comb honey, and the consensus of 
opinion on the ' Jones-Heddon' hive was to go slowly with 
it. Altogether a very pleasant and profitable evening 
was spent, and great credit is due to Mrs. Curry for the 
admirable way in which she superintended the affair 
from the beginning. — Your Correspondent. 

Cnrrespmxijttxa. 

The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will bo talccn of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested io write on one side oj 
the paper only, anil give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports o) 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to 'Tlic Editor of the " British Bee 
Journal," cjo Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin' s Lane, London, W.C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c. t must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langlcy, Herts (sec 2nd page of Advertisements). 

*** In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it aptpcars. 

OUR HONEY IMPORTS. 

The value of honey imported into the United Kingdom 
during the month of January 1837 amounted to 736/. 
[From a return furnished by the Statistic Department, 
ELM. Customs, to E. H. Bellairs, Wingfield House, near 
Christchurch.] 

WHEN DOCTORS DIFFER WHO SHALL 
DECIDE? 

[837.] Mr. Simmins, in his description of his very ingeni- 
ously contrived 'Universal Hive,' sa3's: 'This hive has had 
three years of careful consideration, because I had found 
the standard frame (14 by 8£ inches) decidedly inferior 
to larger frames I had formerly used. After various 
experiences, a frame 14 by 14 has been found the most 
appropriate, all thiugs considered, as it enables a stock to 
build up more rapidly in early spring and gives greater 
security in winter, as the stores are arranged in the best 
possible position in relation to the cluster.' Mr. Situmius 



March 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



07 



says, 'As a single frame the present standard is too 
small ; as a storifying frame it is too large.' 

Mr. Cowan does not consider the standard frame too 
large for storifying, for, in his useful little pamphlet, 
Doubling and Storifying, he illustrates three or four hives 
high having standard frames, and tells us how large 
quantities of extracted honey can be obtained by stori- 
fying with these hives. 

Mr. Broughton Can- advocates the use of the Carr- 
Stewarton-sfze hive somewhat modified, having a frame 
14 by Hi, three inches less in depth than the standard. 
It is illustrated, and his management is fully described in 
the Bee-keeper's Record of January last. Mr. Broughton 
Carr is an old and advanced bee-keeper, and we have 
recently had an opportunity of witnessing the success of 
his system of management in the beautiful honey he 
exhibited in the county competition at South Kensington, 
and also of seeing the' small frames of combs from which 
the honey had been extracted. 

Dr. Tinker, an advanced American bee-keeper, has 
given up the ' Gallup frame,' which is 11| by 11J, and 
has adopted a shallower and longer frame, 9£ deep_ by 
14f wide. He says:— 'I had abandoned side storing, 
and with that the " Gallup frame," as it did not present 
enough surplus room on the top of ten frames to corre- 
spond with the large amount of brood-comb below. The 
other objection was in the distance that the frame had to 
be lifted to get it out of the hive. The greater facility 
in lifting out a shallow frame will not be fully realised 
bv any one till thev try one by the side of a deep frame.' 
If this is felt in a difference of depth of 9£ and Ill- 
inches, how much more will it in the case of the 
standard 8-\, and Mr. Simmins' frame, 14 inches ! 

The reasons above given by Mr. Simmins for the 
necessity of changing from the standard to a much larger 
frame do not appear to me to be sufficiently conclusive to 
render such a change desirable. I have never had any 
difficulty in wintering stocks and building them up in 
spring, if they have not been robbed too much and have 
had ample natural stores to carry them through, and 
have not been disturbed during the winter. These stores 
would be in the ' best possible position,' the upper part 
of the comb in the standard frame as in the larger 
14 by 14 frame; and if the hive has been properly pre- 
pared, and contracted in the autumn, so that the bees 
have only just as many frames of comb as they can 
cover, with winter passages cut through them, a good 
queen and a dry hive, there should be no difficulty. The 
' rapidly ' building up — in both cases, I presume— is done 
by judicious stimulative feeding and spreading the brood 
from time to time, as the bees hatch out to cover the 
combs and become crowded. If this system is correct I 
fail to see the advantage the larger frame has over the 
standard. 

A hive containing ten standard frames, taking outside 
measurement of the two breeding surfaces of each frame, 
equals 2380 superficial inches ; whereas a hive of six 
frames 14 by 14 equals 2352 inches, only 28 inches of 
surface less than the ten standard frames. Those who 
work for comb honey frequently reduce the breeding- 
space to nine and even eiglit standard frames. Taking 
the superficial area of the top of frames on which to 
place supers, we have in the case of the ten standard 
frames 217 inches, which would take the ordinary crate 
of twenty-one sections. In the case of the six large 
frames of Mr. Simmins, only fourteen sections could be 
placed without projecting beyond the area of these 
frames. I am aware that Mr. Simmins has had great 
experience with bees, although I do not recollect seeing 
his name as a large exhibitor of hone)' at any of our 
principal exhibitions. Perhaps he can tell your readers 
the amount of honey ho has taken from hives having 
14 by 14 frames, and the number used in each storey. 
The standard frame is now almost universally used in 
England; and, depend upon it, if the seasons are pro- 



pitious, the management judicious, and the b>es arenot 
over-manipulated, as much honey will be obtained in a 
well-constructed hive with standard frames as in any 
other yet invented. I have been induced to make these 
few remarks knowing that there are a few — and I be- 
lieve only a few— who would like another size frame 
adopted.— Johx M. Hooker. 



FOREIGN BEES. 

[838.] The very important question as to the superiority, 
or otherwise, of foreign bees and their suitability to our 
climate, is one that can only be decided, I think, by ex- 
perience ; and that not of one or two bee-keepers merely, 
but of many in different parts of the country. Will you, 
therefore, grant me a little space in which to relate my 
own experience, premising that though I am not a bee- 
keeper on a large scale— my stock rarely exceeding thirty 
hives at one time— yet I have for many years given very 
careful, attention to the subject, and know as much about 
it, perhaps, as most people ? 

My first Ligurian queen was purchased several years 
ago of Messrs. Edey, of St. Neots, and she was certainly 
all I expected her to be — gentle, handsome, and ex- 
tremely prolific ; and her progeny for several generations 
have retained their good qualities, and though, of course, 
crossed with the common black bee, were never especially 
fierce or unmanageable. I have some of this strain now, 
as good bees as one need have, but on the whole I have 
not found them better honey-gatherers than the native 
blacks, as they waste their energies in working and 
breeding at unprofitable times. 

I afterwards bought two queens, so-called Ligurians, 
of one of the most noted dealers — I won't now mention 
names — very handsome bees — one especially was of a 
lovely gold colour. But neither was so prolific as a 
common native queen. The progeny proved idle and 
fierce, and the next generation so bad every way, and 
especially so savage, that I was most thankful to root 
them all out and re-queen with anything I could get. 

Last year' I resolved to try Carniolans, having heard 
so much of their gentleness. So I applied early in the 
year to what I thought was the best source of supply 
for a queen of undoubted purity and good quality, and 
one was sent me in due course. Imagine my disappoint- 
ment at finding her bees about as difficult to handle as 
Cyprians! And I Lave since heard from the importer 
that it is very possible she is merely a hybrid. This is 
very satisfactory as an explanation, but it nai-dly consoles 
one for the loss of a season and the full price of a best 
queen. 

I may add that my so-called Carniolan is extremely 
prolific, and so also are two queens that I reared from 
her last autumn, all three have wintered well. All 
this goes to show that one may possibly get a good 
foreign bee. But in the present uncertainty as to 
quality, it is safer to stick to those of one's own 
rearing, as showing the difference between the two 
races. 

I may say that, at the present time — end of February 
— in my own apiary all the bees of foreign extraction 
have brood in all stages, hut the black stocks have not 
yet commenced to breed so far as 1 can tell. This is 
a cold situation on the Derbyshire hills. — Geoege 
Shipton. 

CANADIAN HIVES — CYPRIANS— CHAPMAN 
HONEY PLANT. 
[839.] On p. 60o of last volume of B.B.J, appears a 
letter from Mr. C. N. Abbott, in which he says: 'A 
young friend lately arrived at Ontario ; in his first letter 
to me, after having settled down, Nov. 20th, 188(5, writes 
" A few days past I was at a show at Caledonia, but 
did not see any bees and hives (frame-hives) such as 
you have at Southall. The hive3 were very funny- 



38 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 3, 1887. 



looking objects, something' like those of twenty years 
ago.'' These are but a few words, but to my mind 
they let in a deal of light on a big subject, as they show 
that the principles sought to be thrust upon English 
bee-keepers by our late Canadian visitors are not general 
in their own home counties, or surely at a large show 
there would have been a sufficient display of frame-hives, 
amongst the many, to have rendered the presence of 
ancient hives alone less remarkable, particularly to a 
young man who is not, and never has been, a bee- 
keeper.' 

Now I am not going to dispute the statement that 
there were funny-looking hives without frames at the 
show referred to — it is just possible that such was the 
case. We have in Ontario, as well as you have in 
England, eccentric people that do funny things, but the 
fact remains undisturbed that moveable frame-hives are 
not only generally, but universally, used by professional 
bee-keepers. 

That last- quoted remark, 'particularly to a young- 
man who has not, and never has been, a bee-keeper, 
are but a few words, but to my mind they let in a 
deal of light.' It occurs to me that in all probability 
the young friend was looking at butter-firkins, washing- 
machines, or some other wooden ware. Such mistakes 
often occur. If Caledonia had a large show it was only 
so comparatively, for it is but a small place indeed. 

I guess the most of us will agree that Mr. Abbott 
is about right about the stinging qualities of Cyprian 
bees ; but is it not more than a year or two ago since 
they were brought to England and Canada ? 

I feel quite sure that we all owe a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Abbott for the opportune warning he has given 
about the so-called Chapman honey-plant. The Com- 
mittee appointed by the North American Bee-keepers' 
Association to report upon said plant ascribe to it all 
the characteristics of a much-to-be-dreaded noxious 
weed. They report that it is perennial, seeds itself, is 
a strong growing plant, will root out all other vege- 
tation, and, I learn from another source, that stocks will 
not eat it. Now I submit that any plant answering to 
the above description must necessarily be a noxious 
weed, and yet the said Committee think there is no 
danger. What more could be said of sour-dock, ox-eye 
daisy, ragweed, pigeon-weed, Canada thistle, and many 
more troublesome weeds ? I sincerely hope that those 
who contemplate buying or selling and scattering noxious 
weeds will think fairly before acting. Surely the farmer 
has enough to contend with alreadj r , and we bee-keepers 
should think a second time, and honestly too, before 
adding anything more to his already too heavy burden. 
— S. T. Pettit, Belmont, Ontario, Canada, January 25. 

P.S. — I have just returned from a visiting trip through 
Kent, Essex, and Lambton, and find that those who 
winter out-doors begin to complain of too steady cold 
weather. We have just had a big thaw, but the weather 
was unsuitable for the bees to get a good flight. Most 
of us begin to think that in-door wintering is the only 
safe way here. — S. T. P. 



A BEEMAN'S TRIP TO AMERICA. 

(Continued from page 7.) 
Mb. A. I. Root's Establishment. 

[840.] In my last I promised to give an account of my 
visit to Mr. Root at Medina, feeling sure that an account 
of the largest bee-keepers' supply iu the world could not 
be without interest to your readers. 

Although I reached Medina some time after working 
hours I found Mr. Root still busy in the office. The 
motto of the establishment is evidently 'By industry 
shall ye thrive,' for there was no encouragement either 
by example or precept for idlers. A ready welcome 
was accorded me, and the next few days were most 



enjoyably spent in exploring the different departments 
and discussing the merits of the various processes. The 
little picture is a fair one of the factory as it was a few 
years ago, but it is now about double as large, and the 
substantial way in which it is built plainly shows the 
owner's confidence in the future of bee-keeping. The 



cSJ 







first object of interest was a new engine of ninety horse- 
power and most improved construction, which had just 
displaced a smaller one and which was separated by a 
stout fire-proof wall from the wood-working department- 

In this shop were machines for making nearly every 
wooden article that a bee-keeper could require. Two 
planers, half-a-dozen machines for different parts of 
section-making, a borer, and jnany saw-benches of dif- 
ferent patterns were to be found amongst the number, 
and others were being fitted up, this shop being all new 
and not yet in full swing. 

A capital feature in this department was a system of 
big tin tubes which, being connected at one end with 
the furnace, and at the extremities with each machine, 
and being also in connexion with a centrifugal fan, 
carried away all sawdust and chips and put them right 
into the fire. Besides saving sweeping and stoking, the 
purity of the air, which this ensured, added greatly to 
the comfort of the workmen. Above this department 
were the paint and tin shops where there was every 
facility for turning out extractors, smokers, &c. In the 
base of the older building I found the engineers' shop, 
where skilled hands were fitting up saw-spindles, founda- 
tion-mills, &0. 

The arrangements for cutting the rolls of the latter 
were most ingenious, but too complicated for description. 
There were also a machine for perforating zinc and one 
for grinding plane irons, the advantages of doing all 
possible work at home being fully recognised. This 
idea was so thoroughly carried out, that not only was all 
the printing and bookbinding done on the premises, but 
there was even a machine for making envelopes. I will 
not tire you with details of my visits to the packing, 
printing, book-keeping, or similar departments, but after 
having refreshed at the ' lunch-room,' will pass on to the 
' counter-store.' This is a feature which is greatly ap- 
preciated by bee-keepers living at a distance from towns, 
as the stock consists of hundreds of articles of domestic 
use, which such customers find it very convenient to 
order with their bee-goods, as the prices of all things are 
moderate, and their utility can be relied on. Of course 
one of the first pleasures of the visit was an introduction 
to Mr. Root's son, Ernest, to whom I am indebted for 
most of my information. The bees were naturally in 
winter quarters, so I could not see much of them. In 
the foundation-room there was also not much to be seen 
as most folks like their comb freshly made. Mr. Root's 
ideas on bee-keeping are so ably and frequently given in 
his Gleaninys and in his A B C of Bee-culture, that any 
remarks on them would be tedious; but I would strongly 
advise all bee-keepers who have not seen the latter book 
to order it at once of their supply dealer as it is full of 
interesting matter of all sorts. — J. A. Abbott, Southall, 
February 1887. 



March 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



99 



INVERTIBLE HIVES AND HOW I USE THEM. 

[841.] Will you allow me a small space in your Journal 
to say what hives I use and how I use them ? Some 
seem to want some information on the plan. But, first, 
let me say to W. Soar that his cap won t fit, so lie must 
please wear it himself or try it on some one else. I am 
not a hive-manufacturer, or have I any connexions with 
any, although I make my own hives and appliances, and 
look after my 200 stocks myself, so that W. S. need 
not be afraid of my grinding' my axe at his expense, 
or at any cottager's ; and had I seen Blow's British 
Heddon hive I should have given the same advice for 
cottagers to use it as I did the Jones Heddon. I have 
not seen what the thickness is to be of the imported 
hive. Has anybody told W. S. that it is to be the 
same as the one exhibited ? I quite agree that it wants 
an outer case, — that I always use ; so I believe you do, 
Mr. Editor, and I think there's no hive to equal it. And 
now to my mode of working. In 18S5 I made up my 
mind to invert some hives, and the first were four straw 
skeps; that was an easy matter, as I had some straw skeps 
with cheese-boxes over them. This was done for the con- 
venience of supering and feeding, as I had a hole in the 
top of the hive and the bottom of the cheese-box. Now, 
any cottager can manage this job, and the time to turn 
them is when the bees are ready to swarm and the flow 
of honey coming in. I use them in an outer case, and all 
is kept snug- out of wind and rain. As I could not see 
what was going on in straw skeps, I thought I would try 
some bar-frame hives for that purpose. I made a few ten- 
bar hives, rabbeting the sides double the proper depth, so 
that the tops of the bars were free from the floor-board 
when upside down. The frames had a bit of wood nailed 
to each corner, so they could be all wedged up tight to- 
gether ; these were inverted in outer cases. I examined 
the combs for brood and eggs before inverting, and four 
days after found eggs hatched out and brood going on 
all right. I have sent one of nry frames to you. W. 
Soar might call on you and see it. — Devonshire 
Dumpling. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL QUERIES, ETC. [824.] 

[842.] ' Devonshire Dumpling' appears unable to see 
with his own ej'es, as I have never said, ' I am making a 
hive like the Jones-Heddon.' One may well express 
astonishment at ' D.D.'s ' advice repeated to cottagers, to 
try the invertible hives. To such bee-keepers I see no 
single point that can be recommended. Why, even its 
inventor has sent out a disclaimer of its supposed advan- 
tages (see 814), heralded into the world with a great 
flourish two seasons back ; and thus it appears it is being 
rapidly modified out of existence in the land of its birth. 
No, ' D. D.', my definition of a suitable hive for cottage 
bee-keepers would be very far removed from such an 
expensive, purely experimental, and confessedly untried 
system — as far as this country is concerned — as the 
invertible plan. 

There are others asking for particulars of ' D. D.'s' 
experience in inverting ; and to say that the facts given 
bearing on this question are meagre is putting it too 
favourably — it amounts to nil. But instead, like a 
drowning man catching- at a straw, 'D. D.' wants to 
know if ' I have had experience.' The question is quite 
unnecessary, as I started the discussion with an implied 
admission of having no experience, and I venture to say 
that not one bee-keeper in a hundred knows anything- 
about the matter from experience. 

_ Where do we get our facts from ? Why, Mr. Heddon 
himself has been honest enough to admit (and all will 
respect him the more) that, with one exception, the 
conclusions he arrived at in 188-3 are erroneous, and this 
exception of inverting once only (brood-combs alone) to 
secure the complete filling of the frames is more than 



likely to be accomplished without the necessity of in- 
verting at all. — James Lee, Feb. 19. 



THE NEAV APIFUGE. 
[843.] A few weeks ago I gave you a somewhat prosy 
statement of my views on a new compound, calculated to 
conciliate 

1 Our dear little friends, with the nimble tails,' 

and I should not have troubled the fraternity further on 
the subject, had I not then stated that I was in treaty 
with a manufacturing chemist for its production, and 
that I would continue my experiments of last year 
(stopped, of course, by winter), as to its efficacy, at the 
same time promising- to report results. 

I have now the highest pleasure in informing you that, 
after a slow and tedious process, success has been reached 
to a degree far beyond even my hope. I have, however, 
had to modify and alter my formula considerably, in order 
to make the apifuge a complete success. On Saturday 
last, I manipulated, two hives, at 70° in the sun, and 
noticed this peculiarity about the bees on the approach 
of my hands: — They seemed charmed, and subsided 
amongst the frames, as boiling water subsides on the 
introduction of a spoon. A twelve-year old youth moved 
his fingers in the porch, to force the bees to crawl in and 
out through them during a vigorous cleansing flight ; 
there was not a soupcon of a sting. I may say that 
another substance recommended for the same purpose as 
mine is so difficult to obtain in a pure state, and there- 
fore of a sufficient strength to be useful, that I concen- 
trated my attention on the production of a compound of 
such an exact undiluted strength that it can be taken 
into, and used in the apiary, with as much, and more 
confidence, than the best gloves. I needn't say that it is 
the exact dose in medicine which is beneficial. So with 
the apifuge. As I could not distribute it adequately, I 
have placed the sole agency in the hands of Abbott Bros., 
Southall. — R. A. H. Grimshaw, Cray Hill, Horsforth, 
near Leeds. 

BEE-CONCILIATORS. 
[844.] I am surprised that no one has protested 
against the use of apif — oh ! I forgot, I must not use th; t 
awful word ; Mr. Abbott says it is ' Copyright ' and Mr . 
Grimshaw tells me it is ' Registered,' so there is no know- 
ing what pains and penalties are involved in the use of 
it — say ' anti-sting.' There is nothing- which so im- 
presses the spectators at a show as the unconcern with 
which the manipulators and the judges and others within 
the vail stand surrounded by bees and without getting 
stung. A common remark is that they must use some- 
thing repugnant to bees. Hitherto this insinuation could 
be repelled, and the reply truly made that nothing- was 
required but coolness and care. Alas ! in future, when 
the subtle and peculiar odour of methyl salicylate per- 
vades the tent, the soft impeachment can no longer be 
denied, and the charm attending the cool, careful mani- 
pulation of an expert will be gone. I well remember 
my first visit to Mr. Abbott in his little garden at Han- 
well, where I, a perfect novice, stood quite unprotected 
while he opened hive after hive, lifted out frames, and, 
to my great delight, allowed me to do the same. There 
is nothing which tends to promote neat and careful hand- 
ling of bees so much as the absence of protection and the 
full knowledge that carelessness and jarring will at once 
bring their punishment, and on the contrary, the use of 
anything which gives the operator a feeling that how- 
ever careless he may be he cannot suffer for it, can only 
lead to a slovenly, slap-dash method. If the use of sub- 
stances to prevent stings should come into general use 
the effect upon the rising generation of bee-keepers can 
but be to render them very unworthy successors of the 
present skilful manipulators. — E. Lyon. 



100 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 3, 1887. 



NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS. 

All queries forwarded will ho attended to, and those onty of personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

Letters or queries asliingfor addresses of manufacturers or corrcspon- 
dents, or where appliances can be purchased, or replies giving such 
information, can only be inserted as advertisements. The space 
devoted to lettors, queries, and replies, is meant for the general good of 
bcc-hccpers, and not for advertisements. We wish our Correspondents 
to bear in mind that, as it is necessary for us to go to press in advance 
of the date of issue, queries cannot always be replied to in the issue 
immediately following the receipt of their communication. 

Fab North. — 1. Enamel cloth. — Glazed side next the bees. 
2. Uncapping. — Uncap a few cells of honey, occasionally, 
above the cluster of bees, or near to it. This may be 
done without removing the frames by using a little smoke 
or carbolic acid solution. If the outer combs contain 
granulated honey it is best to remove them, and to feed 
en syrup, otherwise let them remain. Uncapping, as 
advised above, is sufficiently stimulating without giving 
syrup. 

Eectok. — 1. Late Autumn Plants. — Batches of bee-flowers, 
such as borage, mignonette, phacelia, the sunflower 
tribes, and others, may be sown late in the season to 
produce autumnal blooms, but no appreciable amount of 
honey is ever obtained from garden plants, except in 
market-gardening and flower - seed - growing districts. 
Second crops of red clover and crops of buckwheat are 
amongst the best for yielding honey towards autumn. 
Candytuft, stocks, and sweet peas, sown late, will also 
yield autumn bloom. 2. Feeding with Salicylic Acid. — 
Salicylic acid, when mixed with dry sugar, would not be 
taken by the bees. The only plan of administering it 
effectually is either in syrup or by fumigation. 

T. Nixon. — 1. Tar for Hires. — Six pints of gas-tar, one pint 
Stockholm-tar, and one pint of spirit of turpentine, form 
a good varnish for outdoor work. The tar should be 
heated and well mixed, and the turpentine added when 
cooling. A good recipe also is the following ; — One 
gallon of gas-tar, one ounce of nitric acid, half pint of 
spirit of turpentine. The acid to be mixed in gradually. 
This composition, which dries quickly and sets very hard, 
should be well brushed on, after the manner of paint, 
and not too thickly, and it will not melt or become sticky 
with the summer heat. 2. Placing a small above a 
larger Hive. — By the plan you propose you would find 
great difficulty in removing the upper hive when filled, 
since brace combs would be built between the two hives. 
A much better plan is to. put the large hive below the 
small one — covering up with strips of carpet and boards 
any paits which project beyond the upper and smaller 
hive — and to allow the bees to work down into it. Fill 
the frames of the lower hive with foundation, which will 
greatly expedite matters. No board is required between 
the two hives. 

H. W. D. — 1. Ilembers of County Associations. — Members 
of County Associations are entitled and invited to attend 
the quarterly and annual meetings of the B. B. K. A., but 
have not the right of voting ; neither have their elected 
representatives this right. A subscription of five shillings 
per annum constitutes membership, and confers the right 
of voting on any question brought before the above- 
named meetings, and also gives one vote for each 
member at the annual election of the Committee of the 
Association. 2. Separators. — Tin separators are in com- 
mon use between sections. The tin used should be as 
thin and light as possible. Many advanced bee-keepers 
advocate thin wood separators. Either kind may be 
perforated as desired. 3. Preventing Queen entering upper 
Boxes. — In tiering up, whether for extracting or for 
obtaining comb-honey, we never use excluder-zinc. By 
keeping the brood-chamber sufficiently large and free 
from storage of honey, and by giving room beneath it, 
in the form of ' ekes' or shallow chambers, with sufficient 
bottom ventilation, the queen, as a rule, may be pre- 
vented from entering the upper boxes and from leading 
off swarms, i. Stocking an Observatory Hive. — A small 
swarm will be required for an observatory hive of four 
frames. We should prefer nice, straight, newly.built 
combs to giving foundation, but cither may be used. 
Shake the bees on a sheet in front of the wedged-up hive 
and allow thorn to enter at the bottom. If it is simply 



a case of transferring, remove the bees, with their queen, 
combs, and brood from the ordinary to the observatory 
hive. 

Honet Deop. — The dust of lump sugar will make useful 
syrup ; it is desirable that it should be as free from dirt 
as possible. 

John Bdxl.— Gloves.— Be a true ' John Bull,' and do without 
them. They are great hindrances to manipulation, and 
when once stung they retain the smell of the poison, and 
invite further attacks. The best gloves are the two pairs 
of fine cotton texture, well wetted with water. The Eev. 
W, E. Burkitt could supply you with the special in- 
formation you require ; the gloves mentioned by him 
were leather gloves, manufactured by a dealer in High 
Street, Andover. Some gloves have recently been im- 
ported from the Continent made of American cloth ; but 
they look clumsy, and would be found awkward and 
troublesome in working with them. Now that Grini- 
shaw's Apifuge and Lyon's Sting-Preventer are before 
the public, we should be pleased to have some indepen- 
dent opinion of their value. 

H. P. — 1. Dry Sugar Feeding. — Mr. Simmins recommends 
for this purpose Porto Bico sugar : that you have for- 
warded is a sample of sugar called ' pieces.' If presented 
to the bees they will utilise it, but you cannot expect 
that the result will be so beneficial as the using of that 
which the experience of practical bee-keepers has found 
most serviceable. 2. Fertile Worker. — There can be no 
doubt of the presence of a fertile worker in your hive ; 
and in due time we shall be pleased to receive the results 
of your experiments as to the full development of the 
drones so produced. 

Bee-ologist. — British Wild Bees. — Monographia Apum 
Anglice, by W. Kirby ; British Bees, by Lieut. Shuckard, 
with illustrations; Apida—Bees, by F. Smith, Brit. Mus. 
The above books are out of print, but may occasionally 
be found on book-stalls. The most exhaustive and com- 
plete work on wild bees is Apidee Europccm. This is being 
published in parts at the present time ; as a book of 
reference it is invaluable, and the excellent illustrations 
it contains are a great help in determining species. This 
work comes out quarterly, and the annual subscription 
is fourteen marks. 
; B. Young. — Scotch Hive Manufacturers. — We have no doubt 
that there are in the north of Scotland numerous dealers 
in bee-appliances ; but though very desirous of giving all 
possible and all proper information to our readers, we 
consider that it is more the duty of bee-keepers in that 
part of the kingdom to advertise their wares in our 
■Journal, than that our Journal should advertise them. 
The Journal has a large and an increasing circulation 
in Scotland, and we suggest that purveyors of appli- 
ances in that part would find it to their advantage and 
profit to make use of our Journal towards the development 
of their business. 

Welsh Novice. — Directly you commence to increase your 
stocks you reduce your yield of honey. If we could 
absolutely have the entire control of their swarming, we 
should — in order to get the greatest yield of honey — 
prevent such entirely, but this, up to the present, being 
an impossibility, we should manipulate our stocks that 
from those who show the greatest swarming proclivities, 
make our artificial swarms, and rear the queens from 
those who have the best storing qualities, not forgetting 
to rear the drones also from such stocks. You will 
usually find these two latter qualities go hand in hand. 

Taffy. — 1. Soft Warm Candy. — This is simply candy, 
made either by boiling and stirring while cooling or by 
kneading finely ground sugar in honey to the consistence 
of dough, warmed to about 80° before giving it to the 
bees. 2. Enamel Cloth is that used for chair-covers but 
without the imitation leather grain upon it. 3. Bees in 
Confinement. — Having kept your bees confined by per- 
forated zinc and fed (?) them with syrup during the 
winter, the wonder is, not that four lots arc dead but that 
the other four are alive. Eelease the others at once and 
give them soft candy if they require food. -1. Location 
of hives. — You had Letter replace them on their stands 
as last year. Another winter leave them alone instead 
of moving them into a shed. 5. Erica vulgaris. 



March 3, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



101 



J. G. — It is always a very delicate matter to interfere with 
the decisions of judges. These judges are not appointed 
to their arduous and often thankless position without 
much anxious thought. It would appear from your 
statement, and the subsequent act of the Committee, 
that in the instance mentioned the judge might have 
erred ; but before saying that he had so done it would be 
just on our part to remember the advice, Audi alteram 
partem. 

H. C. — 1. Dust thrown out by the bees. — The sample you 
send is simply the cappings removed from sealed honey in 
order to get at the contents of the cells, just as one 
throws away the cover of a pot of preserves. 2. Bee-tent 
at Horticultural Show. — You had better write to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the counties named, and arrange for the 
tent to be sent to your local show. 

C. Fox. — Whether you can mate bee-keeping pay depends 
in a great measure upon yourself and the locality in 
which you are situated. You must not expect, if you 
purchase a few hives and give them no further attention, 
that you will make a living. We should advise you to 
get one or two hives only to begin with, and when you 
are able to manage them properly to go in for more. In 
this way you may be better able to judge whether you 
are fitted to undertake bee-keeping on a large scale. 
The Heddon hive is not suited to this climate, and if you 
wish to use it, you must have an outer covering for 
winter. We advise you not to go in largely for these 
hives until we have had some reports of their success in 
England. A simple hive with Standard frames is all you 
need for storifying. We did not find the shallow frames 
a success for this purpose. If you will say what other 
questions you wish answered, we shall be pleased to give 
you all the help we can. 



For the use of Manufacturers and Purchasers of Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

The Name and Address and Business of any Manufacturer 
will be inserted in this List, under one heading, for One 
Pound per annum. Additional headings, Five Shillings 
extra. Advertisers in ' The Bee Journal,' whose orders 
amount to Five Pounds per annum, icill be inserted Free. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

j Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Boad, Bristol. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Burtt, E. J., Stroud Boad, Gloucester. 
Edet & Son, St. Neots. 
Howard, J. H, Holme, Peterborough. 



Received from Mr. Alfred Rusbridge, The Apiary, Sidle- 
sham, Chichester, for the library of the British Bee-keepers' 
Association a copy of the Tidsskrift for Biavl, or the Danish 
Bee Journal for the year 1S86. It contains a translation of 
Mr. Rusbridge's book on bee-keeping. In comparing the 
translation with the original many words appear very simi- 
lar in sound, although the characters differ. H. B. H. 
the Princess of Wales has been pleased to accept a copy of 
both. In the Tidsskrift we notice a description of Mr. 
Cowan's hive with illustrations, articles on bumping, and 
translations from the British Bee Journal. 



,g>how jSLnnouncements. 

Giving Name and Address of Secretary, Date and Place of 
Show, Date of Closing Entries. Terms : Three Insertions 
and under, Two Sliillings and Sixpence; additional inser- 
tions, Sixpence each. No charge made to those Associations 
whose Shores are announced in our general Advertising 
Columns. 

July 11-15. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huckle, Kings Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at Ycrk, 
Secretary, H. L. Rickards, Poole, near Leeds. 



business ^Directory. 



Hutchings, A. F., St. Mary Cray, Kent. 

Meadhaii, M., Huntington, Hereford. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour* Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holbom. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.G. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

Webster, W. B., Wokingham. 

Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 

HONEY MERCHANTS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co. , Limited, 17 King William St. , Strand. 

Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holbom. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holbom. 

SraaiNS, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 

Walton, E. G, Muskham, Newark. , 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holbom. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holbom. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

ITALIAN BEES of the BROS. CIPPA, 

BEE-KEEPERS 

BELLINZONA (Suisse Italien). 

Successors of the old-established Bee Business of the late 
Professor A. MONA. 



SEASON. 


A Fertilised 
Queen with a 
Cluster of Bees 


Swarm of 
.} kilogram. 


Swarm of 
1 kilogram. 


Swarm of 
1J kilogram 




Francs. 


Francs. 


Francs. 




March and April 


8 


16.50 


24 




1 to 15 May ... 


7.50 


15 


22 




16 „ 31 „ ... 


7.50 


14 


20.50 




1 ,, 15 June ... 


7 


13 


19 




16 „ 30 „ ... 


6.50 


12 


17.50 




1 „ 15 July ... 


6 


11 


16 




16 „ 31 „ ... 


5.50 


10 


14.50 




1 „ 15 Aug. ... 


5 


9.50 


13.50 




16 „ 31 „ ... 


3 


9 


12.50 




1 „ 15 Sept.... 


4.50 


8.50 


11.50 


Francs. 


16 ,, 30 ,, ... 


4 


8 


10.50 


13 


1 „ 15 Oct. ... 


4 


8 


10.50 


13 


16 „ 31 „ ... 


4 


8 


11 


14 



Carriage not paid. A Queen arriving dead, if returned at once, 
will be replaced without charge. Terms, Cash. Be particular 
to give the exact Address and Name of the Station. Queens 
reared by selection. Five per cent discount on an order for 10 
Queens or Colonies at a time ; 10 per cent if 20 Queens are 
ordered ; 15 per cent on 50 ; and 20 per cent on 100 Queens or 
Colonies ordered at one time. Write, if possible, in French or 
German. We have been acknowledged as the sole successors of 
the late A. Mona by the official Federal Gazette. See notice 
in British Bee Journal (page 424 of 9th Sept, 1SS6). 

a 2393 -(164) 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[Mar. 3, 1887. 



MANIPULATE WIT HOUT SMOKE ! 

WEBSTER'S FDMIGATOR 

Entirely supersedes the Smoker, both in Simplicity and 
Effectiveness. No ' going out.' No tainting or soiling of 
combs. Always ready for use without any preparation. 
Can be carried in the pocket. 

With Bellows, 4s. 6d. ; postage, 4.Vd. 

Without Bellows, 3s. ; postage, 3d. 

Can be adjusted to any ordinary smoker belloivs. 

6 oz. Bottles of Agent— carbolic acid, oil of tar, and water, 

properly mixed — 6d. each. 

WEBSTER'S SWIVEL FRAME -LIFTER 

WILL BE BEADY SHOBTLY. 
With this appliance, frames can be removed from hive, 
replaced and examined on both sides without inverting, with 
one hand, leaving the other free for manipulating, at the 
same time preventing soiling the hands with propolis. 

W. B. WEBSTER, 

SOLE MANUFACTURER AND INVENTOR, 
WOKINGHAM, BERKS. 

AWARDS FOR FUMIGATORS LAST SEASON. 
1st Prize Silver Medal, Boyal Counties' Agricultural Show. 

Highest Award, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London. 

2nd Prize Bronze Medal, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 

London. 

2nd Prize Altrincham, Lancashire and Cheshire B. K. A. 

LYON'S Patent METALEM 

The only perfect pattern. The metal being flush with 
the inside of the Hive side, CANNOT BE FIXED TO IT 
BY PROPOLIS. All the so-called Improvements CAN. 

The Special Alloy used allows them to be LIGHT YET 
STBONG. One gross weighs 5J lbs. 

Price for 1887 5/6 P er gross. 

DR. PINES VEILS. 

Prize Medal, 1879, for the best Bee Dress, The only 
Medal ever awarded to a Veil, 2/2 each, post free. Every 
genuine Veil bears the Registered Trade Mark. 

DR. PINE'S LOTION. 

The ONLY CUBE for Stings, 1/8 per bottle, post free. 



Guaranteed, with Directions, 1/2 per bottle, post free. 

Methyl Salicylate, or ' Sting Preventer.' 

1 oz. bottle, post free, 1,8, 

HIVE MAKERS supplied with SPRINGS, GLASSES for 

Sections, PHENOL, METHYL SALICYLATE, in bulk, 

&c, &c, at lowest prices. 

F. LYON, 94 Harl eyford Rcl., London, S.E . 

TO DEALERS. 

CI END to A. P. Hutchings for quotations of 
lO AMERICAN WHITE BASSWOOD ONE-PIECE 
SECTIONS of the finest manufacture and quality, 300,000 
will shortly be on hand. Special terms for all Orders 
before March 25. Don't fail to get my prices before you 
Order elsewhere ! Address, West Kent Steam Power Hive 
Works, St. Mary Cray, Kent. 



THE WINDSOR BEE-KEEPER'S 
Choice Selected Collection of 

lllil ©f f 3L0W1ES' 

SOUGHT AFTER BY BEES. Free by post, 2/6. 

SOLD BY (162) 

JOHN SMITH, The Royal Nursery, Clewer, Windsor, Berks. 

CHAPM AN HONEY PLANT. 

I WILL send to any address 26 varieties of BEE- 
FLOWER SEEDS, including the Noted CHAPMAN 
HONEY PLANT, for 2s. post paid. GARDEN SEEDS.— 
I will send 21 packets of Garden Seeds to any address for 
2s. 6d. post paid. BAR-FRAME HIVES with Straw 
bodies, the hive least affected by heat or cold. _ My Hives 
and Appliances are all forwarded carriage paid, and re- 
turnable if not approved on arrival. Please send your 
address on post-card, and I will send Descriptive and 
Priced Catalogue post free. Address John Moore, Seed 
Merchant, Market Place, and Prospect Farm, Warwick. 

Patent Bee Feeder.— Removing the Flask. 




Or for giving warm syrup in eases of dysentery. 



bUOAK. thoge ,, 



had many enquiries from 
those who cannot obtain the right 
kind, we now offer Genuine PORTO RICO, on rail at 
Brighton, 21s. per cwt., lis. 50-lbs., 5s. 9<J. 28-lbs. DUTCH 
CBUSHED, best for Syrup, 22s. 6<7. per cwt., lis. 6d. 56-lbs., 
6s. 28-lbs. Quantities of not less than 2 cwt. of Dutch 
Crushed, direct from London, at 19s. 6rf. per cwt. ; not less 
than 10 cwt. Porto Bieo, at 18s. For Cash only with Order. 
No Samples sent, as we recommend only what we would 
use ourselves. Subject to fluctuations in Market. 

Address: Simmins' Factory, Brighton. (161 
QKEPS, FOUNDATION, &c. 

° 1 lb. 3/- or 1/10. 

Dealers and others apply for List (110 Illustrations), 
G. STOTHARD, WELWYN, HERTS, a 2324 

QCREW CAP JAES.— Fifty 2-gross Cases of 
|kj new Straight Shape 1-lb. JARS to be Sold at a great 
reduction, together or separately. Address Fredk. Pear- 
son, Stockton Heath, Warrington. 

FOR SALE.— OBSERVATORY and FRAME 
HIVES, STOCK FOUNDATION and FOUNDATION 
MACHINE, with SECTION CRATES and FRAMES, to 
be sold cheap. Apply to C. Cust, 3 Temple Terrace, 
Dorchester. A 2347 

QECTIONS.— 5000 1-lb. White Lime dove-tailed 

|ij Sections, cost from Abbott 81. 15s., sacrifice lot for il. 
Address E. Hurst, Wilmington, Polegate, Sussex. 



Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Stuangeways' Piunting Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c.' 



[No. 24H. Vol. XV.] 



MARCH 10, 1887. 



[Published "Weekly.] 



(^tutorial, Motlm, #r. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR SCHEDULES. 

The time is drawing near when the committees 
of the various Associations will be taking into con- 
sideration the task of drawing np their various 
schedules for the regulation of their annual shows, 
and it may not be considered inopportune to throw 
out a few suggestions or hints which may be of 
some assistance to them in this duty. Bee-keeping 
cannot now be considered to be in its infancy ; 
it has been developing in experience for some 
years ; the lessons of the past should not be lost 
upon us, and we are all desirous that our api- 
cultural system should be approximating the goal 
of perfection. Admittedly there are still before us 
many debateable points. We are not all in agree- 
ment respecting the highest points in judging 
either hives or honey. In time these differences 
may possibly be adjusted, and these points solved. 
It would be an advance in that direction if, as 
suggested at the last annual meeting, the Com- 
mittee of the B.B.K.A, could see their way to draw 
up some simple rules for judging, which from such 
a quarter would be sure to find acceptance with the 
several affiliated Associations. 

During the past year discussions have arisen ill 
our Journal which have proved of the greatest 
utility, and viewing these with an editorial eye, 
it may be allowable while the committee of the 
B.B.K.A. are pondering over the above matter to 
throw out a few hints pro bono publico. 

The little contretemps at the Indian and Colonial 
Exhibition was not without its benefits. The 
county competition was an experiment which in 
its results more than surpassed the most sanguine 
expectations of its promoters. It was difficult— it 
haying been a first endeavour — to know how the 
scheme would work, and therefore it cannot be 
wondered at that all was not right, that the 
judges' work was not the acme of perfection. It 
has simply shown us, as might have been antici- 
pated, that on a future occasion a few slight 
alterations will be necessary in the details to 
render such an exhibition more complete. 

Turning to the last annual meeting, Mr. Burkitt's 
resolution will have its results. We feel sure that 
gentleman had no desire to throw more work on the 
officers of Associations j he may have had in his 



mind's eye cases which have come under his own 
notice, where there has been a long list of rules, 
and the judges have received copies just as they 
wero beginning their arduous duties, without time 
being allowed to grasp some of the more minute 
details. To overcome this difficulty, let us suggest 
that it would be wise if secretaries were to forward 
to the judges a copy of the rules a few days prior 
to the show, so that they could make themselves 
thoughtfully and thoroughly acquainted with them. 

Another point which occurs to us relates to 
judges. Rules for judging, suggestions forjudges, 
&c, are all very well in their way ; but, after all, 
it is able and experienced men that are required, — 
men who know their subject, and are well up in it, — 
men who are known to give their judgment to the 
best of their ability, — men in whose verdict all will 
be ready to acquiesce. Of late the cry has been — 
loud and urgent — that the B. B. K. A. should frame 
rules for judging, so that any one may undertake 
the duties of a judge. But unless such judges were 
able to give a reason for the decisions they may 
arrive at, there would still be much dissatisfaction. 
The resxilt of a show is not merely for the present, 
it influences the direction of the work of the 
bee-keepers for the future season, therefore much 
necessarily depends on the confidence that can be 
placed in the opinions of the judge. We would 
say to the various associations, Follow the example 
of other societies, and obtain judges well qualified 
for their work. 

Another suggestion, and we have done for the 
present. Offer, in future, medals for the encou- 
ragement of the production of wax and the use 
of honey in various forms. Comestibles of all 
kinds with honey as an ingredient are now nu- 
merous, we are glad to say. Honey in medicine 
is regaining its proper footing, and honey is being 
utilised in many other ways ; and now, when con- 
sidering what to do with our increased produc- 
tions of honey, we would desire especially to direct 
the attention of committees to this matter. Don't 
forget to encourage all the utilities for honey ; offer 
prizes for honey comestibles, honey medicines, and 
have a separate class which will cover anything 
worthy of commendation in which the products of 
the apiary are employed. By such encouragement 
fresh channels will be opened, larger quantities of 
honey will be disposed of; and need we say prices 
will improve, and bee-keeping considered one of the 
most profitable of inchistries f 



104 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 10, 1887- 



ASSOCIATIONS. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' 
ASSOCIATION. 

This Association held its Annual Meeting on Thursday, 
February 24th, at Gloucester. Report was read showing 
increase of members, &c. Financial statement closed 
with a working balance in hands of treasurer. Per- 
mission was given for the formation of a Bristol district 
association under their enterprising- local secretary, Mr. 
Appleton, which it is hoped will much assist in the 
better working of that portion of the county. Received 
with regret the resignation of the Hon. Secretary, the 
Rev. John Turner, Mr. Slade, of 12 Promenade Villas, 
Cheltenham, being appointed Hon. Secretary. 



IRISH BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The Annual General Meeting of the above Association 
was held on Thursday, February 24, at 2 p.m., in Dr. 
Traill's Class-room, 35 Trinity College, H. Chenevix, 
Esq., J.P., in the chair. Present — Miss E. E. Rutherford, 
Miss Violet Knight, Dr. J. Purser Allen, Messrs. J. M. 
Gillies, J. Edmondson (treasurer), C. F. Knight, J. K. 
Milner, "Walter J. Stanford (lion, secretary), and M. H. 
Read. 

The following is an abstract of the report adopted : — 

' The heavy debt of 30/. carried into last year's 
accounts from 1885 has, owing to the great liberality of 
a few gentlemen, been cleared off. The Committee 
made arrangements to send an exhibit of Irish honey to 
the British Bee-keepers' Show at South Kensington. 
Only four members, however, availed themselves of the 
facilities offered, owing to the extraordinary lateness of 
the season ; and three exhibits of 1-lb. sections, and two 
of 1-lb. bottles, were delivered at the show from Ireland, 
and with these five exhibits one second prize and two 
highly commended in a class of forty-two entries, and 
one highly commended in a class of thirty-eight, were 
secured ; honours equivalent to 80 per cent of the Irish 
exhibit. The only appearances of the bee tent this year 
were at Dunadry, co. Antrim, on July 26th, and at the 
Giant's Causeway, Portrush, on July 27th. After much 
difficulty a honey market was at last started in Dublin 
for members of the Association in August. The com- 
mittee were fortunate in securing the services of Messrs. 
Carton Brothers, 17 Halston Street, as agents, to whose 
untiring energies the success of the scheme is largely 
due. Fourteen different members sent up honey amount- 
ing to 1228 lbs., for which a total of 50/. 9s. lOd. was 
realised, or an average of 9-86rf. per lb. Two conver- 
saziones were held during the year, in June and 
November, which were well attended. Several interest- 
ing and instructive papers were read, and various other 
subjects of apiarian interest were freely discussed and 
appliances exhibited. The list of members now numbers 
eighty-three, of whom six are life members, and seventy- 
seven annual, as against three life members and 106 
annual in 1884, and four life members and sixty-three 
annual in 1885. It will be seen, therefore, that though 
there was a very heavy fall in 1884-1835, we are 
again on the rise slowly, having added sixteen to our 
total since last year, with twenty-eight new subscribers. 
Several new names have already been received for 1«87. 
They also desire to bring under your notice that this 
past year the Government have for the first time included 
apiculture in their annual agricultural returns, thereby 
proving how important a part of the industry of the 
country it is considered. Ireland having taken the lead 
in this important matter it is much to be hoped that 
England and Scotland will very soon follow her example.' 

The financial statement shows that the income from 
annual subscriptions for 1880 amounted to 23/. lis. 6c/., 
as against only 17/. 9*. (id. for the year 1885. Besides 



this there were special donations towards paying off the 
outstanding accounts of the Association amounting to 
10/. 10s. aud also 3/. 18s. Cd. from sundry sources, making 
a grand total of 47/. 9s. Of this 12/. 5s. lid. was ex- 
pended to meet the current expenses of the 3'ear, and 
30/. 0s. 3d. to pay off the Association's debts, leaving a 
balance in the treasurer's hands of 5/. 2s. Wd. 

The following were elected to serve as officers for the 
ensuing year : — President, the Lord Ardilaun ; Vice- 
presidents, the Rev. R. Bellew, W. J. Brandy, Esq., the 
Rev. Canon Proctor; hon. treasurer, J. Edmondson, 
Esq.; lion, secretary, H. Chenevix, Esq., J. P. 

A vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Stanford for his 
services as lion, secretary during the past year, wbich 
was duly acknowledged by that gentleman. 

The committee for 1837 are, — the Rev. P. Kavanagh, 
Messrs. Walter J. Stanford, J. K. Millner, Dr. Traill, 
Messrs. M. H. Read, J. M. Gillies, C. F. Knight, R. 
Sproule, Dr. Allen, Dr. O'Farrell, J. S. B. Vanston, the 
Rev. T. Lindsay, Edward Byrne, J. P., John Jones, M.D., 
S. K. Twigg. 

It was moved by Dr. Knight that steps be taken by 
the incoming committee to place the Association on a 
more representative basis by conferring powers on district 
branches to nominate a member or members for election 
on the general committee and by indicating clearly on 
the voting papers that such members had been so nomi- 
nated. This was seconded by Mr. Gillies and passed. 

It was moved by Dr. Knight that District Associations 
be formed throughout Ireland. 

Mr. Stanford objected to District Associations being- 
formed at all at present on the grounds that the Irish 
Bee-keepers' Association itself was not strong enough to 
subdivide into smaller associations. He suggested that 
the matter should be allowed to drop for another year. 
Mr. Read said that local secretaries would meet the 
requirements of Irish bee-keepers at present. Mr. 
Chenevix was of the same opinion. After some discus- 
sion, therefore, the motion was withdrawn. 

It was moved by Dr. Knight that steps be taken by 
the incoming committse to carry out the plan of the 
Cottiers' Fund. This should be done by some few 
members each sending a name of a suitable cottager in 
their neighbourhood for approval to the committee, who 
should select one or more of these names and supply 
them as funds permitted with the appliances neces- 
sary to start bee-keeping. The members who nominated 
the choseu ones to become responsible for repayment in 
easy instalments for the appliances furnished. This was 
seconded by Mr. Stanford and passed. 

The meeting adjourned with a vote of thanks to the 
Chairman. 

Weight of full Bars of Comb eefoke Slingi.vg and 
after. (Standard size.) — I thought it might interest 
some readers of the Bee Journal to know this. Last year I 
weighed one box of ten bars, the top storey of a hive :— 

Fcll. Emptt. 

lbs. ozs. lbs. ozs. 

4 2 1 4 

5 5 1 3 

5 4 1 4 

6 1 S 

5 3 1 2 

6 9 1 4 

5 12 1 5 

5 1 1 2 

5 12 : 1 2 

5 3 1 2 

54 3 12 4 

J. W. L. 

' Gloves.' — A Suggestion. — Cut off the finger-ends of the 
gloves, if not quite prepared to manipulate without some 
protection, then if desirous of making doubly sure of being 
unharmed, a very small application of Grimshaw's 'Api- 
fuge' ought to suffice. — C. A. J. 



March 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



105 



CntTcspcwaenie. 



Tho Editor docs not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write on one side oj 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publicatio'n, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be draven on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports oj 
Associations, Shoics, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to *The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal," c}o Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. .Martin's iane.Xondon, IF. C.' Ml business communications relating 
to Advertisements, £c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langlcy, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements). 

%* In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter^ as xcell as the page on which it appears. 



THE NEW RACES AND THE BEST MEANS 

OF INTEE-BREEDING AND SECURING 

FERTILISATION. 

Cypeians. 

[845.] The recent statements of Mr. F. Benton in 
reference to these bees will have interested many : but I 
do not see why he should fear that others may say he is 
actuated by interested motives. We all know that his 
motives are honourable, and if there is one man more 
capable than any other of forming a correct opinion of 
these bees it is "himself. I believe that, as a rule, bee- 
dealers, as well as manufacturers, recommend an article 
because they honestly telieve it to be of value, and I 
would ask, "Who is there better able to judge correctly 
than those who provide for the many ? I know that there 
a ie others who hold their peace, fearing they will be 
insidered 'interested'; but, friends, if your opinion is 
worth anything at all, by all means let us have it. The 
majority will believe in your sincerity. Time proves 
all things, and truth will prevail. 

I am afraid Mr. Benton has not had the recompense 
he deserves for all the trouble and expense he has been at 
in bringing the new races more prominently before the 
public, and placing Cyprians in particular more within 
reach of those who can afford to pay for them. The price 
has been high — too high to enable bee-keepers generally 
to adopt them ; but I feel certain, could he but see his way 
clear to make a considerable reduction from his charges, 
the demand would be so much greater as to fully repay 
him. 

The reports regarding the temper of Cyprians have 
been so conflicting it cannot be wondered at that so 
much uncertainty exists in regard to them. The bad 
opinion, as expressed by some, results from one of two 
causes ; either through careless handling, or the _ bee- 
keeper has hybrids, which he persists in calling ' Cyprians.' 
If we speak of Cyprians, once and for all, let it be under- 
stood that we mean what we say. Cyprians are not 
hybrids, and hybrids are not pure Cyprians. This 
seems plain enough, but, strange to say, a well-known 
writer in another journal speaks of the doings of his 
Cyprians; but he tells us they are descended from a 
queen he had ten years since. I wonder how much 
Cyprian blood there is in those bees at this day J" I have 
no doubt his bees were benefited by tho introduction of 
Cyprian blood at that time, and I am certain are the 
better for it now, but why call them ' Cyprians,' after 
being crossed and re-crossed as hybrids through several 
generations? Again, a noted Scotch bee-keeper has 
strongly condemned ' Cyprians,' though at the same time 
showing good results from them; but in private con- 
versation he has informed me that he had never been 
stung by the pure bees, but the hybrids were hard to 
deal with. 

The Rev. G. Baynor has had a lengthened experience 
with these bees, and continues to speak well of them ; 
but I believe he has had some trouble with dysentery. 



It would be interesting, therefore, if that veteran bee- 
keeper could give us a little information as to the hive 
he uses for wintering; and how the frames, &c, are 
arranged. 

We have heard of the grand results gained by that 
practical bee-keeper, Mr. Cowan, from his Cyprian (P) 
stocks. Now, I may be mistaken, but I have reason to 
believe that in his apiarj' it would have been the excep- 
tion rather than the rule to find pure Cyprians ; and if 
the Editor will kindly put us right, upon this point, it 
will be satisfactory to all, and particularly to myself, as 
I do want to get at the bottom of the whole question. 
Let us know only what are being called Cyprians, and 
what not; then we can clear away this mist overhanging 
that remarkable race. 

Mr. Blow, of Welwyn, after all the the trouble and 
expense he was put to in bringing over many stocks, 
condemns them utterly. Though on one occasion it 
will be remembered ho had to flee from the enraged 
bees without obtaining what he had bargained for, he 
says he had no difficulty in managing them abroad ; but 
arrived here he could do nothing with them. His ex- 
perience simply shows that it does not do to buy stocks 
indiscriminately. What is wanted is an established and 
permanent modern apiary in Cyprus, where year after 
year the disposition of the respective colonies may be 
tested, and breeding be carried on only from the most 
docile, of course having regard to working qualities as 
well. Another of our well-known bee-keepers has long- 
since given Cyprians a bad name, but I am aware that 
hybrids resulting from indiscriminate mating had some- 
thing to do with his verdict. It is within my knowledge 
that the same gentleman, not more than a year since, 
bought many stocks from an apiary where only hybrid 
Cyprians are kept, and in hives with frames so propolised 
that the average bee-keeper would hesitate before at- 
tempting to remove one. I had some of the same, and all 
were transferred to new frames, while with one or two 
exceptions they were as peaceable as Ligurians. Those 
that did. sting were no worse than a Ligurian hybrid 
stock, from which I removed the queen because of their 
vicious nature. 

I have had many pure Cyprians, and not one stock 
but what coidd be handled without smoke at any time 
of the day, dull days or fine days, in season or out of 
season, without receiving a single sting. They rest more 
quietly upon the combs under manipulation than any 
other bees I have seen; they are the best of honey- 
gatherers, exceedingly prolific, and under proper 
management give no trouble in swarming, while not 
the least of their good recommendations is their extreme 
beautv. Upon examining a hive of these bees, proceed 
as follows : — 



1. Peel the quilt back with a firm but careful motion, 
using no intimidant. 

2. Wait a few second?. 

•'!. Make no hasty movement. 

4. As with other bees, remove combs carefully. 

5. In shaking them from the combs, as with any 
others, I never give a thorough shake to begin with. 
Give one or two gentle jerks, and then be as rough as 
you please. 

Mr. Cheshire, than whom there is no more observant • 
bee-keeper, will surely be credited. He considers that 
Cyprians are most amiable, judging from his own stocks, 
and having also examined those at my Kottingdeau 
apiary under varying conditions. 

I have had Cyprians storing honey and breeding when 
Ligurians and common bees would be doing nothing; 
in fact, there never appetrs to be a time during the 
season when they cannot get a living. G. M. Dooliltle, 
a well-known American writer, speaks well of their 
working qualities, and says what is quite true, that, 
unlike common bees, one may stand for hours by the 



106 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 10, 1887. 



hive, and not one bee will attempt to sting. Unfortu- 
nately, Lis experience Las been with one colony only, 
and, whether through wrong treatment or not, I cannot 
say, he condemns them as quite unmanageable. 

Mr. Heddon, another prominent apiarist in the States, 
condemns them without trial, and draws some very 
erroneous conclusions from the statements of others, who 
have had but one or two queens; and it is even open to 
doubt whether such were pure. 

Perhaps the worst failing Cy'prians have is that they 
use a great deal of propolis, often of a very dark colour. 
Their cappings are thin, and lie close upon the honey, 
giving the same a dark, damp appearance, and therefore 
they are in both respects quite unsuitable for section 
work. They are also almost certain to start fertile 
workers, if by any means the queen is removed ; but 
this appears to be no trouble, as such subside immediaely 
upon the introduction of another laying queen, while 
there is no attempt to molest her. 

It has been stated that they breed too late in the 
season, using up all their stores, and also that they 
winter badly ; but this is entirely a fault of those 
making such statements. I have long since been told 
that Ligurians also disposed of their stores in like 
manner, but if the apiarist persists in giving them a small 
daily supply during the autumn, of course brood-rearing 
will be continued. Give them the whole of their winter 
stores, or the quantity necessary to complete such, in the 
course of two or three days, at the end of August, if you 
like, but never later than the latter part of September. 
Nevermind if some brood is thrown out to accommodate 
it, so that every comb is almost solid with sealed food ; 
then leave them alone ; and I have yet to see the stock 
so treated which did not soon cease breeding entirely, 
finding nothing more was to be had. 

With the more prolific races it does not do to com- 
mence slow feeding, even as early as the last of August, 
when a colony does not appear to have quite enough 
store to carry it through, as all will simply be wasted, 
and the strength of the stock as well. Let no one say I 
am wrong in advising the destruction of the brood" in 
such cases. I have seen it done by the bees on their own 
account when storing naturally late in the season, some- 
times as early as the middle of August, and nothing 
would induce such colonies to breed again until after the 
'turn of days,' though headed by young and prolific 
queens, and in the following year giving a good account 
of themselves. 

Now, how about d)'sentery, or bad wintering qualities? 
Strange as it may appear to some of your readers, I have 
always found this more prevalent with double-walled 
hives, and where the frames run across the entrance. 
But too often there is hardly sufficient space for a bee 
to crawl under the frames ; bees die and drop to the 
floor-board, get into a mass, and block up such a shallow 
space. A warm day comes, and the bees have all they 
can do to _ find the entrance, while many wander about 
In an excited state, soon to drop among the heap upon 
the floor, daubed by their own excrement and that of 
others, which should and would, under proper conditions, 
have been voided while upon the wing. The living do 
not, _ because they cannot, remove such a mass of cor- 
ruption, which is being rapidly added to, because of 
insufficient ventilation and the foulness of the hive. The 
stronger the colony thus situated, the more certain and 
rapid is its destruction, unless the evil be remedied at an 
early stage. Hence we see why the more prolific races, 
being in larger _ numbers during winter, suffer from 
dysentery when improperly hived. 

The too-small space under the frames is the rule, 
rather than the exception. I have on many occasions 
drawn attention to this matter, and have given a full 
half-inch as the space to allow when hives are first made, 
though in winter several inches would be better. The 
more room given there, the cleaner will be the floor ; 



better ventilation will be secured, and the health of the 
bees maintained in consequence, more particularly if the 
frames stand 'end on' to the entrance, facing the 
mid-day sun. Do this as I have done, and 3-011 will have 
no more complaints to give about the wintering qualities 
of Cyprians. 

The beginner should on no account obtain Cyprians, 
as he is sure to get a mixed race which will give him 
trouble ; but the man of average experience, who cau in 
a measure direct the breeding department, will find the 
introduction of these bees of immense value, making his 
stock more substantial, and causing his returns to be 
more certain ; as a cross with this race gives that equal 
and general good condition of stocks, hitherto found 
wanting in every apiary, large or small. 

In future papers we will talk about thoss hybrids, and 
how to get in them all the good qualities of the Cyprians, 
without their faults, and without that stinging pro- 
pensity characteristic of hybrids as generally known, 
and which, through careless observation or heedless 
expressions, have often been the cause of giving pure 
Cyprians a bad name. — S. Simmins. 

[For two years we had twelve pure Cyprian stocks 
from imported queens purchased of reliable dealers, and 
should have had no difficulty in keeping the race pure 
to this day had we wished to do so. Of these queens 
we destroyed several the first season, because they did 
not satisfy us, and did not come up to our Italians, and 
these we replaced by others, some imported and some 
bred at home from selected stocks. From our experience 
of home-bred queens, we believe in them, and also that 
any one taking the trouble can secure pure fertilisation 
if he wishes. When we speak of Cyprians we also mean 
the pure race, and for two years pure Cyprians with us 
were the rule and not the exceptiou. Our correspondent 
has had, we believe, considerable experience with these 
bees, therefore we are glad to find he does not differ 
from us as to their not being suitable for beginners; but 
we do differ from him most distinctly as to the reason. 
Why is a beginner sure to get a mixed race which will 
give him trouble ? Does Mr. Simmins wish us to believe 
that Cyprian queens as imported and sold by our respect- 
able dealers are a mixed race ? Mr. Benton we know 
supplies Cyprians; does he mean that a beginner pur- 
chasing queens sent over by him would not get the pure 
race ? Our experience is that pure Cyprians vary con- 
siderably in temperament, and that veiy bad-tempered 
bees may yet be perfectly pure. The experience of the 
leading bee-keepers confirms this. As Mr. Simmins has 
appealed to Mr. Cheshire's statements in support of his 
arguments, we would point out their value by showing 
that he also gave them a bad character ; and if our 
readers will refer to the discussion on Mr. Blow's paper, 
on p. 29, Vol. x. British Bee Journal, they will find the 
following words of Mr. Cheshire's : — 'The third queen, 
which he got from the north of the island of Cyprus, 
raised bees of a dark colour. This last queen sent by 
Mr. Benton was going on fairly well. She was ex- 
tremely small, her bees were small though bright. With 
regard to the tempers, the queen (the third in number 
that came into his possession) had raised bees that were 
not generally irritable, but if they were disturbed they 
were furious beyond expression. On one occasion when 
he transferred a swarm from one hive to the other, he 
was stung at least a hundred times during the operation, 
they were utterly uncontrollable ; yet these bees pre- 
viously had been easily handled.' Mr. Cheshire's 
considering Cyprians most amiable is so diametrically 
opposed to his own statements respecting their temper, 
that we have no doubt our readers will be able to 
reconcile them somehow. We have only to repeat what 
we have said over and over again, that Cyprians vary in 
temperament, and some better selection must be adopted 
before we can hope to have nothing but amiable bees, 
—En.] 



March 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



107 



THE REVERSIBLE SECTION RACK. 

[846.] This section rack has been designed to mini- 
mise manipulation with the If" section, for when with 
a crate of these sections one full one has been taken 
off the hive, and when no separator had been in use, 
the remainder must be moved up so as to have sections 
filled out to the same extent opposite each other. With 
this rack the whole sections are filled in and the crate 
full comes off at one time wholly finished. 

There is a second advantage gained by its nse (this 
is connected with the open-sided If" section) ; it is that 
the brood-nest can be contracted in the honey flow, the 
queen kept out of the sections without use of excluder 
zinc, and a full bee passage of a quarter of an inch 
allowed the bees to the sections, by which, and with 
plenty of room in the sections, it is expected the bees 
will be prevented from swarming, and that as much 
comb honey will be stored as would be in frames 
worked for extracting. 

The principle is very simple ; it is applicable to all 
sections without or with separators of only same size as 
section with which they are employed ; it is also appli- 
cable to all section-crates which are slightly wider 
than the sections contained in them. But the section- 
crate for which it has been especially designed is the 
Raj'nor-Benthall pattern, made a \" wider than the 
open-sided section on each side, to allow of bee passage 
round, and prevent pop-holes through the combs. Eight 
If" sections fit in the space of seven two-inch wide ; 
these eight are divided into two equal portions, the 
sections in each of which are clamped together by four 
slips of angle tin covering the four corners, and clasped 
or bent down over the narrow part of end sections at 
both top and sides. The opening at top and bottom of 
these sections is t ",t" or excluder zinc size, that at the 
sides a quarter of an inch wide. When these racks 
are first placed in the crate, the iV opening is down, 
and when the comb is drawn out and a little honey 
stored in the centre of crate, the two racks are reversed 
and the sections previously on the outside are now 
brought to the centre, and when a little honey is again 
stored in these, the racks are turned on their sides, and 
as the queen can now do no damage, a full \" bee- 
space passage is allowed to the bees to work in the 
sections. By means of these racks every section in the 
hive can be placed directly over the centre of the 
brood-nest, or within the width of a section of the 
centre, and it is about the centre of the hive the chief 
storage and sealing over is done. One of Mr. Simmins's 
separators with a half bee-space added at the corners 
at each side would be required at the centre, when 
the end sections had not been evenly drawn out, and 
at the ends a half bee-space of -fa" must be added to 
face of boards closing up, when they touch the sections. 
The ledges for the sections to rest on are rectangular 
tin tunnels, inverted sides }" deep, width |" ; these are 
tacked underneath to sides of crate, which are 4J" deep, 
the outer side of crate being flush with side of tin 
tunnel. 

If there are any advantages in inversion of section 
honey-comb, these racks seem to overcome the drawback 
to inversion of crates of them at one time, which draw- 
back is that all the combs not being in the same state 
of development at same time, and in consequence it is 
difficult to know when to invert : Mr. Heddon seems 
inclined to find fault with inversion altogether on this 
account. With the racks there is no difficulty in secur- 
ing the fitness of the comb and finding out the time 
for that purpose, shortly after the outside sections have 
been placed in the centre, the racks should be filled 
with sections of same standing, and fit for inversion. 
Should anyone interested in this crate or rack not 
thoroughly understand it I shall be most happy to ex- 
plain everything required, and should a demand arise 



for either rack or crates, I should place samples in 
the hands of a manufacturer and have them made in 
quantity. — W. B., PairicksweM, Limerick. 



IN THE HUT. 

' Where the bee sucks, 
There lurk I. ' 

[847.] I purpose, with your permission, to send you 
occasional notes, criticisms, suggestions, and hints on bee 
topics amongst the Horsforth bee-keepers, who I find 
are in the habit (like some kinds of bees) of resorting to 
secluded and solitary nooks, in which they may discuss 
their hubby free from the ken of the outside world. In 
such a nook is ' The Hut,' which I ought to try and 
describe to your readers, for, if I mistake not, its 
seclusion, or at least the seclusion of its inmates, is fated 
to experience fierce assault 'in the coming by-and-by.' 

(When people think 

' A chiel's among 'em takin' notes, 
An' faith he'll prent it,' 

it may be as bad for the chid as for Stephenson's coo 1) 

Picture a sharply-sloping hillside in Airedale, well 
sheltered by w T oods of beech, birch, sycamore, and hazel 
on all sides but due south. A clearing of half an acre 
or so is utilised as a bee-garden (how much nicer 
bee-garden sounds than apiary !), and along the ■western 
side, under the protection of a hedge against that bete noir 
of black bees— the north-east wind, a row of hives is 
ranged. They are unlike 'the great Orion, sloping 
slowly to the west,' but resemble somewhat true orthodox 
Christians in sepulture in that they possess in their 
arrangements this relic of Paganism — on the re-awaking 
resurrection of early spring, they shall greet the great 
sun-god at his rising. 

On the northern side of the clearing is a wooden hut, 
quite open on the south side, provided with a firmly 
fixed table, and canvas-covered, hay-stuffed seats, which 
at this season are highly charged with elements pro- 
ductive of rheumatism and hseniorrhoidal disturbance ; 
so, like the objectionable dishes in Mark Twain's book, 
those seats are ' passed,' in favour of the table. Here, in 
the hut, midst bosky wood and mossy boulders, the 
calumet of peace is smoked, with perhaps a wandering- 
Jew (W. J.) in perspective, probing about and pottering 
under stones for ants' nests, or else amusing the blue tits 
with shot from his catapult. 

High noon, an hour before, and one after, are marked 
by incisions cut in the table on the line of reflection cast 
by a sharp-edged supporting pillar, and it is by the 
decisions of this homely sun-dial that adjournments are 
made. So you see all discussion is at present perforce 
standing, that is, when there are several subjects on foot, 
and frequent reference has to be made to the standing 
orders of the Association of which these happy bee-ists 
are members. Hearty jokes (artichokes, if you will) 
are anything but rare in this bee-gavAen, and are as 
freely taken as given. I do not, of course, impute to 
anyone the taking of 'what isn't his'n'; acting on the 
motto ' Honi soit qui mal y peme,' which, being freely 
translated and pronounced, meaneth ' Honey and soot 
killed Mally (local for Mary) Spence.' 

In one debate as to the best material for smokers, a 
j Hutite suggests that cigars are best, when obtainable, 
but for old hands an efficient substitute may be found in 
good tobacco. Seriously, chemists frequently get corru- 
gated paper as packing for bottles, and most of them 
will obligingly hand it over to us. A better thing, 
however, is old cord trousers (cut into strips, and rolled 
the size of the smoke-chamber), those of juveniles being 
much relished and preferred, or abhorred, bythe bees. 

There is one thing, we framewell (Yorkshire dialect), 
to succeed with in this part — we use only one kind of 
frame—' Abbott's broad shoulders.' It has been found 



108 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 10, 1887. 



so convenient, when a vagrant swarm has hived itself 
in a decoy, to trundle the lot home again at nightfall, 
paying the owner the cost of the hive. One can, besides, 
' help a worn and weary brother,' with a frame or two 
of drawn-out foundation, when packing-up for the 
heather, and so on. 

Moral: — Have as much uniformity as you can in 
forming district associations; the co-operative system of 
purchasing will then come into play. — X. Tractoe. 



THE ONE-AND-THREE-QUAETER SECTION. 

[648.] It might not be amiss now that the time of 
preparation has come for securing the results of next 
honey season, to review the objections raised agaiust the 
disuse of separators, and reconsider the claims of the 
If section as being the best for storage of its surplus 
comb-honey. 

The disuse of separators is objected to, — First]} - , that 
without their use the comb is irregularly sealed over ; 
secondly, too bulged for glazing ; thirdly, that in packing 
for transit the combs frequently touch one another ; and 
lastly, that in unpacking it is difficult to know which 
comb to take out first without causing damage. It has 
been proved that 'perfect!}- level If sections can be 
worked without separators.' (See Mr. Grimshaw's 
letter, No. GOO, page 537, B.B.J, of last year.) This 
success, probably, was in a honey-glut, or good honey 
year, the indispensables of level hives and careful manipu- 
lation being also observed ; but it is not to be expected 
that in a bad year or intermittent honey flow, when 
work has to be done piecemeal, that the same symmetry 
of proportion can be preserved by the bees; for such 
times, and to bring the If into general use, Mr. Simmins 
has invented a separator (and allowed me to call the 
attention of bee-keepers to it), that, while it allows of 
the same full appearance of the section, as if no separator 
had been used, ensures a perfectly even section — one fit 
for glazing and exhibition at all times. This is accom- 
plished by thickening the corners of the separator at 
point of contact with the section the -j\nds of an inch on 
each side, or Tsths of an inch, a full bee-space altogether. 
Thus the face of comb is brought within a half bee- 
space of outer edge of section. But this separator is 
not recommended when it can possibly be done without, 
as it is found the comb-honey harvest is greatly increased 
where no separator had been used. With regard to 
bulging too much for glazing, this seems but to improve 
the appearance of the section should it occur, for we 
read of some of those worked without separators, that 
were at the Canadian Exhibition? — ' better than which 
eyes need ne'er wish to look upon; too bulged for 
glazing, but all right for the fancy boxes.' With two 
tacks or small screws through the cardboard into the 
wood, the comb is kept at any required distance from 
the glass; and the cost of those boxes can compare 
favourably with glazing when the time occupied by the 
latter is taken into account. In packing in travelling 
crate, there is no danger of the combs touching one 
another, for if packed in them in the same way as they 
had been in the crate on hive, there must be a bee-space 
between each two combs; and in unpacking, were the 
crate made a little longer than the enclosed sections, and 
the same arrangement used as in that on hive — a board 
with wedge, or board alone to close up— there would be 
no difficulty, on removal of this board, in knowing which 
section to take out first. Why was it that, whereas in 
Canada separators are in general use (see Mr. M'Knight's 
letter in B.B.J, of Nov. 11th last), nine-tenths of the 
sections at the Colonial Exhibition were produced without 
their aid P Our Canadian friends knew very well that when 
worked without separators, sections both look and sell 
better. At the close of the honey season, when it 
becomes necessary for the bee-keeper to have his sections 
sealed over quickly, the 1 finch, with the usual separator, 



makes a narrow section, one well suitable for that 
purpose. Thus we see the If inch is the best suited 
section for great produce ; the best in appearance for 
sale and exhibition, and a good narrow for use at the 
close of the honey season. The best section therefore 
for general use, and one well suited at all points for 
storage of the surplus comb-honey of the coming season, 
appears to be the If inch wide, worked either with or 
without separators. — W. 13., Patriekswell, Limerick. 



THE NEW APIFUOE. 

[840.] Mr. Lyon (p. 90) having thrown down the 
gauntlet hy writing satirically of the fact that I have 
deemed it necessary to make it ' registered,' I am re- 
luctantly compelled to take up the challenge in order 
that your readers may not be misled, and that your oft- 
quoted motto ' mum cuique ' ma}' not be prostituted by 
one who seems desirous of ' ploughing with my oxen.' 

In speaking of ' apifuge ' he says, ' Oh, I must not use 
that awful word,' &c, &c. He was not always so sensi- 
tive, and must know that he can use it, but not to sell 
his goods by. 

No sooner did my article appear on the exhaustive 
experiments I have made than Mr. F. Lyon began to 
advertise methyl salicylate. No sooner did an adver- 
tisement of Grimshaw's apifuge appear than he followed 
by using a word to sell his goods by, which word he 
knew I had coined or invented. This manoeuvre being 
stopped by a letter from me, he now, like a familiar 
rodent in a corner, proceeds audaciously to lead the 
readers of the B.B.J, into believing that methyl salic} r - 
late is used in the manufacture of ' apifuge,' for he says, 
'Alas, in future, when the subtle and peculiar odour of 
methyl salicylate pervades the tent,' &c., &c, when at 
the same time he has not a shadow of evidence, either in 
my writing or speech, nor evidence in any way, to 
support him in his assumption. Is not this ' trying to 
sharpen his axe on my grindstone ?' Or perhaps is it a 
' ballon d'essai' to try and ascertain what apifuge is com- 
posed of by a negative process of getting me to deny 
erroneous assertions ? We thus see how really necessary 
it was for me to register the apifuge, attended, as in- 
ventors in bee-keeping are, by ever-vigilant outsiders. 

I tried methyl salicylate and it failed. It failed also 
when Mr. Cheshire got stung on the knuckle whilst 
manipulating the 'awful example' the Rottingdean 
demons. It failed when Mr. Hart gave Mr. Cheshire 
his bottle of it, saying, ' he reckoned nothing of it ' (vide 
conversazione). It failed also because (vide Mr. Cheshire's 
book) it is so ' liable to be terribly adulterated and 
weakened ' that its price to-day goes from — well, very, 
very low up to 32s. per pound. 

The last sentence in his letter is too rich to be passed 
over, so I will give it in e.vtenso : — 'If the use of 
substances to prevent stings should come into general 
use, the effect upon the rising generation of bee-keepers 
can but be to render them very unworthy successors of 
the present skilful manipulators.' And this comes from 
him who sells a lotion professing to be the only cure for 
stings ! How absurdly inconsistent ! 

Again, what is there ' slovenly or slapdash ' in a 
method which allows naked hands, and gives perfect 
protection against stinging, besides a feeling of calm 
confidence even in times of accident? I think the 
'charm attending the cool, careful manipulation' is on 
my side. Cyprians, Syrians, or Ligurian half-breds, it 
matters not which of these ; one can have the really 
best workers with perfect impunity. For myself I do 
not see that apifuge is anything but a boon to the vast 
majority of bee-keepers, amongst whom we may dare to 
include some timid or nervous ladies (of course there are 
no nervous men !), gloved and gauntleted up to the 
elbows, to say nothing to those to whom a sting or two 
is a serious matter on account of their extreme suscepti- 



March 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



109 



bility. For example, I wish Mr. Lyon had seen ray 
hand after using Dr. Pine's lotion for two days in ray 
attempts to reduce the swelling from one sting I 
purposely obtained in hii honour on Saturday, February 
2Gtb, in order to test its efficacy; whilst Mr. S. Abbott 
was trying in vain to get stung (after using npifuge, 
which is not repugnant to bees) by a tribe of demons we 
disturbed by kicking the hive, he playing an imaginary 
piano on the alighting-board with his fingers, and pushing 
two or three bees in at the entrance as he crushed them. 

Surely Mr. Lj'on is prepared to admit that bee- 
keepers do get stung, and don't, like it, else why his 
lotion ? 

Ah ! does not the crux of the whole thing rest here, 
that it is a contest for very existence by the law of 
natural selection between — 
Grimshaw's Apifuge, ) I Dr. Pine*s Lotion, 

an alleged perfect ■ and • an alleged ' perfect 
preventive, ] ( cure?' 

Prevention being notoriously better than cure, do you 
see that ' Othello's occupation's gone' if my stuff win the 
contest ? — R. A. H. Gri.ushaw, Cray Hill, Horsforth, 
near Leeds. 

AN APIFUGE. 
[850.] Some two years ago I came across a receipt to 
prevent mosquitos and other insects from biting travellers 
in hot climates, so thought it might also prevent bees 
stinging. I have used it two years when manipulating 
and consider it a great preventive against being stung. 
I also apply it to any one that gets stung and it has 
proved very effecacious. One ounce cedar oil, one ounce 
olive oil, mix and rub a drop or two on each hand when 
manipulating. — J. W. L. 



APE INVERTIBLE HIVES WATERTIGHT? 

[851.] May I be allowed to ask Messrs. Neighbour and 
Sons to explain in your columns how they mean the rain 
to be kept out of the hives figured on the first page of 
cover of No. 244 of the B. B. Journal? The adver- 
tisement says their ' British Invertible B. F. Hives ' are 
' adapted to our British climate;' but I doubt it, unless 
the hives be sheltered by a shed or placed in a house. 
The hive seems a good one, and from the illustration 
(which I hope you will transfer to j'our columns that it 
may be preserved with the volume when bound) easy to 
manipulate; but unless it can be made watertight at the 
joints where one box sits on the other I shall not like 
to risk a colony of bees in it except in the height of a 
very dry summer. 

To a bee-keeper like myself, who makes his own hives, 
but recommends to his friends and correspondents good 
and simple hives no matter who is the maker, the ques- 
tion is an important one. I am constantly being asked 
and written to about the best hives to purchase, espe- 
cially by beginners in bee-keeping, and I should not like 
to be wrong as to the properties of the hive I recommend. 

I am afraid, that, in the recent craze for invertible 
hives there is a danger of losing sight of the essential 
qualification of hives being thoroughly weathertight at 
all seasons. And so many new things have, during the 
last ten years, been pointed out, and urged upon us and 
then allowed to pass silently into forgetfulness, that one 
cannot swallow all at once the doctrine — untried and un- 
proved — that we must convert all our trusty bar-frame 
hives in which our bees have done so well for many 
years, into invertible hives or we will be left behind the 
times as to bee-keeping. — II. W. Lett, Isl.A.., Affhaderg 
Glebe, Loughbricldand, Co. Down. 



THE STANDARD THE RIGHT SIZE. 

[852.] The bee season is approaching, and bee-keepers 
are considering which system of management to employ. 



Some will adopt the invertible system, but the majority 
I think will ^o very slowly in that direction, and many 
will not move at all, since they profess their inability to 
see how any good can result from turning so many 
thousand head of brood upside down. At present there 
seems but little evidence pro or con either in England or 
America, and therefore all must watch and wait. 

The interchangeability of the different parts of hives 
seems to me to be the leading idea, and not merely their 
invertibility, in Cmada, and the same idea has been 
advocated by Mr. Cowan for some time. The same id.'a 
produced the Association standard frame — a frame too 
large for some, and not large enough for others, so that 
I presume it is just the right size. There are frames of 
three sizes to select from, the diminutive, the medium 
and the gigantic, and each size has its advocates.' 
Many, no doubt, would like to give the shallow frame a 
trial, but do not see buying new hives for the experi- 
ment ; and to such I say there is no need to do so, as 
they can be worked in the hives now in use, whether 
comb or extracted honey is desired. — A. Green, Selston, 
Alfreton. 

ROOFS OF HIVES. 
[853.] In a book on pigeons J have seen a recom- 
mendation for making travelling boxes out of paper in 
order to combine lightness with strength in the folio v- 
ing manner. Dissolve one ounce of Scotch glue iu twenty 
ounces boiling water, and the last thing before using stir 
into it a little at a time twenty grains chrome alum 
dissolved in ten ounces more of hot water. This will 
entirely prevent the glue being ever affected by damp 
and keep the whole manufacture hard and stiff, but iu 
more must be prepared than can be used at a time, as 
when once cold and stiff no amount of heat will re-dis- 
solve the glue. Sufficient sheets of any waste paper can 
be glued together and left to dry in a press. I should 
like to try this plan for making roifs of hives, but have 
failed to obtain the ingredients necessary. I therefore 
take the liberty of asking if any readers of the Brit'sh 
Bee Journal could inform me where the chrome alii n 
can be got. I presume that best Russian glue woul 1 
do in the place of Scotch glue mentioned. — J. B. Butler, 
Bristol. 

DEAD QUEEN. 

[854.] I started bee-keeping about seventeen months 
since, and on the whole, have been very successful. Last 
season I had three frame-hives, from which I obtained 
nearly two hundredweight of honey, mainly by following 
minutely the instructions in your Journal. I venture to 
say that you do not possess a inore devoted admirer in 
the British Islands than your humble servant. I look to 
you as my pore in the bee line, and your Journal co mes 
as a ' boon and a blessing' every week, to delight the 
heart and relieve the monotony of my existence as a 
certificated teacher in a remote country Board School. 

Fired by the above success, I determined to have a 
Ligurian stock of bees, so last season I obtained from 
Mr. Simmins a splendid queen, which I introduced about 
6th September, 1836, to a strong stock of brown bees, 
covering about ten to twelve frames, quite thick. I 
afterwards gave the same stock 15 lbs. of syrup, by rapid 
feeding from five holes. On 10th January, Ligurian bees 
were on the flight-board, and flying about freely. 

To-day I picked up my Ligurian queen, on the ground 
before the hive, apparently quite dead. Temperature 
42° Fahrenheit, by mercurial thermometer in shade. 
No sun, slightly mizzling with rain all day. I picked 
her up at twelve, in the middle of the day. Temperature 
at 7 a.m. same day was 40° Fahrenheit, so there could 
have been no sudden rise of temperature. I could not 
believe for some time it was the queen, I was so struck 
with my loss. However, I took her into the house, and 



110 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 10, 1887 



held her in my hand before (he fire for nearly an hour. 
She just moved a leg or two, showed her sting', and 
became quiescent. Is she dead, or only a case of 
suspended animation ? I send her to you by this post, 
to see if you, pcre editor, can tell me the cause of death, 
or how it was. Are they getting ready for swarming, 
and thrown out a surplus queen ? Is my hive queenless ? 
what am I to do? See what my ambition to have a 
Ligurian stock lias come to. I now have eight blacks 
and brown stocks, and one stock of half blacks and half 
Ligurians. If they have no queen, will they rear one 
now ? What was she doing outside the hive ? 

Please help me out of my dilemma. I await your 
verdict with interest. I believe, two weak stocks, that 
are covering' six or eight frames, better than joining; I 
don't want to join. — Chas. J. Jelfs, Dodford, Broms- 
yrove, Worcestershire, \£th February. 

[Your Queen-bee is as dead as Queen Anne. It is im- 
possible to say what was the cause of the queen's death. 
Sometimes bees will supersede a queen, without any 
apparent reason, and it is probable that yours are raising 
a queen. As you do not wish to unite, on the first 
suitable opportunity examine the colony, and, if you 
find queen-cells in progress, use your discretion as to 
allowing it to stand. Were the case our own we should 
certainly unite it to our weakest colony, first cutting out 
the queen-cells. If there are no queen-cells, uniting is 
the only alternative, since it is too early to obtain queens, 
and, if this were possible, the risk of introduction now 
would be great. 

For your consolation, however, we may state that, in 
March last, a strong Italian colony, in our own apiary, 
taking a fancy to change its queen, destroyed her, and 
raised another in her place, which mated successfully 
about the middle of April, and is now a most prolific 
breeder, and a beautiful queen in size, shape, and colour. 
It must be noted, however, that drones were plentiful in 
our apiary at the time this queen matched. — Ed.] 



REVERSING FRAMES. 

[855.] 1 beg to take the opportunity of -writing to 
you, in reference to the article which appeared in the 
B. B.J. of December 1, 1886, on ' Reversing Frames and 
Hives,' in which you were of opinion that if reversible 
frames were to come into general use, a simple appliance 
must be used that will utilise our present frames and in 
no way interfere with their size, with which I quite 
agree. I now submit to you the following simple plan, 
whereby any one might try reversible frames for a few 
pence. I first cut off the ears of the top bar, then glue 



O 



o 




in little angle pieces in the angles at the bottom of the 
frame, so as to strengthen the bottom part of the frame, 
which also forms a hold for screws which are screwed in 
about half an inch from the sides of the frame. I get 
tint a new top bar, which may be either broad-shouldered 
or metal-ended, and in this bore two holes of the size of 
the head of the screws, and from these holes are two 



wedge-like slots, which, when the bar is pushed, tighten 
both the bars. This same top bar would do for any 
frame, and section-cases, if worked in the rear of the 
hive, might by the same be inverted and kept in position, 
— R. G., West End, Bodmin. 



'CROAKING QUEENS' (203.) 

[850.] ' Amateur Expert,' in ' Jottings ' for the 3rd 
ult., ' hopes that all who own " croaking " bees are 
satisfied with Mr. Grimshaw's excellent paper on the 
" Vocal Organs of the Bee," and that they will endeavour 
to notice the different " croaks" in future, and, moreover, 
that none of them will ever " croak " themselves.' 

I read Mr. Grimshaw's paper with considerable in- 
terest, and I beg to assure your facile and racy corre- 
spondent that — as in the past, so in the future — the 
different ' croaks ' will receive their due share of notice 
from me at least. ' A. E.' hopes that all who own, &c. 
This is pressing into the service the whole army of bee- 
keepers — a mighty host ! 

An attentive examination of the paper in question 
discovers nothing that in any degree militates against — 
much that favours — the possibility of the existence of such 
a sound ; and this whether we investigate and analyse 
the minute anatomical structure and arrangement of the 
spiracles and their relations to the wing's, or simply 
follow Mr. Grimshaw in his description of some of the 
sounds. ' We all know,' sa3 T s he, ' the lazy contented 
boom of the drone as contrasted with the whizz and whirr 
of the disturbed honey-gatherer. We recognise the con- 
tented hum of the quiet prosperous hive in opposition to 
the sharp " poop ! poop ! " of the lost queenless hive.' 
Now this sharp' poop! 'poop!' is clearly a species of 
'croak.' It is just possible, however, that this 'poop! 
poop ! ' sound or croak is never uttered by a queenless 
stock. ' Stahala,' quoted in the Journal of the 10th 
ult., states that the sound " H-u-u-u-u-u-u ! " is pro- 
duced by queenless stocks both in summer and winter,' a 
very different sound from ' poop ! poop ! ' ' Stahala ' 
furthermore adds, 'A loud " wuh-wuh-wuh !" is only 
heard when breeding is going on, but never when the 
hive is queenless or Jias an unfertilised queen.' This 
' wuh-wuh-wuh ! ' or rather, to give it its proper pro- 
nunciation, this ' vuh-vuh-vuh !' is the abrupt croak, 
rattle, or, drum-roll that I have on former occasions de- 
scribed as peculiar to the queen, and, as I have never 
heard such sound emitted by a virgin queen, possibly 
peculiar to one fertilised. It does not, however, neces- 
sarily follow that an unfertilised queen is, anatomically, 
incapable of uttering such sound, but only that her con- 
dition and surroundings, in the virgin state and in the 
fertilised, differ, and that the necessity for the emission 
of this sound is, therefore, in the former state absent. 

This, Sir, is an apparently trivial subject upon which 
to write, but occasionally gieat truths and important 
facts are evolved and receive their elucidation from very 
small data, and I consider it the duty of each of us, no 
matter how humble-so-ever his intellectual status, to do 
what he can for the general good. 

Finally, being of a somewhat hopeful disposition and 
temperament, 1 shall perhaps the more easily put into 
practice ' A. E.'s ' last piece of advice — viz., ' never to 
croak.' — Edwabd C. Andeuson. 



Syrup Feedek. — I think my own syrup feeder is the 
simplest and best. I find tumblers and tin lids about the 
house that, fit each other. Bore five small holes in the tin 
lid near the centre, fill the tumbler with the syrup, put on 
the lid and turn down on the stage, which is placed over 
the feed-hole. The stage is a square piece of wood J of an 
inch thick, about i\ inches square, with a round hole in it 
1 J inches across, and covered with perforated zinc, cut with 
scissors and nailed on. No shovel is required, not a drop is 
spilt, and the tumbler can be turned up any time, and be 
refilled before it is quite empty. — Beeswing. 



March 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



Ill 



|leb.icfo. 



Das Bienexwachs tjnd seine VEnwERTrxa by 
J. Denuler. Published by the author at Enzheim. 
There have been a good many pamphlets on the uses of 
honey as food and medicine, but up to the present time, 
■with the exception of what is found in large and costly 
books, nothing has been done in a separate and cheap 
form to bring the utility of wax before the notice of the 
public. Occasionally we have seen articles exhibited 
in which wax was used, and after our visit to the 
National Exhibition in Zurich, in 188-*», we described in 
the British Bet Journal the fine collection of things wo 
saw there. That wax has a variety of uses not generally 
known, we were convinced by the fact that there wer« 
no less than twenty-two articles in which it formed an 
ingredient, or in the manufacture for which it was used. 
These were 1, glass engraving; 2, painting in wax 
colours; ", wax modelling ; 4, bleached wax ; 5, cosme- 
tique ; 6, wax for waxing thread; 7, corking wax; 8, 
preparation for waxing floors; 9, wax salve; 10, wax 
plaister; 11, solution in benzole ; 12, various forma of 
wax tapers; 13, cold cream; 14, mould of teeth; 15, 
Anatomical preparations in wax; 16, meerschaum tubes; 
17, collar glazed with wax; 18, wax matches; 19, comb 
foundation ; 20, candles ; 21, medals ; 22, photography. 
Such being the various uses to which it can be put, it 
is with pleasure that we welcome the appearance of 
this pamphlet, which commences by giving a history of 
the production of wax, then its conversion into founda- 
tion, and its uses in the household, and, lastly, its uses as 
a medicine. We find a description of the best way of 
obtaining the wax pure, and how to detect its adul- 
terants. M. Dennler is well known as one of the editors 
of the Elsass-I/Othnngische Bienenzeitunr/, is the chair- 
man of the Strasburg section of the Bee Society, and has 
taken an active part in disseminating a knowledge of 
bee-keeping. He is also one of the lecturers of the 
Society,and it gave us great pleasure when we visited him 
at Enzheim to find that he practises in his apiary what 
he preaches out of it. His other occupations prevent 
him keeping more than twenty hives, and most of them 
are of the Baden type. lie told us he had three harvests 
of honey during the season ; first, fruit trees in April, 
which give the honey a slight-rose coloured tint ; second, 
Trifolium incarnatuni, from the end of May to the 
middle of June, this honey has a yellow tinge; third, 
linden, which has a yellowish hue. With the multipli- 
cation of bee-keepers a larger quantity of wax is 
required for foundation, and it is therefore important 
that there should be no waste, and even the oldest combs 
contain something worth getting out of them. How it 
is to be done this pamphlet explains, we therefore 
recommend it, and shall hope, from time to time, to 
give our readers some useful extracts from it. 

Implies 10 #mies. 

[835, 836.] (Edward Clowes.) — Your two queries are most 
difficult to answer. The possibilities of artificial swarming 
were known to the ancients ; whether they practised it or 
not it is impossible to say ; but no doubt they did. In 
order to give you some idea as to how long smoke has been 
known as an intimidant to bees, I may mention that 
Johnstone, in his travels in Central Africa on the Upper 
Congo, found that many tribes here were bee-keepers, 
suspending their hives — made of rushes — on the branches 
of trees, and using smoke when taking the honey. When 
did this commence? Here we find totally uncivilised 
people, having had no possible chance of intercourse with 
civilisation, practising a method which we, in our self- 
sufficiency, consider ourselves the introducers of. The 
partially civilised natives of India use smoke in taking 
the nests of Apis dorsata and other varieties. — W. B. 
Webstee, 



(tmries. 



Queries and Answers arc inserted free of charge to Correspondents 
When more than one query is sent, each should be on a separate piece 
of paper. 

Oar readers will greatly oblige us by answering, as far as their know- 
ledge and observations permit, the Correspondents who seel: assistance. 
Answers should always bear the number and title placed against the 
query replied to. Any queries unanswered in this way will be answered 
by the Editor and others. 

[857.] Would any reader of the Bee Journal say at what 
distance Ligurians should be kept from blacks to keep them 
pure ?— J. W. L. 

[858.] How far off might I place a nucleus hive with a 
young queen from an apiary of a dozen hives and expect to 
get her fertilised ?— J. W. L. 

[859.] Will some one kindly tell me the best way to 
pack bees in Combination hive to send by rail ? Will the 
bars want any fastening put to them? also if it will be best 
to let them travel by night or by day ? May they be sent 
by passenger or goods train? Any inform it ion will oblige. 
— H. B. 

d£rlj0cs from % Uta. 

Cambridge, February 1st. — Bees have been flying freely 
during the past week from my hives, many of them visiting 
a large tub of rain-water which stands a short distance 
from the hives. The bees appear very healthy, fly strongly 
and without falling to the ground, as often happens, after 
they have been shut up in the hives for a long time by stress 
of weather, — J. S. 

February 2GtJi. — A most lovely day, the air filled with the 
joyful hum of bees. Examined all my stocks, eighteen in 
number, all perfectly healthy and strong. Eggs in all, 
hatching brood in several ; iu one hatching brood in three 
frames the centre patch as large as a saucer, young bees 
flying. The greater part of the stocks were made up of 
condemned bees in September, packed for the winter 
between cork-dust dividers, made so that the cork-dust 
can be emptied and dry sugar substituted ; frames covered 
with American cloth, and over that trays three inches deep 
with canvas bottoms, filled with cork-dust. Frames parallel 
to the front of hives. — F. L. 

Upton, St. Leonard's, Gloucestershire, Feb. 28. — Examined 
my thirteen hives this day. All single-walled Simmins's 
hives g" thick, except one. Seven had enamel cloth on all 
the winter, the remaining six carpet and chaff cushion. 
Bees all dead in three hives owing to weakness or insufficient 
stores, the remaining ten in good condition, though stores 
almost exhausted. . The surviving ten stocks consist of 
one Cyprian, two Carniolans, one Ligurian, three Hybrids, 
three Blacks. Of the three last stocks two were blacks and 
one hybrid. — E. Wilkins. 

Goole, March 5. — During the last two or three weeks the 
weather has been all that could be desired — beautiful, warm, 
bright days, which our pets have made the most of, carrying 
in a quantity of water and artificial pollen which we have 
supplied, as there are no flowers yet in bloom. We have 
not lost a single hive this winter up to the present, and I 
think it is not at all probable that we shall (thanks to the 
Journal), as all have plenty of sealed stores, and the bees 
are in good condition. Let us hope that we may have a 
better honey season this year than last, for some of our 
hives had to be fed up for winter as they had not been able 
to gather sufficient stores, let alone surplus, and we had 
very few swarms, although all the stocks were strong. — 
A. Woodhead. 

The Mall House, Lismore. — Our daffodils (the Irish 
daffodil) have been out a few days, and are crowded with 
bees. In view of the fact that our blossoms and vegetation 
in the south of Ireland is at least ten days or a fortnight 
ahead of England, I do not think it amiss to begin a very 
gentle stimulation about March 1. The celandine is out 
now, and daisies in abundance, gorse in quantities, crocus, 
daffodils, heath in gardens (snowdrops over), scillas, and 
primroses both wild and in gardens, and the laurustinus, 
are sheeted with bloom. The ribies will be in bloom in 
less than a week. Under these circumstances I think a 



112 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 10, 1887. 



little gentle stimulation advisable, especially as some of my 
stocks are a trifle short of stores. I shall be glad to know 
your opinion. Last year we had no honey stored in May, 
but the year before, which was an average fine spring, I had 
a beautiful crate of sections finished by May 25. Last year 
one terrible storm in May destroyed all the fruit-tree bloom 
and made an end of the apple crop, pears, &c. I observe 
the bees much prefer the white and purple and purple 
striped crocuses to the common yellow ones. I have 
quantities of each, but see the bees frequenting the former 
in much greater numbers. There is a very large pale 
purple striped variety, that they seem to prefer to any 
other.— F. W. C. 

[Your season is exceptionally early ; at least a month 
earlier than ours. In mild weather you may safely begin 
to stimulate. If any are short of food feed copiously, giving 
sufficient room in the brood-nest by occasionally adding 
empty brood combs as required. We shall hope to hear of 
your success in reaping a bountiful harvest. — Ed.] 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS. 

All queries forwarded wUl be attended to, and those only of personal 
interest will be answered in this column. 

Letters or queries ashing for addresses of manufacturers or correspon- 
dents, or where appliances can be purchased, or replies giving such 
information, can only be inserted as advertisements. The space 
devoted to letters, queries, and replies, is meant for the general good of 
bee-keepers, and not for advertisements. We wish our Correspondents 
to bear in mind that, as it is necessary for us to go to press in advance 
of the date of issue, qttcries cannot always be replied to in the issue 
immediately following the receipt of their communication. 

J. S. S. — 1. Cowan's Hives. — In hives of this character 
having no shoulders to the frames, the quilts should be 
large enough to completely cover the frames aDd also 
rest upon the sides of the hive. This will prevent the 
bees getting up. 2. Examining Hives. — When opening 
bar-frame hives smoke at the entrance is not necessary, 
a little blown under the quilt will have the desired effect. 

31. F. — Bees in town, a mile from open country. — There is no 
reason against bees doing fairly well. Scores, or perhaps 
hundreds, of stocks are kept in the suburbs of London ; 
depending for their living almost entirely upon flowers 
and trees in gardens, and hardly ever getting to really 
open country. 

J. Turncock, Jun. — The sample of sugar forwarded is that 
recommended by 3Ir. Simmins for dry-sugar feeding. 
Tou will find it serve your purpose. 

C. A. T. — Loss of Queen. — It is almost impossible to say the 
cause of the death of your Italian queen. Since worker 
bees — her progeny— appeared three weeks ago, it is 
evident that breeding had been carried on during the 
winter and in severe weather, which is a bad sign in an 
autumnally introduced queen. Imported, or travelled 
queens are rarely long-lived. Death might, however, have 
been caused by robbing — by which in the spring queens 
are often destroyed ; or it may have arisen from old age. 
If you left the hive raised from the floor-board for any 
length of time, it is most likely that robbing was the 

[ cause of the misfortune. At this time the bees are very 
eager to appropriate their neighbours' stores, that it is un- 
safe to open a hive at all during the hours of flight ; and 
the evenings nt present being too cold for manipulation, 
it is best to leave the bees alone, save to supply food 
where it is required. 2. Bacillus depilis. — The disease of 
your other colony is, from your description, Bacillus 
depilis. Clear out the dead bees and feed at night with 
warm phenolised syrup, according to 3Ir. Cheshire's 
recipe ; or with salicylised syrup, according to Mr. 
Cowan's. We have cured with both. 

W. Bakeb. — Loss of Queen. — You do not say whether you 
opened your hive to give the candy. However, that may 
be, we think the encasement of your queen arose from 
the entrance of strange bees into the hive, alarmed and 
chased, by which the queen rushing wildly to the entrance 
was surrounded and encased by her own bees, for pro- 
tection from the enemy. On the entry of strange bees 
into any hive, its rightful occupants will always encase 
their own queen to preserve her life, and on the departure 
of the intruders, will release her uninjured. You did 
quite right to rescue and return her to the hive. In 
future, feed at night, and cover up securely, to prevent 



any scent of food escaping, which entices other bees to 
attack. It might, however, chance that the queen was 
aged, and about to be superseded by the bees. If so, you 
will probably find her dead body cast out of the hive. 
We advise you not to disturb the hive again. 

Samuel Watson. — 1. Loss of Queen. — The peculiar hum to 
which you allude denoted excitement arising from the 
loss of the queen. It is impossible to assign a cause for 
her death without a knowledge of the previous history 
of the colony. At this season old queens are often de- 
throned, from the loss of fecundity, and young ones 
raised in their place. 2. Mr. Abbott publishes a number of 
leaflets on bee-keeping. 3. We are pleased to hear that 
you are working for the good cause. 

J. C. R. — Transferring. — 1. Do not attempt to transfer before 
the middle or end of April. We should prefer allowing 
the hives to swarm, and to transfer three weeks after 
swarming. If you follow this advice set the swarms on 
the stands of the old stocks, and remove the latter to a 
new position until you transfer them. 2. We prefer Ligu- 
rians to Carniolans. 3. The time of the honey harvest in 
your locality depends, as in other places, on weather, 
and on the kind and quantity of bee forage, such as fruit 
bloom, and early nectar-yielding plants. In an early 
season it will probably commence about the end of April ; 
in a cold late season about three weeks later. 

J. H. W. — Moving Bees from one side of high close fence to 
the other. — If you do it now you will lose a few bees, but 
not many. Put small skeps on the old places to collect 
stragglers, and in the evening return them to the hives. 
If you delay, your best plan would be to shift them along 
by degrees until behind the new position, as in your 
sketch, then mount them up on a stand to above the 
fence, turn them round by degrees to face the other way, 
and then lower them to their permanent places. 

Sagged Down. — Combs broken doicn in Autumn. — Carry 
the hive indoors, pass a piece of wood under the ends of 
all the frames and lift them bodily out. Then separate 
the fallen combs and tie them into the frames. Use 
smoke to keep the bees quiet. 

F. J. — 1. Making Candy. — If you follow the instructions in 
Modern Bee-keeping you will get it right ; but, if you burn 
it, it will not set -hard, and it will be moreover bad for 
the bees. 2. Drone (?) on Flowers. — You must have been 
mistaken in the insect which you saw. 

W. G. Campbell. — Les Aheilles, Organes et Fonctions, by 
Maurice Girard, is published by J. B. Bailliere et Fils, 
19, Rue Hautefeuille, Paris : London house, 20 King 
William Street, Strand. The price of the book is fr. 4.50. 

A Beginnee. — 1. Sugar. — The sugar enclosed is suitable for 
dry-sugar feeding. 2. Stimulation. — We prefer syrup to 
dry sugar for stimulation. It should be given warm and 
at night from a bottle feeder. A pint every three or four 
days is sufficient. 3. Natural Pollen. — With plenty of 
hazel in bloom within half a mile artificial pollen is not 
necessary. Whenever bees have access to abundant 
natural pollen they will neglect the artificial. 

E. Lupton. — Fighting. — The bees dragged out from the 
hives nolentes volentes are undoubtedly robbers, but so 
persistent are they in their evil course that they will 
attack again on getting free from their pursuers until at 
length they pay forfeit with their lives. 

J. C. and Son. — The sugar is suitable for dry sugar feeding, 
but not for making syrup on 3Ir. Simmins' plan : Mr. 
Simmins uses for this latter purpose Dutch crushed. 
See his advertisement. 

C. A. Jones. — We always bind up the advertisements with 
our volumes. With the contents to each number and the 
copious index we have a full synopsis of the contents of 
each volume. 

Bebkshihe Hoo. — We believe that the pay of an expert 
varies from 5s. to 10s. a-day with expenses. We 
consider you would have no difficulty in estimating the 
value of your time in rendering assistance to those who 
may require it. We did not require your postscript to 
prevent us from falling into the possible mistake of sup- 
posing you belonged to the profession mentioned. 

R. T. S. — Red clover (Trifolium pratetise) is not of much 
use to common hive-bees ; their proboscides are too short 



March 10, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



113 



to reach the nectaries. Ligurian and Eastern bees are 
able to work upon it, as also humble bees. 

Welsh Novice. — The conditions being in both cases identical, 
you may calculate that the average yield per hive in an 
apiary of 100 would be equal to that in one of twelve. 

J. H. M. — We suggest that by stimulating the bees in your 
sleeps you should get swarms as early as possible, and 
after twenty-one days transfer. The directions in 
Modern Bee-keeping are so precise that we do not think 
you would rind any difficulty iu driving. 

H. E. S. — There are no symptoms of foul brood in the 
portions of comb forwarded. 

Received price list of Apiarian Appliances manufactured 
and sold by Wm. M'Nally, Glenluce, Wigtownshire, N.B. 
A bottle of Grimshaw's Apifuge from Abbott Brothers. 



.@how Announcements. 

July 11-15. — Royal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huckle, Kings Langley. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at Ycrk, 
Secretary, H. L. Rickards, Poole, near Leeds. 

business ^Directory. 



For the use of Manufacturers and Purchasers of Bee- 
keeping Appliances. 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Road, Bristol. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Bdrtt, E. J., Stroud Road, Gloucester. 
Edey & Son, St. Neots. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Hutchings, A. F., St. Mary Cray, Kent. 
Meadham, M., Huntington, Hereford. 
Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 
The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 
Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 
Webster, W. B., Wokingham. 
Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 
HONEY MERCHANTS. 
Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King William St., Strand. 
Country Honey Supply, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 
Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Sijimins, S., Rottingdean, near Brighton. 
Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

METAL ENDS. 

Arimtt Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Road, London, S.E. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour. & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Walton, E. C, Muskham, Newark. 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howakd, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

Stothard, G., Welwyn, Herts. 



THE WINDSOR BEE-KEEPER'S 
Choice Selected Collection of 



SOUGHT AFTER BY BEES. Free by post, 2/6, 

sold by (162) 

JOHN SMITH, The Royal Nursery, Clewer, Windsor, Berks. 

CHAPMAN HONEY PLANT. 



I WILL send to any address 26 varieties of BEE- 
FLOWER SEEDS, including the Noted CHAPMAN 
HONEY PLANT, for 2s. post paid. GARDEN SEEDS.— 
I will send 21 packets of Garden Seeds to any address for 
2s. M. post paid. BAR-FRAME HIVES with Straw 
bodies, the hive least affected by heat or cold. My Hives 
and Appliances are all forwarded carriage paid, and re- 
turnable if not approved on arrival. Please send your 
address on post-card, and I will send Descriptive and 
Priced Catalogue post free. Address JonN Moore, Seed 
Merchant, Market Place, and Prospect Farm, Warwick. 



HONEY BOTTLES. 

(No. 45.) 
Price, 1 lb., 15/9 per gross. 
„ 2 1b., 19/9 
FREE ON RAIL IN LONDON. 




ABBOTT BROS., SO'JTHALL, LONDON. ll^p 



OKEPS, FOUNDATION, &c. 

° 1 lb. Q/- or 1/10. 

Dealers and others apply for List (110 Illustrations), 
G. STOTHARD, WELWYN, HERTS, a 2324 

QEED of CHAPMAN HONEY PLANT, 3c7. per 

k^ packet. Figwort, Melilotus, Cornflower, Borage, Cat- 
nip, Spider Plant, Limnanthes, and all the leading Bee 
Flowers, in large or small quantities. Send for Catalogue, 
post free. Plants of Figwort, Limnanthes, Golden Rod, 
Melilotus, Thyme, Myrobella Plum, &c. Price on appli- 
cation. Address Hy. Dobbie, Cringleford, Norwich. 



DO NOT LET YOUR BEES STARVE ! 
Specially prepared CANE SUGAR SYRUP, either 
Plain or Phenolated, in 28 lb. tins ; per tin, 8s. SOFT 
CANDY in 1 lb. boxes, either with or without Pea Flour. 
Finest Refined CANE SUGAR, in 2 owt. bags ; per cwt., 
19s. 6d. ; 1 cwt. bag, 19s. 9rf. ; i cwt. bag, 10s. 3d. Perfection 
FEEDERS, 2s.' and Is. 3d. Dry Sugar FEEDERS, Is. 6d. 
Address Thomas B. Blow, Welwyn, Herts. 

Comb Foundation for Supers. 

Abbotts' No 6 Foundation; 12 Standard Sheets to the lb. 

Price 1 to 2 lbs. 2/9 per lb. I Price, 5 to 25 lbs. 2/6 per lb. 

„ 2 „5 1bs. 2/7 „ „ 25 „ 50 lbs. 2/5 „ 

Price, 50 to 100 lbs. 2/4 per lb. 

SPECIAL QUOTATIONS FOR QUANTITIES. 

Parcel Post. — For weight of package allow for 2 lbs. or less. 
1 lb. 5 lbs. or less 2 lbs. 

ABBOTT BROS., SOUTHALL, LONDON 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[Mar. 10, 1887. 



MANIPULATE WITHOUT SMOKE ! 



WEBSTER'S FUMIGATOR 

Entirely supersedes the Smoker, both in Simplicity and 
Effectiveness. No ' going out.' No tainting or soiling of 
combs, Always ready for use without any preparation. 
Can be carried in the pocket. 

With Bellows, 4s. 6d. ; postage, i\i. 

Without Bellows, 3s. ; postage, 3d. 

Can be adjusted to any ordinary smoker bellows. 

oz, Bottles of Agent— carbollo aold, oil of tar, and water, 

properly mixed— 6d. each. 

WEBSTER'S SWIVEL FRAME - LIFTER 

WILL BE EEADY SHORTLY. 
With this appliance, frames can be removed from hive, 
replaced and examined on both sides without inverting, with 
one hand, leaving the other free for manipulating, at the 
same time preventing soiling the hands with propolis. 

W. B. WEBSTER, 

SOLE MANUFACTURER AND INVENTOR, 
•WOKINGHAM, BERKS. 



AWARDS FOR FUMIGATORS LAST SEASON. 
1st Prize Silver Medal, Royal Counties' Agricultural Show. 

Highest Award, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London. 

2nd Prize Bronze Medal, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 

London. 

2nd Prize Altrincham, Lancashire and Cheshire B. K. A. 

NOTICE TO DEALERS.— In thanking my 
numerous Patrons, I beg to say my SECTIONS are 
on the way, and will arrive in London shortly. The fol- 
lowing sizes in stock: — 4Jx4jx2, 4Jx4|xli, 4x4Jx2, 
4 x 4J x li, either open top or at all four sides." 5J x 6J x 2 
and 6J x 5J x 2, open top. 11 Sections same price as 2". 
Order at once, or you may be disappointed, having received 
a large number of orders, Address A, F. Hutchings, West 
Kent Steam Power Hive Works, St. Mary Cray. 

Sectional view of New Patent Bee Feeder. 



Simple, Safe, Clean ! 

Unrivalled for Summei 
Feeding, No excitement. 
No robbing. 

Note bottom of 
feeding flask brought 
within reach of Bees, 
also how quarter inch 

No waste of syrup. 




An Improved Slide for 1S87. 
Stocks may now be fed in 
the coldest weather, with- 
out fear of chill. 

cavity crossing the 
combs grves safe 
and easy access to 
all the cluster. 

No metallic surface. 



See Advt. next week. Price Is. Qd. each, complete. 

Send P.0.0. to Patentee, J. P. HOPKINS, Milverton, Somerset. 



AGENTS Wanted In all parts of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, for the SALE of HIGH CLASS 
BEE-KEEPING APPLIANCES. Address ' Manufacturer,' 
c/o A. H. Haines, 125 Houndsditch, London. 

FIRST CLASS Open Sided 4-1 x 4£ x If One-piece 
AMERICAN SECTIONS. Free on rail at Liverpool. 
1000 for 1/. ; 500, 10s. G(/. Less for larger lots than for 
smaller quantities. Apply to R. White & Co., Importers, 
Patrickswell, Limerick. Trade supplied. 



p, LASS HONEY JARS a Speciality. Write for 
VT Price List, sent Free. Address Fhedk. Pearson, 
Stockton Heath, Warrington. A 2407 

IMPROVED British Bee-keepers' BAR-FRAME 
L HIVE, made of One-inch Well-seasoned Wood, Eight 
Frames, Waxed, Quilt, Walker's Feeder, Excluder Zinc, 
Floor-board, Waterproof, and Cover. Hive complete, 5s. 
each. Directions for Management, l<f. Address Isaac Hale, 
Maker, Horncastle. A 2402 

FOR SALE.— A Large Wroiight-iron Six Feet 
DRIVING WHEEL, for Circular Saw or other Ma- 
chines ; Handle, Bearings, &c, complete. To sell Cheap, 
having adopted Steam Power. Address John Moore, 
Prospect Farm, Warwick. (165) 



LYON'S Patent METAL ENDS. 

The only perfect pattern. The metal being flush with 
the inside of the Hive side, CANNOT BE FIXED TO IT 
BY PROPOLIS. All the so-called Improvements CAN. 

The Special Alloy used allows them to be LIGHT YET 
STRONG. One gross weighs 5J lbs. 

Price for 1887 5/6 P er gross. 



DR. PINE'S VEILS. 

Prize Medal, 1879, for the best Bee Dress. The only 
Medal ever awarded to a Veil, 2/2 each, post free. Every 
genuine Veil bears the Registered Trade Mark. 

DR. PINE'S LOTION. 

The ONLY CURE for Stings, 1/8 per bottle, post free. 

CHSSHIKS CITRXi. 

Guaranteed, with Directions, J /2IP er bottle, post free. 

Methyl Salicylate, or ' Sting Preventer.' 

1 oz. bottle, post free, 1 '3. 

HIVE MAKERS supplied with SPRINGS, GLASSES for 

Sections, PHENOL, METHYL SALICYLATE, in bulk, 

&a., &c, at lowest prices. 

F. LYON, 94 Harleyford Rd., London, 8.E. 



\&£ 



CJJk-W SJESCTIOIffS 



Made of clean White Basswood, planed both sides and beautifully jointed. 
Price, 4| x 4} x 2, open top and bottom, only 21/- per 1000. 



C — M * ' || V- 



4£ x 4£ x \\, as above, open all round, for use without separators, price 10/- per 500 Case. Free on rail, 

ABBOTT BROTHERS, SOUTHALL, LONDON, 



^v^: 



iAAui 



British 



the: 



% 



--^^fej*^=p 




Communications to the Editor to be addressed ' Stbanoewais' Printing Office, Tower Street, St. Martin's Lane, w.c' 



[No. 247. Vol. XV.] 



MARCH 17, 1887. 



[Published Weekly.] 



editorial, goitres, #c. 



OUTLINES 



FOR 



OF BEE-KEEPING 
BEGINNERS. 

(Continued from page 67.) 
III. — Bees abe able to Sting. 

1. Worker and queen bees are furnished for then- 
defence with a stinging apparatus, whose principal 
parts are the sting and poison-bag. 

2. The poison is a clear liquid, and is introduced 
through small openings in the sting into the wound 
when stung. After a few moments there is a sen- 
sation of heat, and this spot begins to swell, the 
swelling spreading to the surrounding parts. If 
children are stung on the head, very often the 
whole face becomes swollen, and it takes several 
days for them to recover. 

3. With grown-up people, after they have been 
stung several times, the effect produced is less 
marked, until, with very few exceptions, the parts 
stung no longer swell, and the bee-keeper is said to 
be sting-proof. Where stung, there is still the 
sensation of pain, but this passes away without any 
swelling, 

4. When stung, remove the sting as quickly as 
possible with the point of a pen-knife, and wipe the 
place with a handkerchief moistened in water. A 
little honey put on the wound gives relief, but it 
should not be rubbed, as this helps to spread the 
poison and causes more irritation. 

5. The poison (called formic acid) has a peculiar 
smell, which can be recognised when one is stung. 
It is this smell that makes the bees angry ; there- 
fore, when working amongst them, always have a 
pail of clean water handy, so that you can plunge 
your hands into it to remove the acid. For the 
same reason, care must be taken not to crush a 
bee. If it is absolutely necessary to kill one, its 
head should be squeezed. 

6. When a bee persists in buzzing round the 
bee-keeper's head, he must move away quietly, and 
when at some distance from the hive, it will 
generally leave him. If the bees are angry in con- 
sequence of having their hive upset, they should be 
sprinkled freely with water, poured through the 
fine rose of a water-can, or with a syringe, before 
anything further is done to them. 

(To be continued.) 



WOIBLET SPUR EMBEDDER FOR FIXING 
FOUNDATION. 

When we attended the Conference at the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition on the Cth October last we intro- 
duced to the notice of the British and Canadian bee- 
keepers present an apparatus invented in Switzerland for 
securely fastening foundation in wired frames (see 
British Bee Journal, 1886, page 474). As we have since 
received several inquiries about this apparatus we will 
give our readers a description of it. 

Fig. 1 shows the instrument one half its actual size, and 




which consists of a brass toothed wheel a, working on a 
centre at d, fixed on one side of the wheel to a rod I, 
driven into a wooden handle e. 
In fig. 2 the principal parts are shown full size. The 



FIC ,2. 




FIC . 3, 



A 



diameter of the wheel across the teeth is f§ of an 
inch and the width of the toothed part is -.^- of an inch. 
There are twenty-six teeth, which have a V groove at 
their edges e, fig. 2. This is also shown at e in fig. 8, in 
which one of the teeth and a portion of the wheel will 
be found enlarged four times. Fig. 4 shows the double 

FIG. 4, 



dots made by the teeth, full size and also their exact 
distance from each other. 

The frames have to be wired with No. 30 tinned wire, 
as in fig. 5. Five wires are sufficient, although six are 
better, and are frequently used. The top and bottom 
bars are pierced with small holes by means of a fine 
bradawl. The frame is then placed over a board which 
fits it exactly and is § of an inch thick, having two pieces 
nailed on the back, as in fig. 6, and first recommended by 
Mr. Abbott many years ago for fixing foundation with 
his wax-smelter. We then proceed to put in the wires 
and fix each end by turning it down and driving a wooden 
peg into the hole, which can then be cut off level with 
the surface of the bars. The wires must be drawn 
pretty tightly, and it is for this reason that we put the 



116 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 17, 1887. 



board inside the frame. If we did not do so the tighten- 
ing of the -wire would curve the top and bottom bars 
inwards, but the board prevents this taking place. The 
frames now wired are ready for the foundation. 

Place a sheet of this on the board and over it put the 
wired frame so that the foundation touches the top bar. 



ri c. s. 



^ 



w 



^ 



Have a lighted spirit-lamp by the side of you, and in the 
flame heat the wheel of the embedder and place the V 
groove on the wire. Then run the wheel along from one 
end of the wire to the other. The heat melts the wax 
at each point, which cools as fast as the wheel travels 

FIG. 6. 





forward, and the wire will be found covered with wax, 
because the teeth are so close together. The operation 
is completed so rapidly and perfectly that no one who 
has once used it will ever think of employing any other 
means of embedding wire. 

We have been particular in describing the method of 
working, because it is different to the ordinary way of 
embedding, where the wire is only pressed into the 
foundation at intervals of § inch to one inch and not 
covered with wax, and also we are anxious that a good 
thing should not be discarded because it is not properly 
understood and incorrectly described. Mr. Cheshire has 
figured something of this sort, and has given instructions 
for using it, which are likely to mislead, for such an 
embedder as he shows could not possibly work as it is 
intended to do. He was at the Conference and we 
showed him the instrument, which was the first ever 
shown in England, and he pictures a thing with a wheel 
1 } inches in diameter and with only nine teeth instead of 
twenty-six, and those nearly gth of an inch wide instead 
of dV, and § from point to point. His description is so 
amusing that we cannot refrain from giving it in his own 
words. In Sees and Bee-keeping, page 208, he says : 
' Some use the wheeled apparatus (fig. 60). The method 
of operation is obvious. The wheel, which is stellate, is 
grooved at the edge, so as to hold the wire beneath and 
between the cutting points (pp). As the wheel is driven 
the wire in short lengths is pushed down into the body 
of the wax. The foundation is now very securely held, 
but it cannot be safely given in all cases without attach- 
ment to the top bar.' It may be obvious to the writer, 
but we know such an apparatus could not bo used in this 
way without damaging the foundation and doing more 
harm than good. Surely the Swiss apparatus ought to 
have been correctly described, or if it was not understood, 
as appears to us was the case, it should have been left 
out. We wonder if tho writer has over tried the method 
he describes and who the ' some ' are who use the 
embodder ho figures. The beauty of the Swiss invention 
is that the teeth being so fine and close together the 



wire is entirely covered with the molten wax (without 
even disfiguring the foundation), and not pushed firm 
into the body of the wax, and it thus gets over a 
serious objection which formerly existed to wired founda- 
tion. We recollect some years ago when it was first 
introduced we objected to it after trial, because we 
found that where the wire had not been covered with 
wax the bees did not use the cells through which the 
wires passed. A striking instance of this came before 
our notice at a show, we think at Windsor, where in a 
large observatory hive of Mr. Abbott's make we called 
the attention of the Kev. G. Raynor to the fact that in 
combs perfectly filled with brood there wore lines of 
empty cells corresponding to the wires in the foundation. 
Since that time such foundation has been greatly im- 
proved and the wire is now properly embedded, but still 
it has to be fixed to the top bar, and even then the 
combs can never be so firmly fixed in the frames as when 
the frames are first wired. Foundation in wired frames 
embedded with the Swiss embedder requires no other 
fixing. The instrument is the invention of Monsieur 
Woiblet, and he calls it the ' Woiblet spur ' from its 
resemblance to one. When alluding to it we shall in 
future always call it the ' Woiblet Spur Embedder.' 



USEFUL HINTS. 

Weather. — Easterly winds and frosty nights, with 
days of mist and fog, have fallen to our lot of late. 
Possibly the best weather for the bees. Days of brilliant 
sunshine and unseasonably high temperature in February 
and March have never in our experience preceded a 
bountiful summer. ' Better have the cold weather now, 
sir, than later,' says our weather-wise factotum in his 
oracular manner. Whether the old saw — ' Mists in 
March mean frosts in May ' — will prove correct of the 
present season we shall be able presently to note ; but, 
certainly, an English month of May without frost, and 
free from the ' Blackthorn winter,' would be next to a 
miracle. The great advantage of a cold and backward 
spring is threefold : — (1), Ardent bee-keepers are unable 
to manipulate the bees to their hearts' content ; (2), 
vegetation is in abeyance until there is little fear of later 
frosts nipping the fruit in the bud or bloom ; (3), there 
is no inducement to the bees to wander forth and perish 
in search of non-existent pollen and nectar. We can 
always supply our bees with flour-cake, artificial pollen, 
candy, syrup, water, and all other good things at home, 
and so encourage their breeding propensities to the full 
extent. Then, when the good time comes, our hives, 
teeming with population, will render a good account of 
the deliciously scented clover fields and other nectar- 
yielding crops. 

Apifuges. — In our early days we knew an ' aged 
Corycian who possessed a few acres of barren land, too 
poor for plougning, unfit for cattle, herds, or flocks, or 
for growing vines; yet this old man cultivated white 
lilies, poppies of every shade of colour, and other plants 
in which his bees delighted. He was the first to hive 
the spring swarms, the first to squeeze the luscious honey 
from the combs in autumn.' He kept one hundred 
hives, on the old-skep-natural-swarming system, and 
managed them all himself. The bees paid his rent, and 
maintained his family. Indeed, he was one of the most 
successful bee-keepers we ever knew, but he used no 
apifuge — neither veil nor gloves. Stripped to his shirt, 
with bare, brawny arms and bronzed chest and neck, 
from early morn to dewy eve ho lived amongst his bees. 
Him have we often seen covered with living bees, hiving 
swarm after swarm in quick succession, unmindful of 
their stings, and happier far than kings. He used no 
apifuge — no rut the bee a to flight for him. 

Honey a Sting Avebteb. — Allurements he pre- 
ferred. Arms, face, and neck, were all besmeared 
with liquid honey, until they glittered in the sun 



March 17, 188?.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



117 



like varnish, and him the bees never stung. Why 
should ,not our lady bee-keepers — and timid gentle- 
men, too — anoint the hands with a little honey — the 
smallest quantity will suffice, and wear a veil ? How 
changed are we ! Begloved, beveiled, apifugated, we go 
forth conquering- and to conquer. But why squabble 
about a technical scientific term ? The despised dead 
languages of ancient Greece and Home are not so poor 
and circumscribed that they cannot supply a duplicate. 

Methyl Salicylate., on Kentdapone ?— Let Mr. 
Lyon take heart. We do not wish to ' put the bees to 
jlight' Fugitive swarms and deserting colonies are not 
so rare that we need desire to increase their number ! 
Let him call his ' Methyl Salicylate' ' Kentrapone,' 
which is simple Greek for ' sting-averter,' surely a more 
appropriate term than ' Apif uge ' or ' put-the-bees-to- 
fiight.' This newly coined word, we presume, is formed 
after ' Febrifuge,' or ' put-to-flight-the-fever.' 

Apifebius, on Bee-fevep.. — But is not this rather 
dangerous ground ? There is such a disease as ' Api- 
febris,' or ' Bee-fever.' Alas, bow many a poor wife 
prostrates herself — a suppliant with votive offering — 
praying that her lord may be restrained from spending 
all his time and means on the new-fangled ' apistical 
appliances' (forgive the ' apt alliteration's artful aid'). 
Or it may be that the loife is bewitched — for sometimes, 
' though hardly ever,' the lady becomes the enthusiast, 
although we should never be so uugallant as to accuse 
her of harbouring 'a bee in her bonnet' — then the 
husband, perchance, becomes the deprecator, since there 
are few households in which both husband and wife are 
smitten with the disease, or can afford to devote all 
their time to ' apif uge?,' et hoc genus omne. By the 
way, we never chance to meet a gentleman, now-a-days, 
who confesses himself ignorant of the ancient classics, 
however much he may despise them. The schoolmaster 
is, indeed, abroad. 

Brood-Spreading. — Whether any disturbance of the 
brood-nest of a colony of bees during the spring months, 
or, indeed, at almost any other time, is advantageous or 
disadvantageous is a moot question. Our own opinion 
is that, unless in very exceptional cases, more harm is 
done than benefit derived. And this opinion seems to 
be fast gaining ground amongst skilled apiarists both at 
home and abroad. We do not mean to assert that in 
able and experienced hands, during suitable weather 
and under favourable conditions, it may not sometimes 
be done with advantage, but we have almost invariably 
found that, given a strong healthy colony, with a 
prolific queen at its head, and sufficient stores, the 
increase of population is greater when the nest is left 
undisturbed than when brood-spreading is practised. 
The brood-nest is always globular in shape, and in 
whatever manner it is attempted to spread it, this shape 
or form must be destroyed. If you place an empty 
comb in its centre, you divide it into two portions, and 
the bees into two clusters, one of which retains the 
queen. If you place the outside combs, each containing 
very little brood, in the centre, j-ou destroy the circular 
form of the nest. If you turn round, or reverse (not 
invert) any of the brood-combs, again you destroy the 
globular form. And in all these cases you remove a 
portion of the brood away from the stores prepared for 
its use, since pollen and diluted honey are always placed 
in the cells around the outsides of the nest and the 
cluster of bees, the former taking exactly the shape of 
the latter. 

When the combs range from front to back of the 
hive, and a southern aspect is given, the nest will 
always be found on the south side, immediately over 
the entrance, because that is the warmest part of the 
hive, and consequently best adapted for brood-rearing ; 
and if care be taken that the combs, outside and beliind 
the nest, are not too heavily clogged with honey, any 
surplus which might interrupt the extension of the nest 



laterally, or backward, will quickly be removed by the 
bees, and the cells having been thoroughly cleaned out 
and polished, the queen will find ample room for increas- 
ing the nest to the full extent of her powers, and the 
opportunity of keeping it in the particular form which 
she and her children instinctively prefer. These remarks 
relate to the spring months, as a matter of course, since 
when the summer is advanced, and surplus-boxes are in 
position, brood-spreading is no longer thought of, as we 
assume the brood-chambers to be full of eggs and 
hatching larvfe. 

There are experienced apiarists who persist in spread- 
ing brood, but they are few in number. Professor Cook 
simply adds empty combs as needed, placing them next 
to the brood, which can hardly be called spreading. 
Mr. Miller does very little in this way, but when he 
adds extra combs he generally adds them outside the 
brood-nest. Mr. Demaree does not spread brood because 
he believes that his bees build up more rapidly by being 
allowed to follow their own instincts, which lead them 
to concentrate and pack closely the brood in the early 
season. If he thinks the brood-nest too much contracted 
he adds combs at the side of the brood as fast as the 
bees can cover them. Mr. Brown considers that the 
' spreading-brood furor ' has consigned many colonies to 
the shades. Mr. Hutchinson does not approve of the 
so-called brood- spreading : if extra combs were needed 
he would put them at the side of the brood-nest. Mr. 
Heddon does not practise it, but prefers sectional brood 
chambers, and when required adds an empty comb 
chamber below the full one, which has no tendency to 
cool the nest, but the spreading S3 r stem, he thinks, has. 
Mr. Pond does not use spreading at all, but prefers build- 
ing up by adding frames of brood from other colonies, 
considering the main point to be, keeping the brood in the 
centre of the cluster, so that it maj r have all the heat 
possible. And Mr. Newman, the editor of the American 
Bee Journal, from whence these views are selected, 
believes that spreading brood is often disastrous, 
especially when practised by any but experts. The 
above-quoted authorities are practical, experienced bee- 
keepers, in most cases conducting large apiaries. 

Again, during our entire bee-keeping experience we 
have always kept some half-dozen colonies in skeps 
of medium size, from which we take natural swarms, 
and these colonies have, almost without an exception, 
given us earlier swarms than frame-hives. Why is this 
so ? Simply because the brood-nest in skeps cannot be 
disturbed either by spreading brood or by other manipu- 
lations. With us, too, these colonies winter remarkably 
well, no matter how severe the winter may be. Why ? 
because there can be no escape of heat or moisture 
through the thickly propolised interior of dome and sides 
of their domiciles, nor can their combs be pulled about 
in the autumn and the propolis broken up or removed 
altogether, under the idea of ' winter preparation, putting 
into winter quarters, &c., &c.' We are really inclined 
to the opinion that the bane of modern apiculture is too 
much interference with the internal arrangements of the 
hive at unseasonable times and for purposes to be depre- 
cated. But, even so, we are by no means unmindful of 
the great advantages of moveable comb-hives over those 
with fixed combs, when rightly and carefully worked 
and manipulated. 

Fhame-distance. — When preparing frame-hives for 
winter, we contracted, by division-boards, each of four 
hives, containing strong colonies, to six frames, placing a 
strip of wood J inch wide, and of the same thickness 
and length as the top bars of the frames, alternately 
between the broad-shouldered frames, thus rendering the 
distance from centre to centre of frame 1| inches. 
These colonies were the first to rear brood at spring. 
By the middle of last month their combs were filled 
with sealed and hatching brood to an extent far sur- 
passing other colonies located in similar hives with 



118 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 17, 1887. 



combs at the usual space of 1| inches, and we were 
obliged to add, at the sides of the brood-nests, frames of 
sealed honey. We attribute this early breeding- to the 
bees being able to keep up a higher temperature by 
clustering in thicker ' seams ' in the wider spaces than 
those wintered on frames at the ordinary distance. 
Here, then, is surely a hint for enabling bees to pass 
safely through a winter of long-continued cold. A space 
of lj inches, or at most If inches, from centre to 
centre of combs in the brood-chamber during the honey 
season, is better than 1 J inches, since the bees are thereby 
prevented from storing honey in quantity therein, and 
are driven upwards and compelled to store in the supers. 
But this view applies only to the production of comb- 
honey in preference to extracted. 

Cause of Queens Dying. — For several weeks past we 
have received numerous queries as to the loss of queens 
— queens cast out of the hives dead, and in some cases 
queens of last year, in others last year's imported queens, 
without any apparent cause, and often leaving abund- 
ance of brood in the hive. Without an exact know- 
ledge of the history and conditions of the various 
colonies bereft of mothers, it is impossible to assign a 
cause. But, generally speaking, there are three very 
common causes of queen-destruction at spring: (1.) 
Keeping hives open too long a time when manipulating 
on a fine day while bees are in full flight, thus allowing 
the entrance of strange bees, and consequent encasement 
and death of queen. (2.) Careless feeding-, by which 
robbing is encouraged. And (3.) encasement by her 
own children of an aged and effete queen, which ter- 
minates in her death. When a queen ceases to lay, or 
produces drone eggs only, the usual method of despatch is 
by encasement, i.e. hugging- to death. We know that a 
theory has been started that bees encase their queens in 
order to urge them on to laying, and sometimes, while 
so actiug, with the best intentions, kill them unin- 
tentionally. In that theory we do not believe. 

Feeding and Stimulation. — While concluding these 
hints, reports of a fall of snow, from eight to ten inches 
deep, in Scotland, reach us, and snow is falling thickly 
in our eastern counties, with bitterly cold north-east 
winds, and sharp, frosty nights. Where feeding is a 
matter of life or death, let warm, soft candy still be 
given. During such weather it is useless to offer syrup, 
since the bees will not take it, but candy will be joj'f idly 
accepted. The beginning of next month will be soon 
enough to stimulate, except, perhaps, in southern districts. 
In this we must be guided by the weather and the forage, 
since no general rule can be laid down to meet all cases . 
Reserve and disinfect all combs upon which colonies have 
perished, if not too old and clogged with pollen, storing 
them in a dry place, and keep them free from moths. 
These will be found very useful for swarms, for ex- 
tracting purposes, or for enlarging brood-nests. All 
other work preparatory to the quickly approaching 
season, such as providing section-racks and hives, and. 
inserting foundation, should now be pushed forward 
without delay. Keep all colonies as warm as possible 
by adding extra quilts and coverings during the cold 
weather. By these means breeding will be encouraged 
and population increased before the honey season arrives. 

JOTTINGS BY AMATEUR EXPERT. 

' Mel sap t omnia.' 

1 hope the various Hon. Secretaries and Committees 
will profit by the excellent advice given them by the 
Editor in current number of the Journal on the question 
of show schedules. 

Our esteemed friend, the contributor of ' Useful 
Hints,' gives us a quotation from a letter he received as 
to committees, &c. I presume none but a party of 
English gentlemen would do the work as our committee 
and officers do theirs. It is a characteristic of our 



nationality, and it will be a bad day for our country 
when such cease to be found. The extent of their sub- 
scriptions is an index of the length of their purses, and 
not of the depth of interest they feel in the objects of 
our Association. There are many amongst us in humbler 
walks of life, working in less prominent spheres of bee- 
keeping whose interest and self-denial equal, or even 
exceed, these gentlemen's proportionately, and that is 
my chief reason for wishing to remove all fancy qualifi- 
cations. We should have 'one man one vote,' and 
' universal suffrage,' and never fear but that only those 
who have time and money to spend in the service of 
the Association and are above suspicion, would get 
elected on the Committee. 

Our versatile friend, Mr. Grimshaw, has turned from 
poetry to ' wrangling ' (nothing offensive is meant by 
the word). He complains of another sharping his axe 
on his grindstone ; well I complain that Mr. Grimshaw 
has sharped his axe on our grindstone and got us to 
turn it while doing so. I refer to the gratuitous ad- 
vertisements he has got in the form of letters in the 
Journal, on the sole assumption of his invention being 
such a blessing to bee-keepers. Of course he has perfect 
right to his ' invention,' whether it be artificial ' winter- 
green,' or the word ' Apifuge.' But if he is going to sell 
hardware, he should live at Birmingham. I am one of not 
a few of those who contend that all honorary officers of 
associations should not have the shadow of a suspicion 
of being a dealer. Here is Mr. Grimshaw in Co. with 
a great firm for the sale of an article which his official 
position gives him an opportunity of pushing ; it stands 
to reason that the other goods made by the same firm 
will be pushed at the same time ; we get the thin end 
of the wedge — unintentional I have not the least doubt, 
but none the less true — from ' X.-tractor,' one of his 
friends with him ' In the Hut.' Mr. Cheshire's experi- 
ence of ' Cure for Foul-brood ' may be of service to 
Mr. Grimshaw, he will find it in a recent number of 
B. B. J. 

Our Berkshire friends are good at ' Comestibles,' they 
seem to have made their late Annual Meeting a jovial 
' picnic,' and a very bright idea too. 

The Rev. H. W. Lett, M.A., asks if the ' Invertible 
Hive ' is water-tight. I remember the question was put 
to Mr. Jones at our late great Conversazione at South 
Kensington, and he replied, ' Yes ! ' which brought out 
the retort, ' It would not be in our climate,' and im- 
mediately Mr. Jones — who is nothing if not keen at 
parrying an awkward question — said, ' Water in Canada 
is as wet as it is anywhere.' But we must not forget 
the Canadians winter in cellars. 

I notice the Editor's reply to our disconsolate friend, 
' Chas. J. Jelfs.' May I suggest she succumbed to the 
pressure of breeding, as many queens do in early spring, 
and such queens if they do not die are speedily ' im- 
proved ' out of existence by the bees in a most summary 
manner. The Syrians and Cyprians are especially good 
at this work. Join them, Sir ! join them ! never caudle 
queenless stocks this time of year, nor any other time if 
you wish to make bee-keeping pay. 

Dear ' Bees-wing ' thinks his own feeder is best after 
all, — of course he does, and so it is. I am glad to find he 
puts his wits to work to contrive a feeder out of a few 
simple things that he has to his hand, instead of 
spending a half-crown in one. A day labourer came to 
me to-day with a pardonable glow of pride, to ask my 
opinion of a feeder he has schemed, and considering his 
scanty advantages, very clever it was, as I told him. 

In the Canadian Bee Journal for February 16th, 
fifteen of the principal bee-keepers of Canada and the 
United States of America give m answer to a ' Selected 
query ' as to the best cure for foul brood, and not one of 
them seems ever to have given salicylic acid or phenol 
a trial. Rather slow this for our Transatlantic friends I 

As to virgin queens ' croaking ' I would refer our 



March 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



119 



' hopeful ' correspondent 'Edward C. Anderson' to the 
remarks made by Mr. Haviland at the late Conver- 
sazione as reported in the B. B. J., and remain ' croakingly ' 
• — Amateur Expert. 



ASSOCIATIONS. 

YORKSHIRE BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 
Craven District. 

A meeting of persons interested in bee-keeping was 
held at Skipton on Saturday, March 5th. Bee-keepera 
from Bolton-by-Bolland, Bradley, Cononley, Gargrave, 
and Skipton, were present, and Mr. Tordoff, Gargrave, 
was voted to the chair. It was decided to form a branch 
of the Yorkshire Bee-keepers' Association to be called 
the ' Craven District Bee-keepers' Association.' The 
annual subscription was fixed at half-a-crown, and per- 
sons wishing to join the Association are requested to 
communicate with the Secretary. The following officers 
were appointed : — President, Rev. A. P. Howes (rector 
of Bolton Abbey) ; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. G. H. Tordoff 
(Gargrave) ; and Hon. Secretary, Mr. J. Dodgson (Skip- 
ton). An executive committee will be elected at a 
meeting of members to be held the first Saturday in 
April. 

HANTS AND ISLE OF WIGHT BEE-KEEPERS' 

ASSOCIATION. 

Swanmore Branch. 

The above Society has just completed a series of 
lectures on bee-keeping for the benefit of cottagers, &c, 
in the above district, at Bishops Waltharn, Droxford, 
Botley, Swanmore, Exton, Corhampton, and Curdridge ; 
the lectures being given by the Rev. W. E. Medlicott, 
Hon. Treasurer ; Mr. II. W. West, Hon. Sec. ; and Mr. 
C. Martin, the Hon. District Adviser. 

The subject at all the lectures was thoroughly well 
handled, the lecturers lucidly explaining the methods of 
right and wrong dealing in the manipulation of the 
hives, and showing the great advantage attached to the 
modern mode of bee-keeping over the old barbarous one 
of murdering the bees at the end of summer. The 
lecturers were assisted by a fine set of slides showing 
every phase of bee-life and bee-keeping, a splendid set 
of diagrams, and bar-frame and other hives. The 
audiences showed great interest in the subject, and an 
addition to the number of members has been the result. 



IRISH BEE-KEEPERS' ASSOCIATION. 

A committee meeting was held on 7th instant 
at 35 Trinity College. Present: Dr. G. P. Allen (in 
the chair), Dr. Traill, Dr. O'Farrell, Messrs. Vanston, 
Read, Milner, and the Hon. Secretary. It was deter- 
mined to hold a bee show in July or August. Arrange- 
ments were made for the printing and distribution of 
leaflets pointing out the advantages of belonging to the 
Association, and of a new circular relating to the sale of 
members' honey. 

Cheap Wax Exteactor I am very much obliged to you 

for inserting my query (No. 774), as by that means I have 
found the article I want, namely, a cheap wax extractor, 
and KiDick's answers the purpose well. It is, as is said, a 
great boon to cottage bee-keepers, although it would be 
useful to one possessing, say, thirty or forty stocks. All 
you have to do is to put it in a slow oven with any old 
combs on the top and a little water in the pan, and in 
about an hour all the wax is run from the combs into the 
pan below. The plan far exceeds either Mr. Webster's or 
' Amateur Expert's ' process, as there is no mess, and by 
putting it in a slow oven the wax is not discoloured and 
turns out in a cake when cold, — A. S, 



(fewspnfowa. 



The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed 
by his correspondents. No attention will be taken of anonymous com- 
munications, and correspondents are requested to write on one side oj 
the paper only, and give their real names and addresses, not necessarily 
for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith. Illustrations should 
be drawn on separate pieces of paper. 

Communications relating to the literary department, reports of 
Associations, Shows, Meetings, Echoes, Queries, Books for Review, 
&c, must be addressed only to 'The Editor of the "British Bee 
Journal/' cjo .Messrs. Strangeways and Sons, Tower Street, Upper 
St. Martin' s Lane, London, W.C All business communications relating 
to Advertisements, &c, must be addressed to Mr. J. Huckle, King's 
Langley, Herts (see 2nd page of Advertisements), 

*** In order to facilitate reference, Correspondents, when speaking oj 
any letter or query previously inserted, will oblige by mentioning the 
number of the letter, as well as the page on which it appears. 



PAINTING INTERIORS OF WOODEN HIVES. 

[8G0.] I was very glad to read the ' Useful Hint ' at 
page 70 about painting or varnishing the interiors of 
wooden hives. I have always painted the whole of the 
insides of my hives — two coats of ordinary oil paint — I 
am not particular about the colour, but I take care to 
rub it thoroughly over every part of floor-board, brood 
nest, super cover, and roof. This I did with the first 
wooden hives I made, now many years ago, and I 
have advocated the practice in every lecture I have had 
the pleasure of giving on modern bee-keeping in differ- 
ent places throughout the counties of Down, Antrim, 
Armagh, and Tyrone. Most bee-keepers, like Mr. Pettitt 
of Dover, have exclaimed against the practice, but I 
remain unshaken in my advocacy of it. AVhat led me 
to it was because a new straw skep is invariably varnished 
with propolis as soon as possible % the bees; and reason- 
ing as to the why and wherefore, I saw that the moist 
vapour which rises from the hive would condense on the 
propolised or painted surface and quickly run down 
where the bees could use it with their food, or it would 
escape at the entrance and do no harm. Whereas I 
observed in hives with unpainted interiors that the 
moisture in cold weather sank into the wood and 
saturated it, whereby the bees were kept in an unnatural 
damp house for the winter months. Of course in dry 
warm weather it makes no matter, but our climate being 
mostly damp we have to provide for it. Then I tried 
the experiment mj^self, with the result that in hives 
whose interior is painted the quilts and winter packing 
remain always dry and sweet, while in one hive which 
I keep for curiosity with an unpainted interior I have to 
change the quilt and packing several times during each 
winter. Then as to the paint on the inside being 
injurious to the bees, which has been urged against my 
practice, why I have changed a strong colony into a hive 
on the second day after the interior had been painted, 
and I never had a better producing stock than it was 
immediately afterwards. All I look to is that the paint 
be quite dry. Moreover, it is a curious fact that bees 
are attracted by fresh paint. I observe that whenever 
any painting is being done outside my residence the bees 
quickly find it out and visit it, but for what purpose I 
am not in a position to decide. This partiality has been 
noticed loug since, see for instance some correspondence 
about it in Vol. xiv. of Science Gossip for the year 1877. 
A couple of years ago I read a paper before our North- 
East of Ireland Bee-keepers' Association, in . which I 
advocated on the above grounds the painting the interior 
of all wooden hives, but I was condemned by all my 
fellow bee-keepers. I rejoiced, therefore, when I found 
the Editor of the British Bee Journal telling how good 
it is to make the wooden hive as to its inside as com- 
fortable as the bees make the skeps of straw. 

As I am not ashamed of my opinions I have no occa- 
sion to adopt a fictitious name. — H. W. Lett, M.A., 
Ayhadery Glebe, Loughbrickland, Co, Down, 



120 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 11, 1887 



CYPRIAN BEES. 

[861.] I notice that in your last issue Mr. Simmins 
speaks strongly in favour of these capricious insects, but 
I hope ' our Editor's ' remarks will be sufficient to pre- 
vent any one being misled. In case they are not so I 
will add some of my experiences. These were not with 
one stock hut with man}', all of them headed by queens 
imported diiect from Mr. Benton ; though when an ex- 
perienced apiarist gets one stock and finds it ' quite un- 
manageable,' he has every reason for believing that an in- 
crease would not be productive of benefit in that direc- 
tion, rossibly my difficulties may have beeu the result 
of improper treatment, though I am generally considered 
to handle bees as well as most folks, and everything con- 
nected with their importation made it to my interest to 
make the best of them, as, whatever other faults they had, 
they were certainly profitable to sell, and had I been un- 
scrupulous enough to recommend them they would no 
doubt have paid well ; but, as Mr. Simmins remarks, 
some manufacturers, &c, only recommend what they 
honestly believe to be good, and I believe the firm I 
belong to (Abbott Brothers) are generally put in that 
class. Truly some statements were made at first based 
only on the reports of Messrs. Jones & Benton which had 
to be contradicted, but there was no intentional deception 
in this. I have found that while the Cyprians are in 
small colonies only, or while the hives contain only 
young bees, they may be easily handled, but that when- 
ever a stock is in condition to work a super or store 
surplus honey it is as dangerous to handle as a bomb- 
shell. 

As I at first devoted all my spare time to raising queens 
I had no strong stock to handle, and therefore could not 
fully appreciate their temper, but my subsequent ex- 
perience is as much as I want. I remember one opera- 
tion in particular. I had to remove a queen from a full 
colony and felt determined that it should have every 
chance of behaving well. Having put on a new straw 
bat and veil, and a freshly washed holland jacket, made 
on purpose for handling bees, with tightly-fitting waist- 
band and belt, the attack was made very much as directed 
by Mr. Simmins, without smoke. 

The combs were handled in turn, the queen caught 
and carefully put in her box ; but here the trouble began. 
The bees suddenly found some flaw in my management, 
though I cannot say where ; and though I had only to put 
the combs up together and replace the quilt, I was forced 
to retire twice before I could do so. The bees rose in 
a cloud and attacked me on all sides. Stings on the 
hands did not much matter, but when busybodies force 
themselves between one's coat-buttons and explore until 
they find a tender spot, it is more than a regular bee- 
man cares about. The second attack was made with the 
addition of string tied round the ankles, india-rubber 
gloves, and a smoker, but even thus armed I could not 
stay within range long enough to put on the quilt. 
Their resentment was now at its height, and a poor 
sparrow who settled near them was violently attacked 
and barely escaped with his life. Even when I con- 
sidered all was over, and I had, after rest and refresh- 
ment, retired to my bedroom, an unsuccessful pioneer 
flew out on the removal of my waistcoat and attacked me 
with spirit. I do not say that Cyprian bees cannot be 
handled any more than I would say that tigers cannot be 
tamed or bomb-shells charged, for I have sometimes 
managed them very pleasantly, but I would strongly 
advise any one who has anything to do with them to be 
prepared for a desperate battle at any moment. — J. A. 
Abbott, SouthaU. 

NOTES ON BEE-HIVES. 
[862.] In the issue of the British Bee Journal for 
March 10, the Rev. II. W. Lett, M.A., asks Messrs. 
Neighbour & Sons to explain how they mean the rain to 



be kept out of their 'British In vertible Bar-Frame Hive. 
Unless their hives are sheltered by a shed or placed in a 
house, he doubts their ' being adapted to a British 
climate.' 

Messrs. Neighbour & Sons state their hive, No. 100 
of their latest catalogue, or the above, will surpass 
all imported ones, because made to suit the British 
climate. 

From ]an inspection of the illustration and accom- 
panying description of it, it is not surprising that 
such an inquiry should be made, nor would questions 
about the inferiority of the patent Heddon hive he 
more remarkable, after a careful reading or study of 
Success in Bee Culture, by Mr. Heddon, containing so 
admirable a description of the Heddon new hive and 
system. 

Mr. Cheshire states, on page 90 of Bees and Bee-kecpi >uj , 
Vol. ii., that Mr. D. A. Jones, while retaining the 
specialities of the Heddon hive, has introduced several 
modifications, which will be generally accepted as im- 
provements. Several of the largest British bee-keepers, 
manufacturers, and appliance-dealers, have decided not 
to supply the patent ' Heddon hive,' one dealer is ready 
to make a ' Heddon hive ;' another says, the Success 
in Bee Culture is the best thing he has read, taking 
into consideration all things ; while auother wishes 
for Mr. Heddon to give up his screws and close-ended 
frames. 

As so much has lately been said in the B. B. Journal 
about the pet Standard frames, and so little about the 
size of the patent Heddon frame, it would be interesting 
and useful to compare these sizes together with the ne .v 
14 x 14 in. frame of Mr. Simmins and the framj of 
Messrs. G. Neighbour & Sons. The 4^x4|- in. section 
seems to have a controlling power over the Heddon 
frame, but not entirely. When the Heddon sized frame 
is worked a la Heddon, it will be difficult to equal. The 
size and arrangement of the frames of Messrs. Neighbour 
do not at once appear to do so ; and I do not think that 
Mr. D. A. Jones's arrangements are equal to those of Mr. 
Heddon. 

It should be well understood that some frames are 
right for surplus honey, some for rearing bees, and some 
for a medium course ; would it not be well to arrange 
for these purposes the frames in the following order re- 
spectively, viz., Heddon, Simmins, and Standard, because 
a specialist will always have some colonies doing one 
thing and some another ? 

I am quite aware of the disadvantages, or more 
correctly the inconveniences, of having various-sized 
frames in an apiary or in this country. I also know a 
great deal of the sentimentality as well as the good con- 
nected with the Standard-sized frame ; but I believe the 
time is coming when honey-raising will be developed 
into an industry on a different footing to what it is now, 
and upon more scientific principles. I am afraid the time 
is past when the cottager is the pet object to stimalate 
to walk in the better way, for will it really pay him 
to really keep all the bees he can at the present prices 
and low, falling prices of honey ? Cannot good Mr. 
Simmins or someone give a lesson on raising wax ? Can- 
not a few lessons be given on bee-breeding, and upon 
other subjects we are so much in the dark about ? 

As it would take a small pamphlet to go over the 
Heddon system seriatim I shall forward, with your kind 
permission, other notes occasionally; but it would be 
well to compare the floor-board and stand of the two 
hives in question (quite different in illustration), as well 
as the roofs of each. It should be mentioned or noted, 
that Mr. Heddon uses a shade-board which is kept in 
place by means of a large stone, and is to my mind 
evidently superior, as it protects the hive from undue 
heat in summer, and would act as a slope to turn off any 
rain encountered in this climate. — T. Bonner-Cham- 
bers, F.L.S., March 11. 



March 17, 1887.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



121 



IS NEIGHBOUR'S BRITISH INVERTIBLE HIVE 
WATERPROOF ? 
[863.] In reply to the Rev. H. W. Lett's inquiry 
in the previous number of your Journal, we beg leave 
to say that undoubtedly the best protection for such 
a hive is inside a bee-house or within an outer covering, 
but our notion has been that the British invertible hive 
may be kept in the same way as bee-keepers are in the 
practice of keeping the original and well - known 
Stewarton boxes, which are of the same thickness of 
material, and where the owners either provide protection 
from weather according to their own taste, or, as is the 
case in some instances, leave the hives exposed. Mr. 
Lett is no doubt apprehensive that the rain will gain 




The British Invertible Bar-frame Hive. 

access at the crevices. To guard against this we make 
the boxes to fit as close as possible together, and recom- 
mend that the roof be made secure by first putting on 
two coats of paint, and whilst wet stretching unbleached 
calico, then, when dry, adding two more coats of paint. 
We are about adopting a waterproof wrapper for the 
sides, which we think will be an improvement and 
supply the double purpose of keeping the hive thoroughly 
dry throughout the year, and also form a desirable shade 
during the hottest part of the summer. 

This extra protection can be either carried out by the 
purchasers or supplied by us direct at a fractional 
additional cost ; and if it prove as satisfactory as we 
anticipate, we will, with Mr. Editor's permission, publish 
a fuller description in a future number of this Journal. — 
Geo. Neighbour & Sons, 149 Regent Street, London. 



INVERTIBLE HIVES. 

[864.] Having recently procured one of Neighbour's 
Invertible hives, which is alleged to have been adapted 
to suit the British climate, I was a little disappointed in 
finding it very imperfect as to the resistance of wind 
and weather, and indeed but little better suited for 
outdoor use here than the new Heddon Invertible hive. 

If this hive were allowed to remain unprotected in 
those parts where the several boxes rest on each other, 
the rains of this neighbourhood would penetrate to the 
inside in a few minutes, and in the event of its being 
left in this place without the boxes being attached firmly 



to each other by some means, the whole affair would 
soon be blown into the lake piecemeal. 

Notwithstanding the various opinions pronounced on 
the merits and demerits of the peculiarities of this new 
hive, I incline to think that under intelligent manipu- 
lation it will become a success. 

Mr. T. B. Blow has corrected one of the deficiencies 
alluded to, in his new invertible hive, and the size of 
the frames adopted by him is also an advantage as com- 
pared with other hives of this class, but the new hive 
still remains imperfect for outside purposes, in the want 
of due protection from beating rains. 

Seeing how much interest appears to be felt in the 
Heddon Invertible hive, it is much to be desired that 
any new version or modification of it which may yet 
appear may be free from the defects pointed out, and 
the communication on this subject by the Rev. Mr. Lett, 
in your last issue, is very timely. — W. J. M., Loioeswater 
Hall, Loioeswater, Cumberland. 



APIFUGE AND METHYL SALICYLATE. 

[865.] Mr. Grimshaw's letter resembles the wail of a 
peevish child who fears the loss of a new toy. Let him 
not be troubled, I do not covet his ' Apifuge,' neither 
have I attempted to deprive him of it. 

I have not his faculty for saying very little in a great 
many words, but, lest it should be thought that I am 
quite swamped by his exuberant verbosity, I should like 
a few words in reply. 

Mr. Grimshaw is rather egotistical in assuming that 
my actions are in any way influenced by his. Let me 
assure him that his doings and writings are quite un- 
important to me. 

I happen to employ methyl salicylate in m} r own 
business, buying it in a pure form in quantities. There- 
fore, finding there was likely to be some demand for it, I 
offered it for sale, but not before the season commenced. 
If, in the meantime, Mr. Grimshaw wrote an article, 
that was no fault of mine, and no reason why I should 
abstain from offering it. If it proves to be useless, no 
one will buy it, and Mr. Grimshaw cannot complain. 

The word Apifuge is not ' copyright,' that term only 
applying to designs and literary compositions. Hence 
my ironical remarks which have so stung Mr. Grimshaw. 
If he will refer to Act 46 and 47 Vic, cap. 67, sec. 105, 
he will find that he is liable to a penalty of 201. for 
applying the term ' copyright ' to an article not legally 
entitled to be thus termed. He might have also noticed 
that in my advertisement of 24th February, I placed the 
word 'Apifuge' in inverted commas, to indicate that it 
was not my term, but quoted from someone else. I do 
not want to know the composition of his preparation ; 
if I did I should take more direct means than the round- 
about way he suggests. 

It matters not whether the smell pervading the tent 
be that of methyl salicylate or of any other compound. 
The taunt will still remain unanswerable that the bold 
operators have besmeared themselves with some sub- 
stance to protect them. While discoursing upon the 
ease with which bees are subdued and rendered harmless 
by smoke only combined with care and skill in manipu- 
lation, I must confess I am too dense to see any incon- 
sistency in my raising a protest against the use of these 
substances merely because I happen to be the proprietor 
of Dr. Pine's Lotion. It may seem inconsistent to decry 
an article which I offer for sale, but although my 
personal opinion is against the use of these substances, 
many may differ from me and wish to purchase methyl 
salicylate, not knowing where to procure it. 

I am sorry my lotion failed to cure Mr. G., possibly 
the wound was poisoned by his ' Apifuge.' The lotion 
is intended to cure the effects of stings, not those of 
poisonous substances. It would not have commanded a 
sale for ten years if not found efficacious. — F. Lyon. 



122 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 17, 1887. 



Jfcptbs Icr (f uxrirs. 



[818.] Varnishing galvanised Iron Beserroir. (R. E. 
Lloyd.) — I should not recommend Tarnishing the gal- 
vanised iron reservoir you have in use. Is there any 
objection to coating it with white enamel, such as used 
in baths, saucepans, &c. ? I have had no experience with 
this, but should fancy it would be far preferable to a zinc 
vessel or to one varnished. — J. T. Pattison, Cheshunt. 

[853.] Chrome Alum. — Mr. J. B.Butler, Bristol, can pro- 
cure chrome alum of any dealer in photographers' neces- 
saries ; it is used in small quantities by makers of dry- 
plates, and has the property of rendering gelatine or glue 
insoluble. Bichromate of potash, of any chemist, and 
many other chrome salts, have a somewhat similar effect. 
I think Mr. Butler's suggestion a good one, and well worth 
a trial. Any good glue would do, but common glue, being 
adulterated with other gummy substances, would not be 
rendered sufficiently insoluble. — J. A. Abbott, Southall. 

_ [853.] Anj' good glue, size, or gelatine will do, and 
bichromate of potash can be obtained at any chemist's 
who supplies photographers. The process is the same as 
used in carbon photographic printing, and to render the 
glue insoluble, should, when dry, be exposed to full day- 
light. It is not sensitive while wet. The mixture would 
keep good for a week or more if kept wet in a cool place, or 
if dry, excluded from light and air, or the article could be 
made of plain glue and paper, allowed to dry, and then 
saturated with a cold solution of the bichromate. — H. M. 
Appletox, Bristol. 

[857.] Pure Ligurians. (J. W. L.) — You would have to 
keep them at least froni two to three miles away ; even at 
that distance they will occasionally get cross-fertilised. 
Hybrids arc usually splendid workers. — W. B. Webster. 

[857.] (J. W. L.) — You must put Ligurians quite five 
miles from blacks to keep them pure. You may put your 
nuclei any distance from three yards to one mile for the 
purpose mentioned. — Amateur Expert. 

[858.] Pure Fertilisation, (J. W. L.) — Any distance from 
a yard to two miles ; but then there is no certainty that a 
drone from this particular apiary will be the selected one, 
as there may be other apiaries within a mile or two. — AY. B. 
Webster. 

[859.] Packing Hives. (H. B.) — Cut a piece of wood the 
exact length to fit inside the hive, as seen in the sketch. 
The hive walls are represented at H H. In the piece of 
wood cut as many notches to fit the bottom rails of the 
frames, as seen at F, as you intend to send bars in the 
hive ; this keeps the bottoms of the fames from oscillating. 
Now fix the ends of the top bars by putting a fine screw 
down through each into the top of the hive- walls ; this will 
make the frames a fixture. If you put nails instead of 
screws, you will have a fine opportunity of testing the 
efficacy of Mr. Grimshaw's ' Apifuge.' Now fasten a strip 



H 



r^l 



H 



of perforated zinc over the entrance, remove all the quilts, 
and fasten a sheet down on the tops of the frames so secure 
as to be only removed with tools, and so that no bees can 
possibly escape. You do not say how far you intend to 
send them, nor when. You must choose suitable weather, 
so that the bees do not get chilled ; and if it is in the 
hottest of summer you must so pack the lid of your hive 
separate that the railway people cannot put it on, and so 
smother the bees. Goods train will do if sent in a covered 
truck, but more care is taken by passenger trains. By 
taking the extra precaution of binding each comb with two 
' foundation fixers,' bees so packed have been carried on a 
three hundred miles' journey in the month of August by — 
Amateur Expert. 

[859.] Packing Bees. (H. B.) — Tie two thin tapes round 
each frame, as in transferring ; nail two pieces of wood 
along the ends of the frames on top, so as to fix the frames 



tightly together and prevent them rooking ; in place of the 
quilt, fix a flat board having an oblong hole at least three 
inches wide, and of sufficient length to cover all the frames, 
a strip of perforated zinc being tacked on top to cover 
same ; fix a piece of the same material over the en- 
trance, which should be at full width ; screw the body to 
the floor-board and the roof to the body ; cord firmly and 
label ' Live Bees, with Care,' ' Not to be roughly handled, 
or thrown down.' More ventilation will be necessary in 
warm weather by increasing the size of the hole in the 
board on the top of the frames. — W. B. Webster. 

items. 

Queries and Ansvicrs are inserted free of charge to Correspondents 
When more than one query is sent, each should be on a separate piece 
°J paper. 

Our readers will greatly oblige us by answering, as far as their know- 
ledge and observations permit, the Correspondents who scelc assistance. 
Answers should always bear the number and title placed against the 
query replied to. Any queries unanswered in this way will be answered 
by the Editor and others. 

[806.] Water for Bees. Would some bee-keepers kindly 
tell me how I can make a watering-place for bees that 
would look a little ornamental, as well as being useful, 
and they would much oblige — J. F. 

[867.] Bell Glass to holdSo lbs. Will any of your readers 
give size of bell-glass inside measurement to hold 35 lbs. of 
honey-comb worked in it ?— A Subscriber. 

<&t\pt$ foam % Uiues. 

Keswick. — Supplying Bees with Artificial Pollen. — The 
weather here has been most favourable for our little pets. 
We have had a few dull days, but as many bright and 
sunny. Bees have made the best of it, though there has been 
very little to be done in collecting natural pollen. Palms are 
not yet quite in bloom ; crocuses are the only plants that are 
of any value to the bees. I have given them flour in crocuses, 
but tilling them with artificial pollen occupies too much 
time, so, as soon as they were working well on the crocuses, 
I made some little cups out of yellow paper, and put a 
crocus flower in them to attract their attention. These 
artificial cups I make about an inch in diameter, and a 
little more in depth, but it does not matter about the size ; 
when larger they hold more flour. They are much better 
than crocuses when a few scores of them are planted here 
and there among the natural blooms ; the bees collect it 
out of them much quicker, and at the same time there is no 
waste as with the flowers. I noticed some of my best 
stocks going in their hives at the rate of ten bees per 
minute laden with this artificial pollen. These cups are 
simply made by clipping pieces of paper 3 x 2J inches, 
take something the shape of a trowel-haft, lap one half of 
the paper round the tapered end, and twist the other, and 
it is made. A small piece of stick can be tied to it, or it 
can be stuck in the soil without. This will be a nice occu- 
pation for the lady bee-keepers. — R. Philipson. 

Swanmore, Bishop's Waltham. — I am glad to report on 
the whole fairly favourable weather for the bees. On many 
days during the past fortnight they have been enabled to 
take good, healthy, cleansing flights, and to-day, March the 
9th, I see they are carrying pollen — a favourable sign at 
this time of the year. I have seen a good many stocks 
during the past week or so, and I am very glad to note 
that as a rule bees in this district have wintered well ; in 
my own no trace of dysentery, or in fact anything wrong. 
I find, however, that the consumption of stores has been 
considerable, and feeding will shortly have to be started in 
some cases ; I am not, however, an advocate for early 
feeding, except in cases of necessity. — H. W. West. 

East Yorkshire, Beverley. — My bees, fifty-eight stocks, 
have wintered well without a single loss, notwithstanding 
that nearly a dozen of them are small lots with young 
queens in makeshift hives, and during the great storm we 
had in late autumn several of these were either blown over 
or had their covers swept off with the gale, and four of 
them had all their quilts and coverings blown away, leaving 
the bees exposed to a downpour of rain ; still they are 
looking healthy, and have been carrying in pea-flour in 
quantities during the last week or so. These nuclei are 



March 17, 188?.] 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



123 



kept, of course, to unite to any stocks that may chance to 
become queenless ; but should they not be required for this 
purpose I shall have no difficulty in building them up into 
strong colonies by the time of the white clover honey 
harvest. Those colonies, thirty in number, which were at 
the heather are remarkably strong, and have been breeding 
ever since the frost and snow left us early in January. 
Mine are English bees, which for honey gathering and 
sealing, quietness under manipulation, freedom from rob- 
bing, and hardiness, there are no foreign bees to compare 
with them. — F. Boyes. 

Ripon. — Invertible Hives. — I have just come in from 
shading my hives and spreading hay round about them, as 
we have had a very deep snow last night, and the sun is 
now shining bright and hot. My fourteen hives have 
wintered well on my plan (see B. B. J., January 20th), and 
I do not see any difference between those in double or 
single-walled hives. Talking about hives, I have never seen 
anything, while mentioning invertible hives, about the 
upward slope of the cells. We used to read about ' beautiful 
provision of Nature,' ' worderful instinct of bees,' in that'the 
cells all had this upward slope to prevent the honey running 
out. Now it is proposed to invert the cells, what will be the 
result ? I should say thin honey would run out, and the 
bees, after disgorging it, will have to make a clean bolt 
before the honey follows them. Nothing would induce me 
to use an invertible hive, or even section crate. I never 
have any difficulty in getting my sections well filled, and 
without pop-holes, but then I keep my bees unusually strong 
(see B. B. J., January 20th), and that is the whole secret of 
it. I had dozens of sections last year that I could not tell 
the top from the bottom of. But the times go very fast 
now, although we have already gone back to the crown- 
board, or rather American-cloth, which has the same effect, 
viz., stopping upward ventilation. Some .years ago we were 
told that the crown-board was the cause of dysentery, and I 
believe myself that such was the case, but no doubt we 
shall hear more about the enamel-cloth in times to come. 
Dysentery, as we all know, is caused by dampness, and if 
you had a large room badly ventilated, and with a small 
fire, it would probably be damp. In the same way as a 
small fire will not warm or dry a large room, so the heat 
from the bees will not warm and dry a large hive, and I 
therefore prefer the ordinary quilt, with a much-contracted 
hive— seven Woodbury frames — for wintering, and I never 
have dysentery in my hives, although I do not use cork, or 
any other cushions, and many of my hives are of only half- 
inch board. — Akthuk J. H. Wood. 

The Apiaries, Glenluce, Wigtownshire, March ^.—Tra- 
velling south this morning from Glasgow to pay my brother's 
apiaries a visit, I have just arrived, after a somewhat long 
and wearisome journey and intense cold, notwithstanding 
-the day is lovely with bright sunshine overhead. All my 
brother's bees have wintered well, and to-day they are busy 
working on the crocuses and snowdrops, carrying in pollen. 
I examined fifty stocks, and found the bees very healthy 
and breeding. Should the season turn out good, we may 
expect to hear of some good results from this district. All 
my brother's bees are the common blacks, his hives being 
mostly made for extracting on the storifying or ' tiering-up ' 
principle. The apiaries, which are considered the largest 
in Scotland, are at all times open for inspection, and those 
visiting the locality will find it instructive to give those 
apiaries a visit and learn the method pursued by Mr. Wm. 
M'Nally, in Scotch bee-keeping. — J. D. M'N. 

NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS & INQUIRERS- 

Letters or queries asking for addresses of manufacturers or correspon- 
dents, or where appliances can be purchased, or replies giving such 
information, can only he inserted as advertisements. The space 
devoted to letters, queries, and replies, is meant for the general good of 
bee-lceepers, and not for advertisements. We wish our Correspondents 
to bear in mind that, as it is necessary for us to go to press in advance 
of the date of issue, queries cannot always be replied to in the issue 
immediately following the receipt of their communication. 

J. B. S. — Bees Starved. — Your bees have died of starvation. 
In their chilled and weakened condition they were unable 
to leave the cluster to take advantage of the proffered 
candy. Your assistance was rendered when it was too 
late. 

0. B. T.— •Brood Chamber— Sluive off.'— We do not find 
any reference in our issue of January 27th to the subject 



of the above heading— nor in any recent number. If 
you refer to stimulation by uncapping sealed honey near 
the brood-nest, it may be done now, at any time during 
fine weather, by turning biek the quilt, and uncapping a 
few square inches of comb above, or on either side of the 
brood-nest, close to the cluster of bees. Breaking the 
caps of the cells by scratching will do equally well. 

E. yv_ P.— Removing Hives. — If your bees are in frame- 
hives procure frames, made of laths, to fit the tops of 
your hives and tack upon them strong coarse canvas. 
Remove the quilts and screw down the canvas-frames on 
the tops of the hives, having first closed the hive- 
entrances. A strong screw, on eaeh of the. four sides 
of the hives, driven into the floor-board will render all 
secure. Each hive should be ' corded' in the manner of 
a box, for convenience in carrying, and must travel right 
side uppermost. If skeps, invert, tie canvas over the 
mouths and let them travel inverted. See also ' Packing 
Hives, p. 122. 

W. MncHELL. — 1. Bees. — The bees marked 3 are but a 
slight remove from black. Supposed Palestines are 
hybrids, far removed from pure. Supposed Italians are 
but little different to blacks. When dead, bees are 
always shrivelled up, but if forwarded alive in Benton, 
or similar cage, a more satisfactory investigation could be 
made. 2. Simmins' Hive Cover.— You will find the cover 
as made for hive 17 J in. square will also do for 17 in. frame- 
hive, if the outer dimensions do not exceed 19 in. If 
larger, then add the greater length required to both long 
and short side. Cut one piece carefully, and then mark 
off your board with that, reversing each time. For 
mitres bevel off to gin. on underside. 

C. A. J. — Removing Frames from Fall Hive. — If the founda- 
tion is properly fixed by insertion in saw-cut or other- 
wise, and the hive is perfectly level, the comb will be 
built evenly by the bees. To secure the correct distances 
between frames many devices are employed, such as 
staples, broad shoulders, metal ends, &c. To overcome 
the difficulty of removing the frame from a very full hive, 
make the hive wider (or longer) than the ten frames 
required, and insert two division-boards, one on each side, 
and fitting close all round ; and then, by removing one 
of these when examining a hive, you obtain space and 
avoid all danger of injuring your bees or your queen. 

Westboubne. — Straining Extracted Honey. — If the honey 
is thick from suspended pollen no amount of straining 
will clear it. If it is required to remove the fragments 
of wax, if left at rest for a few hours they will float, and 
can be skimmed off. 

W. F. A. — 1. Stocks Travelling by Rail. — The safety de- 
pends upon the packing. Skeps should be tied over with 
cheese-cloth or paper-hangers' canvas, not with sacking 
or any close-textured material, and travel upside down, 
the top resting upon a ring of hay or straw to prevent 
jarring ; a rope put round to form a handle to lift by is 
an addition to the chance of safety. Bar-frame hives 
must have the quilts, (fee'., removed, and replaced by a 
square of open material, the frames kept from moving by 
two slots screwed firmly across the whole of them, the 
entrance closed by perforated zinc. If pads of hay en- 
closed in canvas are fixed to the bottom boards to prevent 
jars, and rope handles to lift by, it will be all the better. 
See above, reply to ' E. W. P.' 2. Cost of Carriage. — 
You had better inquire at the station at which the bees 
are to be sent or delivered. 

H. Mee. — Queen found alone. — It is a case of robbery, 
the other bees having been killed or joined the robbers. 
Keep the queen warm, with a few workers to take care of 
her, and some food, and she may survive to be united to 
another stock which you may find queenless. 
T. E. Garton — The standard frame of the B.B.K.A. is 14 
inches long by 8J deep, the top bar being 17 inches long, 
-| ths of an inch thick, the bottom bar \ -th, the side bar 1th, 
the width being -Jths of an inch. Between the bottom of 
the frame and the floorboard a passage of J inch should 
be left. The distance between the tops of frame and the 
rack should not be less than ^th, and not more than Jths 
of an inch. Number of frames should be from ten to 
twelve, according to district. The size of frames arrived 
at, you will be able to ascertain the dimensions of the, 



124 



THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 



[March 17, 1887. 



frame-block ; you will find very full directions for making 
frame-blocks in British Bee Journal, Vol. III., page 6. 
Wax.— Galvanised piping will not be deleterious to the wax. 
M. H. — Spreading Brood. — Under no circumstances must 
yon spread the brood now ; wait until the middle of April, 
and even then it is a risky operation for an amateur. Do 
not change the bees from one hive to another until warm 
weather sets in. In doubling, the combs without the 
bees, but with brood and eggs, are added over another 
strong stock ; this must be done just before the honey- 
How commences, the bees shaken from such combs 
being treated as a swarm ; that is, supplied with founda- 
tion as you have no spare combs. 
Wheatfield.— 1. Eggs. — It is an established fact that_ the 
eggs to produce either queen or worker are identical. 
2. Royal Jelly.— It is a peculiar— we might almost term 
it lacteal — secretion of the worker bees. 3. Queen De- 
positing Eggs.— The extremity of her body is inserted 
into the cell. 4. Use of Formic Acid. — This statement of 
the gentleman has been greatly ridiculed, although he 
does not say that formic acid is used in capping the 
honey-cells, but simply injecting it into the honey 
contained therein. 
Dumfeies.— 1. Yes. 2. Of no use, it being much too early 
to get the queen fertilised. 3. Unite the queenless stock 
to another having a queen. 4. Such hives are too 
cumbersome, and you would do well to discard them. 
Out-of-door wintering in single chaff hives — i.e., double- 
walled hives packed with chaff — is successful in North 
America and Canada, although cellar wintering is much 
more general. We should very much like to know how 
you would succeed if you could possibly try this latter 
plan in your district. 
Ignoramus. — Your bees have died of the disease called 
Bacillus Gaytoni, or depilis. See reply in our last issue 
to ' C. A. T.,' p. 112. 
W. T.— 1. Dry Sugar Feeding.— The important thing is to 
get a sugar which is as far as possible free from chemicals 
as well as from those dyes which are used to make sugar 
bright yellow or snow-white. For dry sugar feeding the 
order of merit might thus be arranged, — Porto Eico, 
Barbados, Jamaica, and such other old-fashioned raw 
sugars, if therefore, as you say, you have a difficulty in 
procuring Porto Eico, proceed to Barbados, and so on. 
2. Preventing Queen from ascending into Supers. — The 
use of excluder zinc under the sections is for many cogent 
reasons undesirable. Allow not less than a quarter of an 
inch and not more than three eighths between the rack 
and frames. 
F. W. C, Lismore, and E. Piiilipson, Keswick.— The heath 

forwarded is Erica cornea. 
An Amateur. — 1. The terms 'bar-frame hive' and 'move- 
able-frame hive,' apply to the same kind of hive. 2. The 
Cowan hive is obtainable from C. T. Overton, Lowfield 
Apiary, Crawley, Sussex, to whom apply for prices. 
H. W. Perkins. — Bobbers attacked your hive in great 
numbers, and the bees, unable to defend themselves, 
were obliged to succumb. 
W. H. A. — 1. Transferring — It is sometimes recommended 
that this should be done twenty-one days after swarming, 
when there will be but little brood in the hive ; and if 
you swarm the stock artificially it would be the same. 
It is not at all necessary, however, to wait for swarming, 
either natural or artificial, if you take care not to chill 
the brood. Choose a warm day, and either drive the bees 
out, or, which is by far the better plan, remove the combs 
by ' bumping ; ' lift them out one at a time and tie them 
into the frames, shake the bees oif the second and suc- 
ceeding combs on to the first placed in the bar-frame 
hive, putting each frame of comb into it. As tied in by 
this plan the brood and bees are not separated for many 
minutes, and no risk of chilling is incurred, as is the 
case when all the bees are driven out and not returned 
until all the combs are tied in, as usually recommended. 
2. Utilisation of Combs stored with Syrup. — These may 
be tied into frames and given to the bees, either in the 
hive or behind the divider, to be cleared out. 
Amateur Naturalist. — Loss of Queen. — Please refer to 
'Useful Hints, p. 118, where you will find similar cases 



to yours argued at some length. Your hive being queen- 
less, your best plan will be to join it to another. 
M. E. M. — We prefer sample No. 1 for dry- sugar feeding. 
For syrup feeding use Duncan Pearl or American Granu- 
lated. 

Correction. — Gloucestershire Bee-keepers' Association, 
p. 104. The local secretary for Bristol district is Mr. J. B. 
Butler. Mr. H. M. Appleton is a member of the Committee 
of the Gloucestershire B. K. A., and local secretary to the 
Bristol district of the Somersetshire B. K. A. 



Eeceived from Mr. H. Dobbie, Cringleford, Norwich, 
a collection of seeds of border annuals, with a packet of 
Chapman honey-plant. 

Eeceived from G. Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent Street, 
and 127 High Holborn, their trade catalogue of hives, bees, 
and appliances, 70 pages. 

.gfhow j^[.nnouncements. 

July 11-15. — Eoyal Agricultural Show at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. Entries close May 12. J. Huckle, Kings Langley. 

July 20-22. — Lincolnshire Agricultural Society at Spalding. 
Entries close July 4. E. E. Godfrey, Secretary. 

August 3-5. — Yorkshire Agricultural Society at York, 
Secretary, H. L. Eickards, Poole, near Leeds. 

^Business directory. 

K-*-1 

HIVES AND OTHER APPLIANCES. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Appleton, H. M., 256a Hotwell Eoad, Bristol. 
Baker, W. B., Muskham, Newark. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Burtt, E. J., Stroud Eoad, Gloucester. 
Edet & Son, St. Neots. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Hctchings, A. F., St. Mary Cray, Kent. 
Meadham, M., Huntington, Hereford. 
Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Stothabd, G., Welwyn, Herts. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 
Webster, W. B., Wokingham. 
Wren & Son, 139 High Street, Lowestoft. 
HONEY MERCHANTS. 
Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Baker, W. B., Muskham, Newark. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, E.C. 
British Honey Co., Limited, 17 King WilliamSt., Strand. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 

FOREIGN BEES AND QUEENS. 
Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 
Baker, W. B., Muskham, Newark. 
Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 
Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 
Benton, F., Munich, Germany. 
Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 
Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn. 
Simjiins, S., Eottingdean, near Brighton. 

METAL ENDS. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baker, W. B., Muskham, Newark. 

Baldwin, S. J., Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Lyon, F., 94 Harleyford Eoad, London, S.E. 

Meadows, W. P., Syston, Leicester. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. & 127 High Holborn 

COMB FOUNDATION. 

Abbott Bros., Southall, London. 

Baldwin, S. J. , Bromley, Kent. 

Blow, T. B., Welwyn, Herts. 

Howard, J. H., Holme, Peterborough. 

Neighbour & Sons, 149 Eegent St. * 127 High Holbora. 

Stothabd, G., Welwyn, Herts. 



Mar. 17, 1887.] ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. 







23 



CORNHILL, E.C., 

Opposite the Royal Exchange, 

And within Five Minutes' walk of Cannon Street Station, Liverpool 

Street, Broad Street, and Underground Railway Stations, and close to the Bank 

to which Omnibuses run from all parts of London. 




o 



> 



-♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦<- 



HIVES. 



'JUBILEE,' 5/- ; Super, 1/6. Superior to many 

Guinea Hives. 
'IMPERIAL,' 12/-. For Doubling. 

Both the above take B.B.K.A. Standard Frames. 
' JONES-HEDDON,' 14/6, made up complete. 
,, „ 17/6, Painted, & with Sections 



SECTIONS. 



Best Canadian BASSWOOD, V Groove, One- 
piece, Planed and Slotted all round. 
H x 4] x 2. 21/- per 1000. 



H x H x H 
4£ x 3i x 1£ 



10/- per 500, or 2/6 per 100. 



FIRST SHIPMENT EXPECTED DAILY. OTHERS TO FOLLOW. 
ORDERS EXECUTED IN ROTATION. 



ass. 

Per 
Gross. 



BOTTLES, Clear White G 

TIE-OVER, reputed 1 lb. 

In Original 5 Gross packages 11/9 

In 1 Gross packages 13/9 

SCREW-CAP, in Original 5 Gross packages 19/3 
„ „ in 1 Gross packages ... 22/0 

CORK AV ADS for Metal Caps 1/8 

Free on rail London. Packages free. 



SUGAR for Feeding. 

PORTO RICO (packages about 2 cwt.)... 
DUTCH CRUSHED 

Delivered free to Railway Company, London 
ENGLISH REFINED or ' PEARL,' 

In 7 lb. bags per bag 

Subject to Market fluctuations. 

Being STAPLE GOODS no Sample will be sent. 

CANDY, Phenolated, and with Pea 

Flour, Tin about 2 & lb. ... 1 



Ter 
Cwt. 

16/6 

18/0 



1/6 



BOOKS. 



Heddon's Success in Bee-Culture 

Cowan's Bee-keepers' Guide ... 

Cheshire's Bees and Bee-keeping. 
Vol. I. 

Modern Bee-keeping 

British Bee Journal ; weekly . . . 

Bee-keepers' Record ; monthly 

(fee. &c. &c. 



Pub. 


Cash 


Post 


at. 


price. 


free. 


— 


2/0 


2/2 


1/6 


1/2 


1/4 


7/6 


5/8 


6/0 


0/6 


0/5 


0/6 


0/2 


0/2 


10/10 


0/2 


0/2 


2/6 



FOUNDATION. 

BROOD, 1 lb. @ 1/1U-. 3 to 5 lbs. @ 1/9+ per lb. 
SUPER, 1 lb. @ 2/7. 3 to 5 lbs. @ 2/6 „ 

SUNDRIE S.— FUMIGATORS, by 
Webster. METAL ENDS, by Abbott, Broughton, 
Carr, and Lyon. Skeps, Straw Supers, Veils, 
Frames, wired and in the flat, Cheap Glazed 
Travelling Crates, to hold 1 dozen Sections, 
ifcc. <fcc. ifec. 



+ 353" O «3 -fiL T .A. X. O «3- XT ! 



ISSUES "ST 3ES T. 



— cm 



Export Orders with Eemittance or Bank Credit receive special attention. 

Commandes pour l'exportation accompagnees de remises ou credito de banque reco'ivent une attention spiiciale. 

Export ordern mit Geldsendung oder Bankcredit sind mit besonderer Aufmerksamkeit besorgt. 

Commandi per esportazione accompanati con rimesse o Credito sull' Banca recovano attenzione spjciale. 

Speciel opmserksomhed skjtenkes Expert ordre som ledsages af Bimesse eller Ba ikreinbours. 

The British Bee-keepers' Stores, 23 Cornhill, London, E.C. 

(Opposite the Royal Exchange), 



ADVERTISEMENTS TO THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL. [Mar. 17, 1887. 



MANIPULATE WITHOUT SMOKE I 

WEBSTER'S mmrnm 

Entirely supersedes the Smoker, both in Simplicity and 
Effectiveness. No 'going out.' No tainting or soiling of 
combs. Always ready for use without any preparation. 
Can be carried in the pocket. 

With Bellows, 4s. 6d. ; postage, 4W. 

Without Bellows, 3s. ; postage, 3d. 

Can be adjusted to any ordinary smaller bellows. 

6 oz. Bottles of Agent— carbolic acid, oil of tar, and water, 

properly mixed— 6d. each. 



WEBSTER'S SWIVEL FRAME - LIFTER 

WILL BE KEADY SHORTLY. 
With this appliance, frames can be removed from hive, 
replaced and examined on both sides without inverting, with 
one hand, leaving the other free for manipulating, at the 
same time preventing soiling the hands with propolis. 

W. B. WEBSTER, 

SOLE MANUFACTURER AND INVENTOR, 
•WOKIN GHAM, BER KS. 

AWARDS FOR FUMIGATORS LAST SEASON. 
1st Prize Silver Medal, Royal Counties' Agricultural Show. 

Highest Award, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London. 

2nd Prize Bronze Medal, Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 

London. 

2nd Prize Altrincham, Lancashire and Cheshire B. K. A. 

NOTICE TO DEALERS.— In thanking my 
numerous Patrons, I beg to say my SECTIONS are 
on the way, and will arrive in London shortly. The fol- 
lowing sizes in stock :— 4£ x 4| x 2, 4£ x 4-J x V 2 , 4 x 4§ x 2, 
4 x 4i x 1 J, either open top or at all four sides. 5£ x 6£ x 2 
and 6|x5Jx2, open top, 1} Sections same price as_2". 
Order at once, or you may be disappointed, having received 
a large number of orders. Address A, F, Hutchings, West 
Kent Steam Power Hive Works, St. Mary Cray, 

Patent Bee Feeder —Removing the Flask. 




Or for giving warm syrup in eases of dysentery. 

The best Journal of its kind, edited and published by the 
renowned C. F. H. Gravenhobst, Brunswick. 

DEUTSCHE ILLUSTRIERTE BIENENZEITUNG. 

Sample copies sent on request. 

Also, ' DER PRAKTISCHE IMKER.' Compendium of 
Rational Bee-culture, by C. F. H. Grav